[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial cells of the blood–brain barrier form a structural and functional barrier maintaining brain homeostasis via paracellular tight junctions and specific transporters such as P-glycoprotein. The blood–brain barrier is responsible for negligible bioavailability of many neuroprotective drugs. In Alzheimer's disease, current treatment approaches include inhibitors of BACE-1 (b-site of amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme), a proteinase generating neurotoxic b-amyloid. It is known that BACE-1 is highly expressed in endosomes and membranes of neurons and glia. We now provide evidence that BACE-1 is expressed in blood–brain barrier endothelial cells of human, mouse, and bovine origin. We further show its predominant membrane localization by 3D-dSTORM super-resolution microscopy, and by biochemical fractionation that further shows an abluminal distribution of BACE-1 in brain microvessels. We confirm its func-tionality in processing APP in primary mouse brain endothelial cells. In an Alzheimer's disease mouse model we show that BACE-1 is upregulated at the blood–brain barrier compared to healthy controls. We therefore suggest a critical role for BACE-1 at the blood–brain barrier in b-amyloid generation and in vascular aspects of Alzheimer's disease, particularly in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation and accumulation of toxic amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in the brain may drive the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders could result from treatments regulating Aβ homeostasis. Examples are the inhibition of production, misfolding, and accumulation of Aβ or the enhancement of its clearance. Here we show that oral treatment with ACI-91 (Pirenzepine) dose-dependently reduced brain Aβ burden in AβPPPS1, hAβPPSL, and AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice. A possible mechanism of action of ACI-91 may occur through selective inhibition of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) on endothelial cells of brain microvessels and enhanced Aβ peptide clearance across the blood-brain barrier. One month treatment with ACI-91 increased the clearance of intrathecally-injected Aβ in plaque-bearing mice. ACI-91 also accelerated the clearance of brain-injected Aβ in blood and peripheral tissues by favoring its urinal excretion. A single oral dose of ACI-91 reduced the half-life of interstitial Aβ peptide in pre-plaque mhAβPP/PS1d mice. By extending our studies to an in vitro model, we showed that muscarinic AChR inhibition by ACI-91 and Darifenacin augmented the capacity of differentiated endothelial monolayers for active transport of Aβ peptide. Finally, ACI-91 was found to consistently affect, in vitro and in vivo, the expression of endothelial cell genes involved in Aβ transport across the BBB. Thus increased Aβ clearance through the BBB may contribute to reduced Aβ burden and associated phenotypes. Inhibition of muscarinic AChR restricted to the periphery may present a therapeutic advantage as it avoids adverse central cholinergic effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Passive immunization against β-amyloid (Aβ) has become an increasingly desirable strategy as a therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, traditional passive immunization approaches carry the risk of Fcγ receptor-mediated overactivation of microglial cells, which may contribute to an inappropriate proinflammatory response leading to vasogenic edema and cerebral microhemorrhage. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized anti-Aβ monoclonal antibody of an IgG4 isotype, known as MABT5102A (MABT). An IgG4 subclass was selected to reduce the risk of Fcγ receptor-mediated overactivation of microglia. MABT bound with high affinity to multiple forms of Aβ, protected against Aβ1-42 oligomer-induced cytotoxicity, and increased uptake of neurotoxic Aβ oligomers by microglia. Furthermore, MABT-mediated amyloid plaque removal was demonstrated using in vivo live imaging in hAPP((V717I))/PS1 transgenic mice. When compared with a human IgG1 wild-type subclass, containing the same antigen-binding variable domains and with equal binding to Aβ, MABT showed reduced activation of stress-activated p38MAPK (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) in microglia and induced less release of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. We propose that a humanized IgG4 anti-Aβ antibody that takes advantage of a unique Aβ binding profile, while also possessing reduced effector function, may provide a safer therapeutic alternative for passive immunotherapy for AD. Data from a phase I clinical trial testing MABT is consistent with this hypothesis, showing no signs of vasogenic edema, even in ApoE4 carriers.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 07/2012; 32(28):9677-89. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4742-11.2012 · 6.34 Impact Factor