[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apnea divers hyperinflate the lung by taking a deep breath followed by glossopharyngeal insufflation. The maneuver can lead to symptomatic arterial hypotension. We tested the hypotheses that glossopharyngeal insufflation interferes with cardiac function further reducing cardiac output (CO) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to fully sample both cardiac chambers.
Eleven dive athletes (10 men, 1 woman; age = 26 ± 5 yr, body mass index = 23.5 ± 1.7 kg·m(-2)) underwent cardiac MRI during breath holding at functional residual capacity (baseline), at total lung capacity (apnea), and with submaximal glossopharyngeal insufflation. Lung volumes were estimated from anatomic images. Short-axis cine MR images were acquired to study biventricular function. Dynamic changes were followed by long-axis cine MRI.
Left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV, RVEDV) decreased during apnea with and without glossopharyngeal insufflation (baseline: LVEDV = 198 ± 19 mL, RVEDV = 225 ± 30 mL; apnea: LVEDV = 125 ± 38 mL, RVEDV = 148 ± 37 mL, P < 0.001; glossopharyngeal insufflation: LVEDV = 108 ± 26 mL, RVEDV = 136 ± 29 mL, P < 0.001 vs baseline). CO decreased during apnea (left = -29 ± 4 %, right = -29 ± 4 %) decreasing further with glossopharyngeal insufflation (left = -38% ± 4%, right = -39% ± 4%, P < 0.05). HR increased 16 ± 4 bpm with apnea and 17 ± 5 bpm with glossopharyngeal insufflation (P < 0.01). Ejection fraction moderately decreased (apnea: left = -5% ± 2%, right = -7% ± 2%, glossopharyngeal insufflation: left = -6% ± 2%, right = -10% ± 2%, P < 0.01). With continued apnea with and without glossopharyngeal insufflation, LVEDV and CO increased over time by a similar but small amount (P < 0.01).
The major finding of our study was that submaximal glossopharyngeal insufflation decreased CO further albeit by a small amount compared to maximal inspiratory apnea. The response was not associated with severe biventricular dysfunction.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise 05/2011; 43(11):2095-101. · 3.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze pre-hospital delay in patients with myocardial infarction from mainland and islands of Split-Dalmatian County, southern Croatia.
The study included all patients with myocardial infarction transported by ambulance to the University Hospital Split in 1999, 2003, and 2005. Pre-hospital delay was analyzed in the following intervals: pain-to-call, call-to-ambulance, ambulance-to-door, and door-to-coronary care unit interval. Patients were categorized according to the location from which they were transported: Split, mainland >15 km from Split, and islands.
There were 1314 patients (62.9% men) transported and hospitalized for myocardial infarction. Total pre-hospital delay (pain-to-hospital) was significantly reduced from 1999 to 2005 (5.2 hours vs 4.3 hours, P=0.011). Seventy-five patients (5.7%) were admitted to the coronary care unit within the recommended time-frame of less than 90 minutes, none of which was from the islands, while 248 patients (18.9%) were admitted more than 12 hours from the onset of pain.
Pre-hospital delay in patients with myocardial infarction in southern Croatia is still too long, especially in patients coming from outside of Split. Prognosis and survival of such patients may be improved by introducing changes to the health care system in remote areas, such as out-of-hospital thrombolysis, greater use of telemedicine, training of lay persons and paramedics in defibrillation, introduction of quality assessment mechanisms, and improved patient transport.
Croatian Medical Journal 10/2010; 51(5):423-31. · 1.25 Impact Factor