[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that maternal restriction of polyphenol-rich foods (PRF), which, like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), inhibit prostaglandin synthesis in the third trimester, reverse fetal ductal constriction (DC).
An open clinical trial of 51 third trimester fetuses with DC with no history of NSAID intake was designed. All mothers were submitted to a food frequency questionnaire and were oriented to withdrawl PRF, being reassessed after 3 weeks. Doppler parameters were assessed before and after discontinuation of these substances. A control group of 26 third trimester normal fetuses, with no ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction, in which no dietary intervention was offered, was reviewed after 3 weeks. Student's t-test and Wilcoxon's test were used.
Mean gestational age was 32±3 weeks (28 to 37 weeks). After discontinuation of PRF (≥3 weeks), 48/51 fetuses (96%) showed complete reversal of DC, with decrease in mean ductal systolic velocity (1.74±0.20 m s(-1) to 1.31±0.34 m s(-1), P<0.001), mean diastolic velocity (0.33±0.09 m s(-1) to 0.21±0.07 m s(-1), P<0.001) and mean right to left ventricular dimension ratio (1.37±0.26 to 1.12±0.17, P<0.001) and increase in mean ductal pulsatility index (PI) (1.98±0.36 to 2.46±0.23, P<0.001). Median daily maternal consumption of PRF was 286 mg per day and decreased after orientation to 0 mg per day, P<0.001. In the control group, with GA of 32±4 w (29-37 w), there was no significant differences in median daily maternal consumption of PRF, mean ductal systolic velocitiy, diastolic velocity, PI and right ventricular to left ventricular diameter ratio (RV/LV) ratio.
Reduction of maternal PRF intake during pregnancy, especially in the third trimester, is followed by complete reversal of DC (wide open DA), which may influence maternal dietary habits in late pregnancy.
Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association 11/2011; 32(8):574-9. DOI:10.1038/jp.2011.153 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that the aortic isthmus flow index (IFI) is lower in fetuses of diabetic mothers than in fetuses of nondiabetic mothers.
We performed a cross-sectional observational study to assess the IFI in fetuses, with (n = 13) and without (n = 37) myocardial hypertrophy, of mothers with diabetes mellitus and in fetuses of nondiabetic mothers (n = 23). Analysis of variance and Tukey test were used to assess differences among the groups.
There were no differences in maternal or gestational age among the groups. In fetuses of diabetic mothers, the mean IFI in fetuses with myocardial hypertrophy was 1.19 ± 0.06, and in fetuses without it was 1.18 ± 0.09. The mean IFI in fetuses of nondiabetic mothers was 1.32 ± 0.07 (P < 0.001).
The IFI in fetuses of diabetic mothers is lower than in fetuses of nondiabetic mothers, possibly as a result of a decreased left ventricular compliance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fetal ductus arteriosus constriction is a clinical disorder that occurs as a result of inhibition of the prostaglandin synthesis pathway, and has long been associated to maternal intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in late pregnancy. As a consequence of an increased right ventricular pressure, with tricuspid regurgitation and heart failure, there is a risk for the development of neonatal pulmonary artery hypertension. This article reviews the basic knowledge of the mechanisms involved in this important disorder. Clinical and experimental evidence that maternal consumption of polyphenol-rich substances, such as herbal teas, orange and grape juice, chocolate, and others, may interfere with fetal ductus arteriosus dynamics are discussed. Preventive measures to avoid fetal ductal constriction in the third trimester of pregnancy are discussed, including the possible need to change maternal dietary orientation, aiming to limit ingestion of foods with high concentrations of polyphenol-rich substances.
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 02/2010; 8(2):291-8. DOI:10.1586/erc.09.174
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that maternal consumption of polyphenol-rich foods during third trimester interferes with fetal ductal dynamics by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.
In a prospective analysis, Doppler ductal velocities and right-to-left ventricular dimensions ratio of 102 fetuses exposed to polyphenol-rich foods (daily estimated maternal consumption >75th percentile, or 1089 mg) were compared with 41 unexposed fetuses (flavonoid ingestion <25th percentile, or 127 mg).
In the exposed fetuses, ductal velocities were higher (systolic: 0.96+/-0.23 m/s; diastolic: 0.17+/-0.05 m/s) and right-to-left ventricular ratio was higher (1.23+/-0.23) than in unexposed fetuses (systolic: 0.61+/-0.18 m/s, P<0.001; diastolic: 0.11+/-0.04 m/s, P=0.011; right-to-left ventricular ratio: 0.94+/-0.14, P<0.001).
As maternal polyphenol-rich foods intake in late gestation may trigger alterations in fetal ductal dynamics, changes in perinatal dietary orientation are warranted.
Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association 07/2009; 30(1):17-21. DOI:10.1038/jp.2009.101 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial tissue Doppler (MTD) is a technique for the measurement of myocardial velocities in systole and diastole. This study evaluates the use of MTD in the assessment of cardiac diastolic function in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with placental insufficiency and in appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) fetuses with hypertensive mothers.
This study included 14 IUGR fetuses with placental insufficiency (Group 1), 13 AGA fetuses with hypertensive mothers (Group 2), and 29 AGA fetuses with healthy mothers (Group 3). Patients with other diseases were excluded. All fetuses had a gestational age of at least 25 weeks. MTD assessment was performed with the sample volume placed at the basal segment of the left ventricular side wall (LV), the interventricular septum (IVS) and the right ventricular free wall (RV). E'/A' ratios were calculated for each location. Mitral and tricuspid flows were assessed by conventional spectral pulsed Doppler.
Significant differences were found between groups for E'/A' at the IVS (P < 0.001) and LV (P = 0.009), with a higher mean (+/- SD) value in Group 1 (IVS: 0.92 +/- 0.28; LV: 0.85 +/- 0.19) than in Groups 2 (IVS: 0.62 +/- 0.09; LV: 0.68 +/- 0.14) and 3 (IVS: 0.71 +/- 0.14; LV: 0.69 +/- 0.15). In the RV, there was no statistically significant difference in the E'/A' ratio (P = 0.2). No differences were observed for mitral and tricuspid flow velocities and ratios.
Using MTD, the ratios between early and late diastolic myocardial velocities are higher in IUGR fetuses than in AGA fetuses at the IVS and the LV, regardless of the presence of maternal hypertension. MTD may be more sensitive than atrioventricular spectral Doppler for the detection of ventricular diastolic dysfunction in IUGR fetuses.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 07/2009; 34(1):68-73. DOI:10.1002/uog.6427 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that the linear displacement of the septum primum (SP) is lower in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) than in fetuses with appropriate growth for gestational age (AGA).
In a cross-sectional study, the ratio between the SP displacement and left atrial diameter (excursion index [EI]) was compared in 27 fetuses with IUGR (group 1), 24 fetuses with AGA of hypertensive mothers (group 2), and 35 controls (group 3). Flow through the atrioventricular (AV) valves and the umbilical artery resistance index (RI) were also compared.
Irrespective of gestational age, mean EI in group 1 (0.41 +/- 0.07) was significantly lower than in group 2 (0.48 +/- 0.07; p < 0.001) and than in group 3 (0.50 +/- 0.06; p < 0.001), with no significant differences between groups 2 and 3. In fetuses over 30 weeks of gestation of group 1, EI was lower (0.38 +/- 0.05) than in group 2 (0.49 +/- 0.07) and group 3 (0.51 +/- 0.06; p < 0.001). There was significant inverse correlation between EI and RI (r = 0.46; p < 0.01) and no correlation between EI and AV flow velocities.
SP mobility is reduced in fetuses over 30 weeks with IUGR compared with AGA fetuses. These findings may depend on alterations of left ventricular diastolic function and are correlated to the degree of placental insufficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that, in diabetic pregnancies, left atrial shortening fraction (LASF) is decreased in fetuses with myocardial hypertrophy, compared to those without hypertrophy and to fetuses of non-diabetic mothers.
Fetal echocardiography was performed in women with pre-existing or gestational diabetes and in non-diabetic controls between 25 weeks' gestation and term. LASF was calculated using the formula: (end-systolic diameter-end-diastolic diameter)/end-systolic diameter, and data were compared between diabetic women with and without fetal myocardial hypertrophy and controls.
The study population comprised 53 diabetic women and 45 controls. Out of the 53 fetuses of diabetic women, 14 had myocardial hypertrophy and 39 had normal septal thickness. Gestational age at the time of examination did not differ significantly between the control group and the two diabetic subgroups (P = 0.57). Fetuses with myocardial hypertrophy presented a mean ( +/- SD) LASF of 0.32 +/- 0.11, those without myocardial hypertrophy 0.46 +/- 0.12, and those of normal mothers 0.53 +/- 0.09 (P < 0.001). A significant inverse linear correlation was observed between LASF and septal thickness (r = - 0.51, P < 0.001).
In diabetic pregnancies, LASF is lower in fetuses with myocardial hypertrophy than it is in those without hypertrophy and in fetuses of non-diabetic women, suggesting that LASF could be a useful alternative parameter in the assessment of fetal diastolic function.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 02/2009; 33(2):182-7. DOI:10.1002/uog.6154 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the presence of ventricular diastolic dysfunction by tissue Doppler in fetuses of diabetic mothers, with or without septal hypertrophy, in comparison to fetuses of nondiabetic mothers.
A contemporary transverse study in fetuses with a gestational age between 25 weeks to term, studying diastolic function by assessment using tissue Doppler and pulsed wave Doppler of the atrioventricular diastolic flow. The mothers of the fetuses all had previous or gestational diabetes, and were referred to the Fetal Cardiology Unit of the Institute of Cardiology in Porto Alegre, Brazil. We analysed variance with the Student-Neumann-Keuls post hoc test. An alfa of 0.05 was considered significant for statistical analysis.
The mean myocardial velocities of the E'and A' waves at the mural mitral annulus, in fetuses of diabetic mothers with myocardial hypertrophy, were, respectively, 7.00 plus or minus 1.6 centimetres per second, and 10.24 plus or minus 3.3 centimetres per second. In the fetuses of diabetic mothers group without myocardial hypertrophy, the comparable values were 7.19 plus or minus 2.4 centimetres per second and 10.77 plus or minus 3.77 centimetres per second, respectively. In the control group, they were 4.81 plus or minus 0.85 centimetres per second and 8.01 plus or minus 2.2 centimetres per second. The difference between the velocities in fetuses of diabetic mothers and in fetal normal mothers was statistically significant (p less than 0.05). Statistically significant differences were also observed in E' and A' diastolic waves at the aortic mitral annulus, as well as for the tricuspid annulus when tissue Doppler assessment was carried out in the same sample. The mean ratio between the E and E' of mitral and tricuspid waves in the control fetuses of normal mothers was significantly higher than in fetuses of diabetic mothers.
Pulsed tissue Doppler, when used in fetuses of diabetic mothers and compared with fetuses of nondiabetic mothers, shows evidence of impaired diastolic function, independently of the presence of myocardial hypertrophy.
Cardiology in the Young 07/2008; 18(3):297-302. DOI:10.1017/S1047951108002138 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe morphological features of the interatrial septum in normal fetuses, especially foramen ovale (FO) and septum primum (SP), in order to compare septum primum excursion with foramen ovale diameter.
Septum primum excursion (SPE) toward the left atrium (LA) and foramen ovale diameter (FOD) were measured in the hearts of ten formaldehyde-fixed human fetuses ranging from 28 to 36 weeks of gestation. Histological sections were obtained from the foramen ovale (FO), septum primum (SP), septum secundum (SS), left atrium (LA), and right atrium (RA).
FOD and SPE measurements were the following: FOD 3.1-3.5 mm and SPE 2.8-3.1 mm in three fetuses with presumed gestational age (GA) of 28 weeks; FOD 3.3-3.5 mm, and SP excursion 4.0-5.0 mm in four fetuses with presumed GA of 34 weeks, plus FOD 3.3-4.5 mm and SPE 6.0-9.0 in three fetuses with presumed GA of 36 weeks. Cardiac muscular fibers were identified in both the septum primum and secundum.
Based on its muscular components, it may be suggested that SP is active in character, influencing blood flow through the FO, SP mobility, and its excursion into the LA.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 06/2007; 88(5):559-64. · 1.02 Impact Factor