[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Examining the interrelationship between quality of life, hardiness, self-efficacy and self-esteem among working (professional and non-professional), and non-working married women has motivated the researcher to launch this study. Method: The samples in the present study consisted of 250 married employed women and 250 married unemployed women in the age range of 24-41 years old belonging to lower, middle, and upper socioeconomic status groups, with educational qualification of 10±2 and above and having at least one school child. Stratified convenience sampling technique was used for the selection of the sample. The World Health Organization -Quality of Life (WHO QOL) – BREF, the Personal View Survey (PVS), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), The Coopersmith Self-Eesteem Inventory (CSEI) and demographic questionnaire Sheet were chosen for collection of the data. Results: Obtained Pearson r values revealed significant positive interrelationship between quality of life, hardiness, self-efficacy, and self-esteem in the whole sample, within the subgroups of professional and non-professional employed and unemployed women. Obtained pearson r values revealed significant negative relationship between employment and the above variables in women. Conclusion: It indicates that women with higher quality of life score rank also higher on hardiness, self-efficacy, and self-esteem and vice versa. In the wake of rapid social change in various aspects of Iranian Society, the role and position of women are undergoing changes at a rapid pace. Many women are employed and manage both marrital life and career. They takeup non-traditional roles and have developed a new outlook of life. These days, women have become more conscious of their own identity and status. Modern women know their self-worth and they wish to develop self-reliance and self-esteem by taking up jobs in various aspects. Many researchers over the past years have made comparative studies of employed and unemployed women on various psychological variables and the relationships between them. Chaudhry (1995) found significant negative correlation between life stress and general well-being among professional, non-professional and unemployed women (1). Large number of investigators have proposed models in which life events are traced as exogenous shocks and appear to have significant effects on subjective well-being (2, 3, 4). She found also significant negative correlation between marital adjustment and life stress among professional, non-professional and unemployed women (1). These results are consistent with the finding of Aneshensel, Lance et al., Mclaughlin et al, who reported that women with higher levels of marital adjustment had significantly lower level of distress than women with low marital adjustment levels (5, 6, 7). Although many personality variables have been studied in relation to coping with stressful life events, quality of life, hardiness, self-esteem, and self-efficacy were selected for inclusion in the present study for three reasons. Firstly these variables have been the focus of extensive research and have been found to be related to successful adjustment across a wide variety of stressful life events. Secondly, chronic beliefs about the self, control, and outcomes reflect key components of an individual's view of the world and of his or her ability to function successfully in the world and thus should be especially potent in shaping reactions to stressful life events. Thirdly, most of the studies have been done outside of Iran, from which it is difficult to generalize the data for Iranian population. Regarding the points mentioned above, the investigator proposed to find the interrelationship between quality of life, hardiness, self-efficacy and self-esteem amongst employed and unemployed married women in Zabol.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Paid employment has become increasingly significant in the lives of women. The pertinent questions that arise: Is the woman happier and better adjusted by relinquishing the traditional role or by combining the two roles? Self-efficacy and self-esteem was selected to evaluation the effect of employment on women in this study. Methods: The samples consisted of 250 married employed and 250 married unemployed women in the age range of 24-41 years, with educational qualification of 10+2 and above and having at least one school going child. Stratified convenience sampling technique was used for the selection of the sample. The General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and the Coopersmith Self-Eesteem Inventory (CSEI) was chosen for collection of data. SPSS was used for analyzing data. Results: Professionally employed women were found to be significantly higher on self-Efficacy and self-esteem than un-employed and non-professionally employed women. Non-professionally employed and unemployed women did not differ significantly on self-efficacy and self-esteem. Conclusions: Status and level of works is important factor for creation the positive consequences of work in women (German J Psychiatry 2005; 9: 111-117).