[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex.
We attempted to identify all available data on causes of death for 187 countries from 1980 to 2010 from vital registration, verbal autopsy, mortality surveillance, censuses, surveys, hospitals, police records, and mortuaries. We assessed data quality for completeness, diagnostic accuracy, missing data, stochastic variations, and probable causes of death. We applied six different modelling strategies to estimate cause-specific mortality trends depending on the strength of the data. For 133 causes and three special aggregates we used the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) approach, which uses four families of statistical models testing a large set of different models using different permutations of covariates. Model ensembles were developed from these component models. We assessed model performance with rigorous out-of-sample testing of prediction error and the validity of 95% UIs. For 13 causes with low observed numbers of deaths, we developed negative binomial models with plausible covariates. For 27 causes for which death is rare, we modelled the higher level cause in the cause hierarchy of the GBD 2010 and then allocated deaths across component causes proportionately, estimated from all available data in the database. For selected causes (African trypanosomiasis, congenital syphilis, whooping cough, measles, typhoid and parathyroid, leishmaniasis, acute hepatitis E, and HIV/AIDS), we used natural history models based on information on incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality. We separately estimated cause fractions by aetiology for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and meningitis, as well as disaggregations by subcause for chronic kidney disease, maternal disorders, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. For deaths due to collective violence and natural disasters, we used mortality shock regressions. For every cause, we estimated 95% UIs that captured both parameter estimation uncertainty and uncertainty due to model specification where CODEm was used. We constrained cause-specific fractions within every age-sex group to sum to total mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions.
In 2010, there were 52·8 million deaths globally. At the most aggregate level, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes were 24·9% of deaths worldwide in 2010, down from 15·9 million (34·1%) of 46·5 million in 1990. This decrease was largely due to decreases in mortality from diarrhoeal disease (from 2·5 to 1·4 million), lower respiratory infections (from 3·4 to 2·8 million), neonatal disorders (from 3·1 to 2·2 million), measles (from 0·63 to 0·13 million), and tetanus (from 0·27 to 0·06 million). Deaths from HIV/AIDS increased from 0·30 million in 1990 to 1·5 million in 2010, reaching a peak of 1·7 million in 2006. Malaria mortality also rose by an estimated 19·9% since 1990 to 1·17 million deaths in 2010. Tuberculosis killed 1·2 million people in 2010. Deaths from non-communicable diseases rose by just under 8 million between 1990 and 2010, accounting for two of every three deaths (34·5 million) worldwide by 2010. 8 million people died from cancer in 2010, 38% more than two decades ago; of these, 1·5 million (19%) were from trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer. Ischaemic heart disease and stroke collectively killed 12·9 million people in 2010, or one in four deaths worldwide, compared with one in five in 1990; 1·3 million deaths were due to diabetes, twice as many as in 1990. The fraction of global deaths due to injuries (5·1 million deaths) was marginally higher in 2010 (9·6%) compared with two decades earlier (8·8%). This was driven by a 46% rise in deaths worldwide due to road traffic accidents (1·3 million in 2010) and a rise in deaths from falls. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lower respiratory infections, lung cancer, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of death in 2010. Ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, stroke, diarrhoeal disease, malaria, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) in 2010, similar to what was estimated for 1990, except for HIV/AIDS and preterm birth complications. YLLs from lower respiratory infections and diarrhoea decreased by 45-54% since 1990; ischaemic heart disease and stroke YLLs increased by 17-28%. Regional variations in leading causes of death were substantial. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes still accounted for 76% of premature mortality in sub-Saharan Africa in 2010. Age standardised death rates from some key disorders rose (HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease in particular), but for most diseases, death rates fell in the past two decades; including major vascular diseases, COPD, most forms of cancer, liver cirrhosis, and maternal disorders. For other conditions, notably malaria, prostate cancer, and injuries, little change was noted.
Population growth, increased average age of the world's population, and largely decreasing age-specific, sex-specific, and cause-specific death rates combine to drive a broad shift from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes towards non-communicable diseases. Nevertheless, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes remain the dominant causes of YLLs in sub-Saharan Africa. Overlaid on this general pattern of the epidemiological transition, marked regional variation exists in many causes, such as interpersonal violence, suicide, liver cancer, diabetes, cirrhosis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, melanoma, and others. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of sound epidemiological assessments of the causes of death on a regular basis.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
The Lancet 12/2013; 380(9859):2095-128. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mulibrey nanism is a rare autosomal recessive disease with multisystem involvement. Clinical deterioration is most often related to cardiac involvement in the form of restrictive or constrictive disorders, and pericardiectomy may be required. We report a case of Mulibrey nanism in a patient of non-Finnish origin, where a thoracoscopic pericardiectomy helped in good palliation and clinical recovery.
World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery. 10/2013; 4(4):442-3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is used to support children with end-stage heart failure to heart transplant.
This was a retrospective cohort study of 7 years' experience with the Berlin Heart (BH) EXCOR (Berlin Heart AG, Berlin Germany) paracorporeal ventricular assist device (VAD) in 2 United Kingdom (UK) pediatric heart transplant centers and the effect of this program on the UK pediatric heart transplant service.
Of 102 children who received BH support, 84% survived to transplant or BH explant and 81% survived to discharge. Neither age nor duration of support influenced outcome. Stroke, ongoing requirement for ventilation while on BH, and diagnosis other than dilated cardiomyopathy were the only independent mortality risk factors. Children who weighed < 20 kg had significantly (p = 0.03) longer support times than bigger children. The number of children treated with a BH increased over time (p = 0.01). Currently > 50% of pediatric heart transplants are bridged with a BH; however, pediatric transplants per year have not increased significantly (p = 0.07) CONCLUSIONS: BH use in the UK has allowed significant increases in the number of children with end-stage heart failure who can be successfully bridged to transplant and the length of time they can be supported. The total number of transplants has not increased.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 09/2013; · 3.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organ availability and acceptability limit pediatric HTx. What characteristics define an unacceptable or high-risk pediatric donor remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterize a large cohort of pediatric donors and determine the donor risk factors, including cumulative risk, that affect recipient survival. Data from the PHTS, a prospective multicenter study, were used to examine the impact of donor factors on the outcomes of patients listed <18 yr of age who received a HTx between 1993 and 2009. Donor data were available for 3149 of 3156 HTx (99.8%). Donor cause of death, need for inotropes, or CPR did not affect survival outcomes (p = 0.05). Ischemic time also did not have an impact on overall recipient survival; however, longer ischemic times negatively impacted one-yr post-transplant survival (p < 0.0001). There was no impact of cumulative risk factors on survival (p = 0.8). Although used in a minority of cases, hormonal therapy in the donor positively impacted survival (p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, the only donor factor associated with decreased survival was smaller donor BSA, the other factors being related to the recipient characteristics. When analyzed by recipient age, there were no donor-related factors that affected survival for those who received a transplant at <6 months of age. Longer ischemic time (p < 0.0001) and greater age difference between the recipient and donor (p = 0.0098) were donor-related factors impacting early-phase survival for recipients who received a graft at ≥10 yr of age. Factors perceived to define a marginal or high-risk pediatric heart donor including inotrope use, CPR and donor cause of death may have less impact on outcomes than previously thought. Longer ischemic times did impact one yr, but not overall survival, and this impact was much greater with older donors. Parameters for accepting a donor heart can potentially be expanded, especially in the infant age group, but strong consideration should always be given to the interaction between ischemic time and donor age.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A blunted heart rate recovery (HRR) from peak exercise is associated with adverse outcome in adults with ischemic heart disease. We assessed HRR after pediatric heart transplantation (HTx) and its prognostic use.
Between 2004 and 2010 we performed 360 maximal exercise tests (median, 2 tests/patient; range, 1-7) in 128 children (66 men; age at test, 14±3 years) who received HTx (age, 8.5±5.1 years) because of cardiomyopathy (66%) or congenital heart defects (34%). The change in heart rate from peak exercise to 1 minute of recovery was measured as HRR and was expressed as Z score calculated from reference data obtained in 160 healthy children. HRR was impaired soon after HTx (average in first 2 years Z=-1.9±3.5) but improved afterward (Z=+0.52/y), such that HRR Z score normalized in most patients by 6 years after HTx (average, 0.6±1.8). A subsequent decline in HRR Z score was noted from 6 years after HTx (rate of Z=-0.11/y). After 27±15 months from the most recent exercise test, 19 patients died or were re-heart transplantation. For the follow-up after 6 years, HRR Z score was the only predictor of death/re-heart transplantation (P=0.003). Patients in the lowest quartile of HRR Z score had a much higher 5-year event rate (event-free rate, 29% versus 84%; hazard ratio, 7.0; P=0.0013).
HRR is blunted soon after HTx but normalizes at ≈6 years, potentially as a result of parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft, but then declines. This late decline in HRR Z score is associated with worse outcome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rejection with acute hemodynamic compromise after OHT is rare in children, and is associated with poor survival. We retrospectively reviewed the management, course and outcome of recipients with late (following initial hospital discharge) rejection with acute hemodynamic compromise who were supported on ECLS. Of 197 consecutive children undergoing OHT (84 male; mean [SD] age 8.3 [5.7] [range 0.1-18.8 yr]) between 2/2002 and 10/2012, 187 children survived and were discharged from hospital. Mean (SD) follow-up was 5.0 (3.1) (range 0.1-10.6) yr. During follow-up, seven presented with severe hemodynamic compromise after transplantation (of whom one patient had been transplanted elsewhere). All seven children, who presented in hemodynamic collapse with poor cardiac function refractory to inotropic support, were placed on ECLS-two following in-hospital cardiac arrest. The median duration of ECLS was 6 (range 5-15) days. All survived to decannulation, with one death from overwhelming sepsis 20 days after presentation. The median (range) duration (in days) of inotropic requirement post ECLS was 11 (5-27), the median ventilation time was 8 (7-30), median ICU length of stay was 14 (10-54), and median hospitalization was 24 (19-118). In all, ventricular function normalized (FS >28%) within 10 (7-22) days. There was significant short-term morbidity; however, over a median follow-up of 5.9 (range 0.7-9.2) yr, all survivors have good functional status with no significant apparent neurological sequelae. ECLS thus appears to be a good rescue therapy for children with severe acute rejection post OHT, refractory to conventional treatment, leading to good medium-term outcome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest worse outcomes in pediatric orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) for congenital heart disease (CHD) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). We examined early outcomes in these diverse groups of patients in comparison with patients with dilatated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS: From 2000 to 2011, 209 patients were included: 50 with CHD, 23 with RCM, and 136 with DCM. Early survival was studied, as was the occurrence of acute rejection, donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and nondonor-specific antibodies (NSDAs), incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PHT), right ventricular failure (RVF), and the need for mechanical circulatory support (MCS). RESULTS: The incidence of preoperative PHT was greatest in the RCM group (χ(2)p = 0.0006); the requirement for mechanical support before OHT was greatest in patients with DCM. Thirty-day survival was 92.0%, 97.1%, and 100% for patients with CHD, DCM, and RCM respectively. The incidence of RVF was highest for patients with RCM (43.5%; versus CHD, 26.0%; versus DCM, 14.7%). One-year survival estimates for patients with CHD, DCM, and RCM were 92.0%, 97.8%, and 82.6%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.165). Multivariable analysis revealed 4 significant risk factors for mortality: age, incidence of acute rejection, preoperative PHT, and the presence of NDSAs. The occurrence of DSAs was similar, although there was a significantly higher incidence of NDSAs in the CHD and RCM groups (36.0% and 30.4%, respectively, versus 14.0% in the DCM group; χ(2)p = 0.0024). CONCLUSIONS: Equivalent outcomes are achievable in pediatric OHT despite marked heterogeneity in anatomic and physiologic complexity in recipients. Physiologic factors such as PHT are likely to be more important than anatomic complexities in determining survival. The potential relevance of NDSAs warrants further investigation.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 04/2013; · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of paediatric heart failure has increased as a result of improvement in congenital heart surgery and heart failure therapy. It seems therefore essential to understand the different mechanisms of heart failure, identify the clinical signs as early as possible and understand the rationale and treatment options.Since some of these patients, especially those with cardiomyopathy, are especially at risk of death or transplantation, it is extremely important that they are referred to reference centres for management and that cardiologists work closely with paediatricians at local hospitals. Hence the need of providing a comprehensive framework for assessment and treatment of paediatric heart failure.
Paediatrics and Child Health. 02/2013; 23(2):47–52.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This Almanac highlights recent papers on congenital heart disease in the major cardiac journals. Over 100 articles are cited. Subheadings are used to group relevant papers and allow readers to focus on their areas of interest, but are not meant to be comprehensive for all aspects of congenital cardiac disease.
Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology 01/2013; · 0.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intentional blood group (BG)-incompatible (ABOi) heart transplantation in childhood is emerging in many centers. Safety limits remain undetermined. In this multicenter study we have compiled experience on clinical and immunologic boundaries. METHODS: Data from six centers in Europe and North America on ABOi transplantation were collected in a standardized survey. RESULTS: Fifty-eight ABOi transplants were performed in 57 patients. Median age at transplant was 6.8 months (0.03 to 90 months); post-transplant follow-up was 37.7 months (0.46 to 117 months), accumulating 188 patient-years. Forty-seven percent of the patients received pretransplant mechanical circulatory support. Donors were either blood group A (n = 25), B (n = 18) or AB (n = 15). The median peak antibody titer to the donor BG pretransplant was 1:8 (0 to 1:64) for anti-A and 1:4 (0 to 1:32) for anti-B. Titers against the donor BG were lower post- than pretransplant in B recipients (p = 0.02), whereas third-party antibodies in BG O recipients developed normally post-transplant. Induction immunosuppression included anti-thymocyte globulin (61%), basiliximab (32%) or none (7%). All patients received calcineurin inhibitors, including 62% with mycophenolate mofetil, 10% with azathioprine, 2% with everolimus and 24% with steroids. There were 4 episodes of cellular rejection (Grade≥2R) and 7 antibody-mediated rejections. Five patients underwent antibody removal post-transplant. One patient developed severe graft vasculopathy. Freedom from death or retransplantation was 100%/96%/69% at 1/5/10 years. No graft loss was attributed to BG antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Successful ABOi heart transplantation can be performed at an older age and with higher isohemagglutinin titers than initially assumed and using similar immunosuppressive regimens as for ABO-compatible transplants. Rejection and graft vasculopathy are rare. Persistently low titers of antibodies to the donor BG post-transplant suggest elements of tolerance and/or accommodation.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 01/2013; · 3.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time.
We calculated DALYs as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were calculated for 291 causes, 20 age groups, both sexes, and for 187 countries, and aggregated to regional and global estimates of disease burden for three points in time with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new disability weights for each health state. Neither YLLs nor YLDs were age-weighted or discounted. Uncertainty around cause-specific DALYs was calculated incorporating uncertainty in levels of all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, prevalence, and disability weights.
Global DALYs remained stable from 1990 (2·503 billion) to 2010 (2·490 billion). Crude DALYs per 1000 decreased by 23% (472 per 1000 to 361 per 1000). An important shift has occurred in DALY composition with the contribution of deaths and disability among children (younger than 5 years of age) declining from 41% of global DALYs in 1990 to 25% in 2010. YLLs typically account for about half of disease burden in more developed regions (high-income Asia Pacific, western Europe, high-income North America, and Australasia), rising to over 80% of DALYs in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1990, 47% of DALYs worldwide were from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, 43% from non-communicable diseases, and 10% from injuries. By 2010, this had shifted to 35%, 54%, and 11%, respectively. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of DALYs worldwide in 2010 (up from fourth rank in 1990, increasing by 29%), followed by lower respiratory infections (top rank in 1990; 44% decline in DALYs), stroke (fifth in 1990; 19% increase), diarrhoeal diseases (second in 1990; 51% decrease), and HIV/AIDS (33rd in 1990; 351% increase). Major depressive disorder increased from 15th to 11th rank (37% increase) and road injury from 12th to 10th rank (34% increase). Substantial heterogeneity exists in rankings of leading causes of disease burden among regions.
Global disease burden has continued to shift away from communicable to non-communicable diseases and from premature death to years lived with disability. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, many communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders remain the dominant causes of disease burden. The rising burden from mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes will impose new challenges on health systems. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of understanding local burden of disease and setting goals and targets for the post-2015 agenda taking such patterns into account. Because of improved definitions, methods, and data, these results for 1990 and 2010 supersede all previously published Global Burden of Disease results.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
The Lancet 12/2012; 380(9859):2197-223. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither effort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs).
Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis.
Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350 000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation coefficient -0·37). In 2010, there were 777 million YLDs from all causes, up from 583 million in 1990. The main contributors to global YLDs were mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes or endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes of YLDs were much the same in 2010 as they were in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anaemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes, and falls. Age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010. Regional patterns of the leading causes of YLDs were more similar compared with years of life lost due to premature mortality. Neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and anaemia were important causes of YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa.
Rates of YLDs per 100 000 people have remained largely constant over time but rise steadily with age. Population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades. Prevalences of the most common causes of YLDs, such as mental and behavioural disorders and musculoskeletal disorders, have not decreased. Health systems will need to address the needs of the rising numbers of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality. Quantification of the burden of non-fatal health outcomes will be crucial to understand how well health systems are responding to these challenges. Effective and affordable strategies to deal with this rising burden are an urgent priority for health systems in most parts of the world.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
The Lancet 12/2012; 380(9859):2163-96. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: -Coronary Allograft Vasculopathy (CAV) is the leading cause of late death after heart transplantation in children. It is poorly detected by conventional angiography. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is invasive and costly. This study shows that that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the coronary vessel wall can detect and grade CAV. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Twenty-four children (10 male, age range 9-17 years) underwent coronary angiography, IVUS and MRI. Maximal intimal thickness (IT(max)) and mean intimal index (IT(i)) were recorded. MRI included coronary magnetic resonance angiogram and LGE vessel wall imaging using 1.5 Tesla imaging (n=12) and 3.0 Tesla (n=12). Ten healthy controls also underwent LGE MRI. Mean time post-transplant was 5.5 years (range 0.25-14). Seven patients had Stanford grade IV CAV on IVUS, three of whom had angiographic disease. IT(max) was 0.73±0.50mm and IT(i) was 20.9±10.6%. On MRI, mean diameter of enhancement of vessel wall was 6.57±4.91 mm and mean enhancement index (indexed to vessel lumen size) was 1.10±1.72. The control group showed little or no LGE. Correlation of LGE with IT(max) using Pearson's coefficient was 0.80 (p<0.001) and with IT(i) was 0.92 (p<0.001). An MRI diameter greater than 7.5mm gave 86% sensitivity and 93% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: -LGE scores correlate well with traditional IVUS measures. These promising early results encourage larger scale clinical studies to investigate if LGE MRI will allow closer follow-up and better prevention of CAV in children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Barth syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder that is characterized by cardiomyopathy, variable neutropenia, skeletal myopathy, growth delay, and organic aciduria. The cardiac involvement typically results in a high risk of severe heart failure in infancy or early childhood. While Berlin Heart EXCOR is widely accepted as ventricular assistance in pediatric patients with end-stage cardiac failure, infections remain a frequent and potentially severe complication. Therefore, the extended use of the device in the setting of intermittent or severe neutropenia is challenging. We present the case of a three-yr child with Barth syndrome who was bridged successfully to transplant with a Berlin Heart EXCOR assist device for eight months (251 days) without major infectious complication, despite several episodes of severe neutropenia. This case demonstrates that prolonged mechanical circulatory support for a patient with neutropenia is feasible without important morbidity, with careful monitoring and a multidisciplinary approach. G-CSF provides an excellent support in managing neutropenia.