[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis C virus infection patients have higher rates of psychiatric disorders than the general population. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is known to be associated with impaired health related quality of life. To our knowledge, there is no previous research of health related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C patients that combined structured psychiatric interview and careful psychopathological evaluation, including depression, anxiety and fatigue instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate health related quality of life of chronic hepatitis C patients and to investigate the association with sociodemographic, psychopathological and psychiatric factors.
Eighty-one individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus infection receiving care at a Brazilian public university-based outpatient service for infectious diseases were enrolled in the study. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version was used to assess health related quality of life. Standard psychiatric interview (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus) was conducted to establish Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. Further instruments completed psychopathological investigation: Beck Depression Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Fatigue Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Pearson Chi-Square and Kruskal-Wallis were performed for categorical and continuous univariate analysis, respectively. Correlation between psychopathological and health related quality of life scores was performed according to Spearman's correlation. Multivariate analysis was performed according to stepwise forward ordinal logistic regression. The significance threshold was fixed at α=0.05.
Depressive disorders were associated with worse scores in overall health related quality of life and in all domains. Fatigue was associated with lower scores in physical and psychological domains, and married status with higher scores in psychological health related quality of life. We found strong correlation among scores of depression, fatigue and health related quality of life.
Depression and fatigue must be properly investigated and managed in HCV patients in order to improve HRQL. WHOQOL-BREF proved to be a useful instrument to assess HRQL in HCV patients.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 07/2013; · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate impulsiveness among chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and its association with sociodemographic, clinical, and psychopathological factors.
Ninety one CHC individuals were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at a Brazilian public university-based outpatient’s service for infectious diseases. They were assessed using Barrat Impulsiveness Scale, Brief Fatigue Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Structured psychiatric interview was performed according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Multivariate analysis was performed according to linear stepwise forward regression.
The total score of impulsiveness according to BIS in studied population was 64.6 ± 9.8. The scores for the non-planning, cognitive-attentional and motor domains were 23.8 ± 5, 19.4 ± 2.9, and 21.4 ± 5, respectively. Impulsiveness was associated with lower educational level, current IFN use, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, alcohol use disorder, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, specific phobia, bipolar spectrum disorders and anxiety symptoms. During IFN treatment, impulsiveness was also associated with suicide risk.
Impulsiveness was frequent in CHC patients and was associated with several psychopathological alterations. Impulsiveness management should be considered when attending CHC patients.
General hospital psychiatry 01/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess factors associated with previous exposure to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Brazilian adults in mental health centers. METHOD: A cross-sectional national multicenter study of 2087 psychiatric patients randomly selected from 26 public mental health services was conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Brazil. An interview was conducted for obtaining sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral data. Psychiatric diagnoses were obtained from medical charts. Serology testing was conducted using anti-HCV. The magnitude of the associations was estimated by the prevalence rate ratio under Poisson distribution. Multivariate analysis for previous HCV exposure was carried out by weighted Poisson regression. RESULTS: The weighted prevalence of previous HCV exposure was 2.53% (95% confidence interval: 2.22-2.83). Factors associated with previous exposure to HCV infection included male gender; age ≥40 years; history of sexually transmitted infections; current tobacco use; lifetime injecting drug use; exchange of money/drugs for sex; and main psychiatric diagnoses of psychoses and bipolar disorders, substance use disorders or dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a high prevalence of previous exposure to HCV in this population of Brazilian psychiatric patients. Most factors statistically associated with HCV were demographic or behavioral related, indicating a potential high-vulnerability profile. Screening for HCV in high-risk patients should be routine practices in these mental health services in Brazil.
General hospital psychiatry 12/2012; · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of drug alternatives with rescue therapy in case of relapse due to viral resistance for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
Hypothetical cohort of patients with CHB, HBeAg-negative, without clinical or histological evidence of cirrhosis, detectable HBV DNA, histological diagnosis of the disease, positive serum HBsAg for longer than six months, high levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (twice as high as the upper limit of normality) and mean age of 40 years. A Markov model was developed for chronic hepatitis B (HBeAg- negative) with a 40-year time horizon. Costs and benefits were discounted at 5%. Annual rates of disease progression, costs due to complications and the efficacy of medicines were obtained from the literature. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis evaluated uncertainties.
Initiation of treatments with entecavir resulted in an increase of 0.35 discounted life-years gained compared to lamivudine. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was R$16,416.08 per life-years gained. In the sensitivity analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was more sensitive to variation in the probability of transition from chronic hepatitis B to compensated cirrhosis, discount rate and medicine prices (± 10%). In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the acceptability curve showed that beginning treatment with entecavir was the most cost-effective alternative in comparison with the use of lamivudine.
The availability of entecavir is economically attractive as part of early treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis B without HIV co-infection.
Revista de saude publica 12/2012; 46(6):942-9. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To settle the best cutoffs for inventories to diagnose depression in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients.
Seventy-five CHC patients were assessed using a standard psychiatric interview (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) to establish Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) major depression diagnosis and the following inventories: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), its short form for Primary Care (BDI-PC) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Subscale for Depression (HAD-D). According to the receiver operative characteristic (ROC) curve, the best cutoff to screen for depression was settled, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Agreement between each inventory and the diagnosis of depression was calculated through Cohen's Kappa. Internal consistency was measured through Cronbach's alpha.
Twenty-one (28%) individuals met criteria for a depressive disorder. BDI, BDI-PC and HAD-D best scores were settled at 18, 5 and 8 points, respectively. They showed the following discriminative properties: sensitivity 81%, 76.2%, 85.7%; specificity 92.6%, 88.9%, 77.8%; positive predictive value 81%, 72.7%, 60%; negative predictive value 92.6%, 90.6%, 93.3%, respectively. ROC curve areas were similar between BDI and BDI-PC, but slightly lower for HAD-D. The agreement between inventories and DSM-IV depression diagnosis was substantial for BDI (0.91) and BDI-PC (0.91) and moderate for HAD-D (0.86). Internal consistency was 0.90, 0.86 and 0.75, respectively.
BDI, BDI-PC and HAD-D showed good discriminative properties to screen for depression in CHC patients and should be considered in clinical practice.
General hospital psychiatry 01/2012; 34(1):40-5. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of anal cancer has increased in developed countries. There is evidence that high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer are both linked to some human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. There are scarce data on anal cancer or male anal HPV infection in Brazil.
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of anal HPV infection and associated risk factors, stratified by oncogenic and nononcogenic types, in a sample of HIV-seropositive men in Brazil.
Multicenter cross-sectional study of HIV-seropositive male patients attending public AIDS clinics in urban Brazil. Participants were interviewed for sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Anal HPV specimens were collected with a moistened Dacron swab inserted into the anal and stored in ThinPrep solution. HPV DNA-positive samples were typed by dot-blot hybridization. The prevalences of oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV types were calculated and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess independent predictors of HPV infection.
: Among 445 men, 65.6% were positive for HPV DNA in the anal canal. Oncogenic types were detected in 40.7%. Logistic regression indicated that lifetime history of sexual intercourse only with men or with men and women; receptive anal intercourse in the last 12 months; and CD4 lymphocyte count below 200 cells per cubic millimeter were independently associated with the detection of anal HPV infection.
The high prevalence of anal HPV infection in this cross-sectional study underscores the need for studying and implementing screening programs of high-risk groups in Brazil.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The host immune response plays an important role in viral clearance in patients who are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are treated with interferon and ribavirin. Activation of the immune system involves the release of pro and anti-inflammatory molecules that can be measured in plasma samples. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between pretreatment plasma levels of chemokines and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNF-R) and the virological response in treated patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Forty-one chronically-infected HCV patients that were being treated with interferon-α (IFN-α) plus ribavirin were included in the study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and pretreatment plasma levels of chemokine CCL2, CCL3, CCL11, CCL24, chemokine CXCL9, CXCL10, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were measured. The virological response was assessed at treatment week 12, at the end of treatment and 24 weeks after treatment. Pretreatment CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in patients without an early virological response (EVR) or sustained virological response (SVR) compared to responders [512.9 pg/mL vs. 179.1 pg/mL (p = 0.011) and 289.9 pg/mL vs. 142.7 pg/mL (p = 0.045), respectively]. The accuracy of CXCL10 as a predictor of the absence of EVR and SVR was 0.79 [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 0.59-0.99] and 0.69 (CI 95%: 0.51-0.87), respectively. Pretreatment plasma levels of the other soluble inflammatory markers evaluated were not associated with a treatment response. Pretreatment CXCL10 levels were predictive of both EVR and SVR to IFN-α and ribavirin and may be useful in the evaluation of candidates for therapy.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 02/2011; 106(1):38-43. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Host immune response seems to be mainly responsible for the progression of liver disease among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Immune activation involves the release of cytokines and their receptors that can be measured in plasma samples. The study aimed to evaluate the association between plasma levels of chemokines and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFR) and liver histological changes among patients with chronic HCV infection. Seventy-one treatment-naive patients were included. Plasma levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL11, CCL24, CXCL9, CXCL10, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 were measured and liver histological findings were reviewed. Plasma levels of CXCL9, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 were significantly associated with liver fibrosis, with higher median levels found among patients with moderate/severe fibrosis (F >or= 2) if compared to those with no or mild fibrosis (p = 0.014; p = 0.012; p = 0.009, respectively). Plasma sTNFR2 levels were significantly associated with necroinflammatory activity, with higher median levels among patients with moderate/severe activity (A >or= 2) if compared to those with no or mild activity (2.34 ng/mL vs. 1.99 ng/mL; p = 0.019). In conclusion, plasma levels of CXCL9, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 were independently associated with liver histological changes, suggesting a role of TNF activation and Th1-type cell-mediated immune response in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 09/2010; 29(9):1153-61. · 3.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the role of HA as a marker of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C on haemodialysis.
This is a cross-sectional study in which 52 patients were divided into two groups: Group 1: patients with hepatitis C and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing haemodialysis (n = 23); and Group 2: patients with hepatitis C without ESRD (n = 29). Plasma levels of HA were associated with histological data of the samples obtained by liver biopsy and classified by METAVIR group scoring system.
Higher plasma levels were significantly correlated to significant liver fibrosis (METAVIR > F2). In Group 1, the HA cutoff to discriminate significant fibrosis was 984.8 ng/mL, with accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 80.8%, 83.0%, and 70.0%, respectively. In Group 2, the HA cutoff was 222.3 ng/mL, with accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 74.5%, 70.0%, and 94.0%, respectively.
HA was an accurate noninvasive marker in predicting significant fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C on haemodialysis.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 08/2010; 14(4):335-41. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B is one of the most frequent infectious disease in the world and represents a serious problem of public health
A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (adefovir, entecavir and telbivudine) used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The databases PubMed and LILACS were consulted, among others
Twenty nine articles published between January/1970 to December/2009 were selected
All nucleoside/nucleotide analogues demonstrate upper or similar efficacy to lamivudine. The entecavir can be appropriate for patients with chronic hepatitis B, HBeAg positive and negative treatment-naive as alternative to lamivudine, considering its low potential of viral resistance. The addition of adefovir to lamivudine presented good results in lamivudine resistant patients. The use of entecavir and telbivudine in those patients presents risk of crossed resistance. TBV is one of the most recent antivirals available, but antiviral resistance already documented represents limitation to its use as therapeutic option to LAM. Adverse events of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues were similar in characteristics, gravity and incidence when compared to the lamivudina and placebo.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 01/2010; 43(4):440-51. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pegylated interferon-alpha combined with ribavirin is the current gold standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Illicit drug dependence is not a rare co-morbidity among chronic hepatitis C population, what can make antiviral treatment an outmost challenge. Despite high sustained virological response rate following antiviral treatment, serious psychiatric adverse reactions may occur, like depression and suicide attempt. We report a patient with recurrent depressive disorder, previous history of suicide attempt and illicit drug dependence. We discuss the singularities and challenges of managing this patient in order to complete the antiviral treatment.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 10/2009; 13(5):387-90. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C is an important burden worldwide being an important cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer in different parts of the world. Host immune response, especially T helper type 1 (Th1) cell-mediated, seems to play an important role in disease progression but is also crucial for viral elimination following specific therapy. Immune activation can be evaluated using peripheral levels of different cytokines, such as different chemokines (e.g. CCL5, CXCL10) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and their soluble receptors (e.g. soluble TNF-alpha receptors 1 (sTNF-R1) and 2 (sTNF-R2). This review article focuses on the potential use of peripheral inflammatory markers as predictors of liver histological changes and therapeutic response among patients with chronic hepatitis C.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 10/2009; 13(5):375-82. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence that patients with mental illness have increased prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, but data in Brazil are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and B, and syphilis among patients with mental illness in Brazil.
A multicenter representative sample of adults with mental illness was randomly selected from 26 mental health institutions throughout Brazil. Sociodemographic, sexual behavior and clinical data were obtained from person-to-person interviews and blood was collected for serology testing. Seroprevalence with 95% confidence limits were obtained correcting for sampling scheme.
Of the 2,475 patients interviewed, 2,238 had blood collected. Most participants were sexually active ever (88.8%) or in the last 6 months (61.6%), female (51.9%), and single (66.6%). Half of the sample had less than 5 years of schooling and the mean monthly individual income was low (US$ 210.00). Condom use was very low either during lifetime (8%) or in the last 6 months (16%). Overall seroprevalence were 1.12%, 0.80%, 1.64%, 14.7% and 2.63% for, respectively, syphilis, HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV.
Seroprevalences found were higher than other populations with representative studies in Brazil, with high rates of sexual risk behavior. This is of public health concern, and prevention and care strategies for sexually transmitted infections among psychiatric patients should urgently be implemented by health authorities.
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 04/2009; 31(1):43-7. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential impact of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) on clinical, immunological and virological responses to initial highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important to evaluate due to the high prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection. A historical cohort study was conducted among 824 HIV-infected patients starting HAART at a public referral service in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, to assess the impact of HCV seropositivity on appearance of a new AIDS-defining opportunistic illness, AIDS-related death, suppression of viral load, and an increase in CD4-cell count. A total of 76 patients (9.2%) had a positive HCV test, 26 of whom (34.2%) had a history of intravenous drug use. In multivariate analysis, HCV seropositivity was associated with a smaller CD4-cell recovery (RH=0.68; 95% CI [0.49-0.92], but not with progression to a new AIDS-defining opportunistic illness or to AIDS-related death (RH=1.08; 95% CI [0.66-1.77]), nor to suppression of HIV-1 viral load (RH=0.81; 95% CI [0.56-1.17]) after starting HAART. These results indicate that although associated with a blunted CD4-cell recovery, HCV coinfection did not affect the morbidity or mortality related to AIDS or the virological response to initial HAART.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 07/2008; 12(3):173-9. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to describe unsafe sexual practices among HIV-infected men under care in two Brazilian urban areas. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Twenty-five percent practiced unprotected sex in the previous year, 16% were abstinent, 33% had sex with men only, 45% with women only, 48% had male/female stable partners, 84% were on HAART and 48% had AIDS. Illicit drug use, number of female partners, having stable partners, and STD diagnosis were associated with unsafe sex. Interventions to reduce risk taking behavior among HIV-positive men under care in these settings are urgent, especially among heterosexual stable couples.
AIDS and Behavior 06/2008; 12(5):741-7. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A limited number of studies worldwide have investigated the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infection among psychiatric patients. However, prevalence of these infections in the population with chronic mental illness has not been clearly established. Most of the published papers are from developed countries and have derived from relatively small and non-representative samples. We performed a systematic review of the published literature to identify studies on these infectious diseases within psychiatric populations in Brazil and other developing countries. Overall, prevalence rates varied from 0% to 29% for HIV; 1.6% to 66% for HBV; 0.4% to 38% for HCV; and 1.1% to 7.6% for syphilis. Several risk factors were identified and discussed, although sampling limitations restrict the generalization of study findings. This review highlights the lack of information on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and their associated factors among persons with chronic mental illness and identifies gaps in the knowledge base in both developing and developed countries.
Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 02/2008; 24 Suppl 4:s607-20. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the HCV genotypes, hepatic siderosis, inflammatory activity and fibrosis of the liver in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) on haemodialysis in Brazil.
A cohort of 72 CRF patients was compared with a group of 65 candidates for blood donation (CBD). For the subjects selected, who tested positive for anti-HCV antibodies and were HCV-PCR positive, a protocol with epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information was completed. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy was performed and histological analysis of liver fragments was carried out. The presence of HCV-RNA in plasma was established by nested-RT-PCR. The genotype was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR product.
HCV genotype 1 was predominant in both groups, but genotype 2 was the second most common amongst CRF patients, and there was a significant difference when compared with the CBD group (P=0.016). Regarding inflammation and fibrosis, no significant difference was observed in the histology of the liver between the study groups. Siderosis of the liver was more prevalent in the CRF group (P=0.000). Severe complications of liver biopsies were reported in 10 CRF patients (13.2%).
Genotype 2 was observed more frequently in the haemodialysis group. No statistically significant difference was detected between the CRF and CBD groups with regard to both inflammatory response and liver fibrosis. Hepatic siderosis has been attributed to excessive iron administration. As percutaneous liver biopsy resulted in severe complications, we suggest that other procedures of evaluating liver damage in CRF patients should be looked at thoughtfully.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the incidence, magnitude and factors associated with the first episode of non-adherence for 12 months after the first antiretroviral prescription.
A prospective study of HIV-infected patients receiving their first antiretroviral prescription in public referral centers, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Baseline assessment occurred at the moment of the first prescription and follow-up visits at the first, fourth and seventh month, from May 2001 to May 2003.
Non-adherence was self-reported and defined as the intake of less than 95% of the prescribed doses for 3 days before the follow-up interviews. Cumulative and person-time incidence were estimated and Cox's proportional model was used to assess the relative hazard (RH) of non-adherence with 95% confidence interval for both univariate and multivariate analysis.
Among 306 patients, the cumulative incidence of non-adherence was 36.9% (incidence rate 0.21/100 person-days). Multivariate analysis (P < 0.05) showed that unemployment (RH = 2.17), alcohol use (RH = 2.27), self-report of three or more adverse reactions (RH = 1.64), number of pills per day (RH = 2.04), switch in antiretroviral regimen (RH = 2.72), and a longer time between the HIV test result and the first antiretroviral prescription (RH = 2.27) were associated with an increased risk of non-adherence, whereas the use of more than one health service indicated a negative association (RH = 0.54).
The current analysis has pointed out the importance of clinical and health service characteristics as potential indicators of non-adherence after initiating therapy. Early assessment and intervention strategies should be priorities in these AIDS public referral centres. Feasible and reliable indicators for the routine monitoring of adherence should be incorporated in clinical practice.
AIDS 11/2005; 19 Suppl 4:S5-13. · 6.41 Impact Factor