Thorsten Naab

University of Bonn, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (205)804.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star forming galaxies (SFGs) between z=0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2 and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion time scale (tdepl) and gas fraction (Mmolgas/M*) with redshift, specific star formation rate (sSFR) and stellar mass (M*) in SFGs. The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO-H2 mass conversion factor varies little within +-0.6 dex of the main sequence line, and less than a factor of 2 throughout this redshift range. We find that tdepl scales as (1+z)^-0.3 *(sSFR)^-0.5, with no M* dependence. The resulting steep redshift dependence of Mmolgas/M* ~ (1+z)^3 mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M* are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M* relation. At constant M*, a larger sSFR is due to a combination of an increasing gas fraction and a decreasing depletion time scale. As a result galaxy integrated samples of the Mmolgas-SFR rate relation exhibit a super-linear slope, which increases with the range of sSFR. With these new relations it is now possible to determine Mmolgas with an accuracy of +-0.1 dex in relative terms, and +-0.2 dex including systematic uncertainties.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We use the Atlas3D sample to perform a study of the intrinsic shapes of early-type galaxies, taking advantage of the available combined photometric and kinematic data. Based on our ellipticity measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, and additional imaging from the Isaac Newton Telescope, we first invert the shape distribution of fast and slow rotators under the assumption of axisymmetry. The so-obtained intrinsic shape distribution for the fast rotators can be described with a Gaussian with a mean flattening of q=0.25 and standard deviation sigma_q = 0.14, and an additional tail towards rounder shapes. The slow rotators are much rounder, and are well described with a Gaussian with mean q = 0.63 and sigma_q =0.09. We then checked that our results were consistent when applying a different and independent method to obtain intrinsic shape distributions, by fitting the observed ellipticity distributions directly using Gaussian parametrisations for the intrinsic axis ratios. Although both fast and slow rotators are identified as early-type galaxies in morphological studies, and in many previous shape studies are therefore grouped together, their shape distributions are significantly different, hinting at different formation scenarios. The intrinsic shape distribution of the fast rotators shows similarities with the spiral galaxy population. Including the observed kinematic misalignment in our intrinsic shape study shows that the fast rotators are predominantly axisymmetric, with only very little room for triaxiality. For the slow rotators though there are very strong indications that they are (mildly) triaxial.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze orbits of stars and dark matter out to three effective radii for 42 galaxies formed in cosmological zoom simulations. Box orbits always dominate at the centers and z-tubes become important at larger radii. We connect the orbital structure to the formation histories and specific features (e.g. disk, counter-rotating core, minor axis rotation) in two-dimensional kinematic maps. Globally, fast rotating galaxies with significant recent in-situ star formation are dominated by z-tubes. Slow rotators with recent mergers have significant box orbit and x-tube components. Rotation, quantified by the $\lambda_R$-parameter often originates from streaming motion of stars on z-tubes but sometimes from figure rotation. The observed anti-correlation of $h_3$ and $V_0 / \sigma$ in rotating galaxies can be connected to a dissipative formation history leading to high z-tube fractions. For galaxies with recent mergers in-situ formed stars, accreted stars and dark matter particles populate similar orbits. Dark matter particles have isotropic velocity dispersions. Accreted stars are typically radially biased ($\beta \approx 0.2 - 0.4$). In-situ stars become tangentially biased (as low as $\beta \approx -1.0$) if dissipation was relevant during the late assembly of the galaxy. We discuss the relevance of our analysis for integral field surveys and for constraining galaxy formation models.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a novel implementation of cosmic rays (CR) in the magneto-hydrodynamic code FLASH. CRs are described as separate fluids with different energies. CR advection, energy dependent anisotropic diffusion with respect to the magnetic field and adiabatic losses to follow the evolution of spectra are taken into account. We present a first study of the transport and immediate (~150 kyr) dynamical impact of CRs on the turbulent magnetised interstellar medium around supernova remnants on scales up to 80 pc. CR diffusion quickly leads to an efficient acceleration of low-density gas (mainly perpendicular to the magnetic field) with accelerations up to two orders of magnitude above the thermal values. Peaked (at 1 GeV) CR injection spectra have a stronger impact on the dynamics than power-law spectra. For realistic magnetic field configurations low energy CRs (with smaller diffusion coefficients) distribute anisotropically with large spatial variations of a factor of ten and more. Adiabatic losses can change the local spectra perceptibly but do not have an integral effect on the dynamics at the spatial and temporal scales considered here. We discuss the potential global impact of CRs and anisotropic transport on the dynamical structure of the ISM and also detail the limitations of the model.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M*/Msun) >= 10.9) z~1-3 star-forming galaxies (Forster Schreiber et al.), by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M*/Msun) >= 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS^3D spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Ha, [NII], and [SII] lines ~ 450-5300 km/s), with large [NII]/Ha ratios, above log(M*/Msun) ~ 10.9, with 66+/-15% of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z~1 and ~2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGN), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the correlations between stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR) and [NII]/Ha flux ratio as indicator of gas-phase metallicity for a sample of 222 galaxies at 0.8 < z < 2.6 and log(M*/Msun)=9.0-11.5 observed with LUCI at the LBT, and SINFONI and KMOS at the VLT. This sample provides a unique analysis of the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) over an extended redshift range using consistent data analysis techniques and strong-line metallicity indicator. Over the redshift range probed, we find a constant slope at the low-mass end of the MZR, which is however significantly steeper than seen in the local Universe. In this range, we can fully describe the redshift evolution of the MZR through the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass where the relation begins to flatten at the asymptotic metallicity. At fixed mass and redshift, our data do not show a correlation between the [NII]/Ha ratio and SFR, which disagrees with the 0.2-0.3dex offset in [NII]/Ha predicted by the "fundamental relation" between stellar mass, SFR and metallicity discussed in recent literature. However, the MZR evolution towards lower [NII]/Ha at earlier times does agree within the uncertainties with these predictions.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the formation histories of 19 galaxies from cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics zoom-in resimulations. We construct mock three-colour images and show that the models reproduce observed trends in the evolution of galaxy colours and morphologies. However, only a small fraction of galaxies contains bars. Many galaxies go through phases of central mass growth by in-situ star formation driven by gas-rich mergers or misaligned gas infall. These events lead to accretion of low-angular momentum gas to the centres and leave imprints on the distributions of z=0 stellar circularities, radii and metallicities as functions of age. Observations of the evolution of structural properties of samples of disc galaxies at z=2.5-0.0 infer continuous mass assembly at all radii. Our simulations can only explain this if there is a significant contribution from mergers or misaligned infall, as expected in a LambdaCDM universe. Quiescent merger histories lead to high kinematic disc fractions and inside-out growth, but show little central growth after the last `destructive' merger at z>1.5. For sufficiently strong feedback, as assumed in our models, a moderate amount of merging does not seem to be a problem for the z=0 disc galaxy population, but may rather be a requirement. The average profiles of simulated disc galaxies agree with observations at z>=1.5. At z<=1, there is too much growth in size and too little growth in central mass, possibly due to the under-abundance of bars. The discrepancies may partly be caused by differences between the star formation histories of the simulations and those assumed for observations.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We study how feedback influences baryon infall onto galaxies using cosmological, zoom-in simulations of haloes with present mass $\mathrm{M}_{\mathrm{vir}}=6.9\times10^{11} \mathrm{M}_{\odot}$ to $1.7\times10^{12} \mathrm{M}_{\odot}$. Starting at $z=4$ from identical initial conditions, implementations of weak and strong stellar feedback produce bulge- and disc-dominated galaxies, respectively. Strong feedback favours disc formation: (1) because conversion of gas into stars is suppressed at early times, as required by abundance matching arguments, resulting in flat star formation histories and higher gas fractions; (2) because $50\%$ of the stars form ${\it in}$ ${\it situ}$ from recycled disc gas with angular momentum only weakly related to that of the $z=0$ dark halo; (3) because late-time gas accretion is typically an order of magnitude stronger and has higher specific angular momentum, with recycled gas dominating over primordial infall; (4) because $25-30\%$ of the total accreted gas is ejected entirely before $z\sim1$, removing primarily low angular momentum material which enriches the nearby inter-galactic medium. Most recycled gas roughly conserves its angular momentum, but material ejected for long times and to large radii can gain significant angular momentum before re-accretion. These processes lower galaxy formation efficiency in addition to promoting disc formation.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of the star formation rate (SFR) in the early-type galaxies (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D sample, based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22um and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-ultraviolet emission. We combine these with gas masses estimated from 12CO and HI data in order to investigate the star formation efficiency (SFE) in a larger sample of ETGs than previously available. We first recalibrate (based on WISE data) the relation between old stellar populations (traced at Ks-band) and 22um luminosity, allowing us to remove the contribution of 22um emission from circumstellar dust. We then go on to investigate the position of ETGs on the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation. Molecular gas-rich ETGs have comparable star formation surface densities to normal spiral galaxy centres, but they lie systematically offset from the KS relation, having lower star formation efficiencies by a factor of ~2.5 (in agreement with other authors). This effect is driven by galaxies where a substantial fraction of the molecular material is in the rising part of the rotation curve, and shear is high. We show here for the first time that although the number of stars formed per unit gas mass per unit time is lower in ETGs, it seems that the amount of stars formed per free-fall time is approximately constant. The scatter around this dynamical relation still correlates with galaxy properties such as the shape of the potential in the inner regions. This leads us to suggest that dynamical properties (such as shear or the global stability of the gas) may be important second parameters that regulate star formation and cause much of the scatter around star-formation relations.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We employ cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the effects of AGN feedback on the formation of massive galaxies with present-day stellar masses of $M_{stel} > 8.9 \times 10^{10} M_{sun}$. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with a pressure-entropy formulation that allows an improved treatment of contact discontinuities and fluid mixing, we run three sets of simulations of 20 halos with different AGN feedback models: (1) no feedback, (2) thermal feedback, and (3) mechanical and radiation feedback. We assume that seed black holes are present at early cosmic epochs at the centre of emerging dark matter halos and trace their mass growth via gas accretion and mergers with other black holes. Both feedback models successfully recover the observed M_BH - sigma relation and black hole-to-stellar mass ratio for simulated central early-type galaxies. The baryonic conversion efficiencies are reduced by a factor of two compared to models without any AGN feedback at all halo masses. However, massive galaxies simulated with thermal AGN feedback show a factor of ~ 10-100 higher X-ray luminosities than observed. The mechanical and radiation feedback model reproduces the observed correlation between X-ray luminosities and velocity dispersion, e.g. for galaxies with sigma=200 km/s, the X-ray luminosity is reduced from $10^{42}$ erg/s to $10^{40}$ erg/s. It also efficiently suppresses late time star formation, reducing the specific star formation rate from $10^{-10.5}$ $\rm yr^{-1}$ to $10^{-14}$ $\rm yr^{-1}$ on average and resulting in quiescent galaxies since z=2, whereas the thermal feedback model shows higher late time in-situ star formation rates than observed.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics implementation SPHGal which incorporates several recent developments into the GADGET code. This includes a pressure-entropy formulation of SPH with a Wendland kernel, a higher order estimate of velocity gradients, a modified artificial viscosity switch with a strong limiter, and artificial conduction of thermal energy. We conduct a series of idealized hydrodynamic tests and show that while the pressure-entropy formulation is ideal for resolving fluid mixing at contact discontinuities, it performs conspicuously worse when strong shocks are involved due to the large entropy discontinuities. Including artificial conduction at shocks greatly improves the results. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can be resolved properly and dense clouds in the blob test dissolve qualitatively in agreement with other improved SPH implementations. We further perform simulations of an isolated Milky Way like disk galaxy and find a feedback-induced instability developing if too much artificial viscosity is introduced. Our modified artificial viscosity scheme not only prevents this instability but also shows efficient shock capturing capability in the Sedov explosion test. We also investigate the star formation rate and the galactic outflow of the MW disk as well as a gas-rich disk. The star formation rates vary slightly for different SPH schemes while the mass loading is quite sensitive to the SPH scheme. The galactic outflows are reduced due to more efficient fluid mixing. Finally, we compare the accretion behavior of of hot halo gas. The formation of cold blobs, an artifact of simple SPH implementations, can be eliminated efficiently with proper fluid mixing, either by conduction and/or by using a pressure-entropy formulation. Based on the performed tests we consider the SPHGal hydrodynamics sufficiently accurate for galaxy formation simulations.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: One quarter of all nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) outside Virgo host a disc/ring of HI with size from a few to tens of kpc and mass up to ~1e+9 solar masses. Here we investigate whether this HI is related to the presence of a stellar disc within the host making use of the classification of ETGs in fast and slow rotators (FR/SR). We find a large diversity of HI masses and morphologies within both families. Surprisingly, SRs are detected as often, host as much HI and have a similar rate of HI discs/rings as FRs. Accretion of HI is therefore not always linked to the growth of an inner stellar disc. The weak relation between HI and stellar disc is confirmed by their frequent kinematical misalignment in FRs, including cases of polar and counterrotating gas. In SRs the HI is usually polar. This complex picture highlights a diversity of ETG formation histories which may be lost in the relative simplicity of their inner structure and emerges when studying their outer regions. We find that LCDM hydrodynamical simulations have difficulties reproducing the HI properties of ETGs. The gas discs formed in simulations are either too massive or too small depending on the star formation feedback implementation. Kinematical misalignments match the observations only qualitatively. The main point of conflict is that nearly all simulated FRs and a large fraction of all simulated SRs host corotating HI. This establishes the HI properties of ETGs as a novel challenge to simulations.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Based on high-resolution, spatially resolved data of 10 z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS/zC-SINF survey and LUCI data for 12 additional galaxies, we probe the excitation properties of high-z galaxies and the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), shocks, and photoionization. We explore how these spatially resolved line ratios can inform our interpretation of integrated emission line ratios obtained at high redshift. Many of our galaxies fall in the "composite" region of the z ~ 0 [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ diagnostic (BPT) diagram, between star-forming galaxies and those with AGNs. Based on our resolved measurements, we find that some of these galaxies likely host an AGN, while others appear to be affected by the presence of shocks possibly caused by an outflow or from an enhanced ionization parameter as compared with H II regions in normal, local star-forming galaxies. We find that the Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic, which separates purely star-forming and AGN hosting local galaxies in the [O III]/Hβ versus stellar mass plane, does not properly separate z ~ 2 galaxies classified according to the BPT diagram. However, if we shift the galaxies based on the offset between the local and z ~ 2 mass-metallicity relation (i.e., to the mass they would have at z ~ 0 with the same metallicity), we find better agreement between the MEx and BPT diagnostics. Finally, we find that metallicity calibrations based on [N II]/Hα are more biased by shocks and AGNs at high-z than the [O III]/Hβ/[N II]/Hα calibration. Based on observations at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 073.B-9018, 076.A-0527, 079.A-0341, 080.A-0330, 080.A-0339, 080.A-0635, 083.A-0781,084.A-0853, 087.A-0081, 091.A.-0126) and at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on Mt. Graham in Arizona.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2014; 781(1):21-. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the cold gas contents of the Atlas3D early-type galaxies, in the context of their optical colours, near-UV colours, and H\beta\ absorption line strengths. Early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies are not as gas-poor as previously thought, and at least 40% of local early-type galaxies are now known to contain molecular and/or atomic gas. This cold gas offers the opportunity to study recent galaxy evolution through the processes of cold gas acquisition, consumption (star formation), and removal. Molecular and atomic gas detection rates range from 10% to 34% in red sequence early-type galaxies, depending on how the red sequence is defined, and from 50% to 70% in blue early-type galaxies. Notably, massive red sequence early-type galaxies (stellar masses > 5e10 Msun, derived from dynamical models) are found to have HI masses up to M(HI)/Mstar ~ 0.06 and H_2 masses up to M(H$_2$)/Mstar ~ 0.01. Some 20% of all massive early-type galaxies may have retained atomic and/or molecular gas through their transition to the red sequence. However, kinematic and metallicity signatures of external gas accretion (either from satellite galaxies or the intergalactic medium) are also common, particularly at stellar masses <= 5e10 Msun, where such signatures are found in ~ 50% of H$_2$-rich early-type galaxies. Our data are thus consistent with a scenario in which fast rotator early-type galaxies are quenched former spiral galaxies which have undergone some bulge growth processes, and in addition, some of them also experience cold gas accretion which can initiate a period of modest star formation activity. We discuss implications for the interpretation of colour-magnitude diagrams.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae (SAURON) integral-field spectroscopy and Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) observations of molecular outflow host galaxy NGC 1266 that indicate NGC 1266 has experienced a rapid cessation of star formation. Both the SAURON maps of stellar population age and the Swift UVOT observations demonstrate the presence of young ($< 1$ Gyr) stellar populations within the central 1 kpc, while existing Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) CO(1--0) maps indicate that the sites of current star formation are constrained to the inner few hundred parsecs of the galaxy only. The optical spectrum of NGC 1266 from Moustakas & Kennicutt (2006) reveal a characteristic post-starburst (K+A) stellar population and Davis et al. (2012) confirm that ionized gas emission in the system originate from a shock. Galaxies with K+A spectra and shock-like ionized gas line ratios may comprise an important, overlooked segment of the post-starburst population, containing exactly those objects in which the AGN is actively expelling the star-forming material. While AGN activity is not the likely driver of the post-starburst event that occurred 500 Myr ago, the faint spiral structure seen in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-field Camera 3 (WFC3) Y-, J- and H-band imaging seems to point to the possibility of gravitational torques being the culprit. If the molecular gas were driven into the center at the same time as the larger scale galaxy disk underwent quenching, the AGN might be able to sustain the presence of molecular gas for $\gtrsim 1$ Gyr by cyclically injecting turbulent kinetic energy into the dense molecular gas via a radio jet, inhibiting star formation.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (> 10^11 Msun) z~2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Halpha and forbidden [NII] and [SII] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ~ 1500 km/s, [NII]/Halpha ratio ~ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2 - 3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ~ 60 Msun/yr and mass loading of ~ 3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ~ 485 km/s and [NII]/Halpha ~ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles, and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial to confirm the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon, and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed two-dimensional stellar dynamical analysis of a sample of 44 cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of individual central galaxies and their satellites. Kinematic maps of the stellar line-of-sight velocity, velocity dispersion, and higher-order Gauss-Hermite moments $h_3$ and $h_4$ are constructed for each central galaxy and for the most massive satellites. The amount of rotation is quantified using the $\lambda_{\mathrm{R}}$-parameter. The velocity, velocity dispersion, $h_3$, and $h_4$ fields of the simulated galaxies show a diversity similar to observed kinematic maps of early-type galaxies in the ATLAS$^{\rm{3D}}$ survey. This includes fast (regular), slow, and misaligned rotation, hot spheroids with embedded cold disk components as well as galaxies with counter-rotating cores or central depressions in the velocity dispersion. We link the present day kinematic properties to the individual cosmological formation histories of the galaxies. In general, major galaxy mergers have a significant influence on the rotation properties resulting in both a spin-down as well as a spin-up of the merger remnant. Lower mass galaxies with significant in-situ formation of stars, or with additional gas-rich major mergers - resulting in a spin-up - in their formation history, form elongated fast rotators with a clear anti-correlation of $h_3$ and $v/\sigma$. An additional formation path for fast rotators includes gas poor major mergers leading to a spin-up of the remnants. This formation path does not result in anti-correlated $h_3$ and $v/\sigma$. The galaxies most consistent with the rare class of non-rotating round early-type galaxies grow by gas-poor minor mergers alone. In general, more massive galaxies have less in-situ star formation since $z \sim 2$, rotate slower and have older stellar populations. (shortened)
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: As part of the SINS/zC-SINF surveys of high-z galaxy kinematics, we derive the radial distributions of H-alpha surface brightness, stellar mass surface density, and dynamical mass at ~2 kpc resolution in 19 z~2 star-forming disks with deep SINFONI AO spectroscopy at the ESO VLT. From these data we infer the radial distribution of the Toomre Q-parameter for these main-sequence star forming galaxies (SFGs), covering almost two decades of stellar mass (10^9.6 to 10^11.5 solar masses). In more than half of our SFGs, the H-alpha distributions cannot be fit by a centrally peaked distribution, such as an exponential, but are better described by a ring, or the combination of a ring and an exponential. At the same time the kinematic data indicate the presence of a mass distribution more centrally concentrated than a single exponential distribution for 5 of the 19 galaxies. The resulting Q-distributions are centrally peaked for all, and significantly exceed unity there for three quarters of the SFGs. The occurrence of H-alpha rings and of large nuclear Q-values is strongly correlated, and is more common for the more massive SFGs. While our sample is small and there remain substantial uncertainties and caveats, our observations are consistent with a scenario in which cloud fragmentation and global star formation are secularly suppressed in gas rich high-z disks from the inside out, as the central stellar mass density of the disks grows.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 785(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present simulations of the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) in models of massive star forming (40 Msun / yr) disk galaxies with high gas surface densities (~100 Msun / pc^2) similar to observed star forming high-redshift disks. We assume that type II supernovae deposit 10 per cent of their energy into the ISM as cosmic rays and neglect the additional deposition of thermal energy or momentum. With a typical Galactic diffusion coefficient for CRs (3e28 cm^2 / s) we demonstrate that this process alone can trigger the local formation of a strong low density galactic wind maintaining vertically open field lines. Driven by the additional pressure gradient of the relativistic fluid the wind speed can exceed 1000 km/s, much higher than the escape velocity of the galaxy. The global mass loading, i.e. the ratio of the gas mass leaving the galactic disk in a wind to the star formation rate becomes of order unity once the system has settled into an equilibrium. We conclude that relativistic particles accelerated in supernova remnants alone provide a natural and efficient mechanism to trigger winds similar to observed mass-loaded galactic winds in high-redshift galaxies. These winds also help explaining the low efficiencies for the conversion of gas into stars in galaxies as well as the early enrichment of the intergalactic medium with metals. This mechanism can be at least of similar importance than the traditionally considered momentum feedback from massive stars and thermal and kinetic feedback from supernova explosions.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 777(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the differential effects of metal cooling and galactic stellar winds on the cosmological formation of individual galaxies with three sets of cosmological, hydrodynamical zoom simulations of 45 halos in the mass range 10^11<M_halo<10^13M_sun. Models including both galactic winds and metal cooling (i) suppress early star formation at z>1 and predict reasonable star formation histories, (ii) produce galaxies with high cold gas fractions (30-60 per cent) at high redshift, (iii) significantly reduce the galaxy formation efficiencies for halos (M_halo<10^12M_sun) at all redshifts in agreement with observational and abundance matching constraints, (iv) result in high-redshift galaxies with reduced circular velocities matching the observed Tully-Fisher relation at z~2, and (v) significantly increase the sizes of low-mass galaxies (M_stellar<3x10^10M_sun) at high redshift resulting in a weak size evolution - a trend in agreement with observations. However, the low redshift (z<0.5) star formation rates of massive galaxies are higher than observed (up to ten times). No tested model predicts the observed size evolution for low-mass and high-mass galaxies simultaneously. Due to the delayed onset of star formation in the wind models, the metal enrichment of gas and stars is delayed and agrees well with observational constraints. Metal cooling and stellar winds are both found to increase the ratio of in situ formed to accreted stars - the relative importance of dissipative vs. dissipationless assembly. For halo masses below ~10^12M_sun, this is mainly caused by less stellar accretion and compares well to predictions from semi-analytical models but still differs from abundance matching models. For higher masses, the fraction of in situ stars is over-predicted due to the unrealistically high star formation rates at low redshifts.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2013; 436(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
804.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • University of Bonn
      • Argelander-Institute of Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Turku
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2010–2011
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2007–2009
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2003–2004
    • Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2002
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2001
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom