[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the occurrence of autosomal recessive genetic disease, factor XI (FXI), in Khuzestan native cows and Iranian Holstein cattle. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood of the cows (n = 330). Exon 12 of the Factor XI gene of the cows was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, all cows were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine existence of mutant FXI allele. Normal cattle have only one DNA fragment of 244 bp while heterozygous cattle exhibited two DNA fragments of 320 and 244 bp for the FXI gene deficiency. The results of this study showed that none of the animals were carriers of FXI deficiency. Because of the economical significance of the FXI mutation and its recessive mode of inheritance, attention has to be paid to any case of a bull having in his origin any known FXI carrier. Although we did not observe any carrier, widespread screening programs for detection of genetic disorders seems necessary.
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 02/2011; 10:718-721. · 0.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effects of different levels of enzyme (control and 500 g/ton) and different levels of barley (0, 20 and 40% in ration) on broiler performance in a completely randomized design. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly, and in the end of week 6, a hen and a rooster were slaughtered and the carcass percent and abdominal fat were measured. The result showed that for up to six weeks, the control ration caused better body gain besides the ration of the enzyme that has the same effect. Feed conversion ratio was the best in the ration that did not have barley (Control), while it was the worst in the ration that had 40% barley. It was observed that different levels of barley had no effect on carcass percent, but they had significant effect on abdominal fat; whereas different levels of enzyme resulted to increase in carcass percent, but they had no effect on abdominal fat. INTROUDUCTION Use of enzymes, in recent decades, in the poultry industry has increased. Research on the use of enzymes in poultry diets has shown that enzymes can be used a lot in food that are indigestible by poultry, which later become digestible materials, and the materials are used in poultry diets. Enzymes, such as cellulase and gluconase, increased barley nutritional value for poultry ration (Annison and Choct, 1993). Also, gesilonase caused a reduction in the adhesion of food material mainly by breaking pentosane and they play a vital role in ileum, which increase the overall performance of broilers that are fed wheat based diets (Gao et al., 2007; Steenfeldt et al., 1998). One important way to reduce anti-nutritional properties of cereal is the use of gluconase in decreasing the adhesion of foods in the intestine (Annison and Choct, 1991; Buchanan et al., 2007; Meng et al., 2005; Mcnab and Smithard, 1992; Steenfeldt et al., 1998). Barley is one of these materials; but due to indigestible compounds, it is not common in poultry rations. However, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of enzymes, in diets containing barley, on broiler performance.