Michael Burch

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (119)547.2 Total impact

  • Aparna Hoskote, Michael Burch
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    ABSTRACT: Significant advances in cardiac intensive care including extracorporeal life support have enabled children with complex congenital heart disease and end-stage heart failure to be supported while awaiting transplantation. With an increasing number of survivors after heart transplantation in children, the complications from long-term immunosuppression, including renal insufficiency, are becoming more apparent. Severe renal dysfunction after heart transplant is defined by a serum creatinine level >2.5 mg/dL (221 μmol/L), and/or need for dialysis or renal transplant. The degree of renal dysfunction is variable and is progressive over time. About 3-10 % of heart transplant recipients will go on to develop severe renal dysfunction within the first 10 years post-transplantation. Multiple risk factors for chronic kidney disease post-transplant have been identified, which include pre-transplant worsening renal function, recipient demographics and morbidity, peri-transplant haemodynamics and long-term exposure to calcineurin inhibitors. Renal insufficiency increases the risk of post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Hence, screening for renal dysfunction pre-, peri- and post-transplantation is important. Early and timely detection of renal insufficiency may help minimize renal insults, and allow prompt implementation of renoprotective strategies. Close monitoring and pre-emptive management of renal dysfunction is an integral aspect of peri-transplant and subsequent post-transplant long-term care.
    Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The process of heart transplantation poses numerous challenges and adaptive tasks for paediatric patients and their families. Few studies have examined how the experience of transplant interacts with developmental transitions such as adolescence, a period of significant change, and adjustment in itself. We explored adolescent heart transplant recipients' and their parents' experience of transplant from the point at which their heart condition was diagnosed to several months after transplantation. We adopted a developmental focus, to consider how participants negotiated the tasks of adolescence in the context of their transplant experiences. A qualitative approach was used to interview five adolescent-parent dyads, who reported few post-transplant complications, and the data were analysed according to the principles of IPA. Our findings revealed transplant to be a transformative experience, with two themes marking a contrast between pre- and post-transplant states: "Restriction and Dependence" and "Autonomy and Freedom." The themes are considered in relation to adolescent development. We propose that clinicians working with paediatric heart transplant recipients and their families need to consider the particular developmental challenges faced by adolescent patients and view the attainment of developmental milestones alongside physical and psychological markers of successful adjustment.
    Pediatric Transplantation 06/2014; · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Circulation 04/2014; 129(13):1453-5. · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex. We attempted to identify all available data on causes of death for 187 countries from 1980 to 2010 from vital registration, verbal autopsy, mortality surveillance, censuses, surveys, hospitals, police records, and mortuaries. We assessed data quality for completeness, diagnostic accuracy, missing data, stochastic variations, and probable causes of death. We applied six different modelling strategies to estimate cause-specific mortality trends depending on the strength of the data. For 133 causes and three special aggregates we used the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) approach, which uses four families of statistical models testing a large set of different models using different permutations of covariates. Model ensembles were developed from these component models. We assessed model performance with rigorous out-of-sample testing of prediction error and the validity of 95% UIs. For 13 causes with low observed numbers of deaths, we developed negative binomial models with plausible covariates. For 27 causes for which death is rare, we modelled the higher level cause in the cause hierarchy of the GBD 2010 and then allocated deaths across component causes proportionately, estimated from all available data in the database. For selected causes (African trypanosomiasis, congenital syphilis, whooping cough, measles, typhoid and parathyroid, leishmaniasis, acute hepatitis E, and HIV/AIDS), we used natural history models based on information on incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality. We separately estimated cause fractions by aetiology for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and meningitis, as well as disaggregations by subcause for chronic kidney disease, maternal disorders, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. For deaths due to collective violence and natural disasters, we used mortality shock regressions. For every cause, we estimated 95% UIs that captured both parameter estimation uncertainty and uncertainty due to model specification where CODEm was used. We constrained cause-specific fractions within every age-sex group to sum to total mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions. In 2010, there were 52·8 million deaths globally. At the most aggregate level, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes were 24·9% of deaths worldwide in 2010, down from 15·9 million (34·1%) of 46·5 million in 1990. This decrease was largely due to decreases in mortality from diarrhoeal disease (from 2·5 to 1·4 million), lower respiratory infections (from 3·4 to 2·8 million), neonatal disorders (from 3·1 to 2·2 million), measles (from 0·63 to 0·13 million), and tetanus (from 0·27 to 0·06 million). Deaths from HIV/AIDS increased from 0·30 million in 1990 to 1·5 million in 2010, reaching a peak of 1·7 million in 2006. Malaria mortality also rose by an estimated 19·9% since 1990 to 1·17 million deaths in 2010. Tuberculosis killed 1·2 million people in 2010. Deaths from non-communicable diseases rose by just under 8 million between 1990 and 2010, accounting for two of every three deaths (34·5 million) worldwide by 2010. 8 million people died from cancer in 2010, 38% more than two decades ago; of these, 1·5 million (19%) were from trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer. Ischaemic heart disease and stroke collectively killed 12·9 million people in 2010, or one in four deaths worldwide, compared with one in five in 1990; 1·3 million deaths were due to diabetes, twice as many as in 1990. The fraction of global deaths due to injuries (5·1 million deaths) was marginally higher in 2010 (9·6%) compared with two decades earlier (8·8%). This was driven by a 46% rise in deaths worldwide due to road traffic accidents (1·3 million in 2010) and a rise in deaths from falls. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lower respiratory infections, lung cancer, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of death in 2010. Ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, stroke, diarrhoeal disease, malaria, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) in 2010, similar to what was estimated for 1990, except for HIV/AIDS and preterm birth complications. YLLs from lower respiratory infections and diarrhoea decreased by 45-54% since 1990; ischaemic heart disease and stroke YLLs increased by 17-28%. Regional variations in leading causes of death were substantial. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes still accounted for 76% of premature mortality in sub-Saharan Africa in 2010. Age standardised death rates from some key disorders rose (HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease in particular), but for most diseases, death rates fell in the past two decades; including major vascular diseases, COPD, most forms of cancer, liver cirrhosis, and maternal disorders. For other conditions, notably malaria, prostate cancer, and injuries, little change was noted. Population growth, increased average age of the world's population, and largely decreasing age-specific, sex-specific, and cause-specific death rates combine to drive a broad shift from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes towards non-communicable diseases. Nevertheless, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes remain the dominant causes of YLLs in sub-Saharan Africa. Overlaid on this general pattern of the epidemiological transition, marked regional variation exists in many causes, such as interpersonal violence, suicide, liver cancer, diabetes, cirrhosis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, melanoma, and others. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of sound epidemiological assessments of the causes of death on a regular basis. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    The Lancet 12/2013; 380(9859):2095-128. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mulibrey nanism is a rare autosomal recessive disease with multisystem involvement. Clinical deterioration is most often related to cardiac involvement in the form of restrictive or constrictive disorders, and pericardiectomy may be required. We report a case of Mulibrey nanism in a patient of non-Finnish origin, where a thoracoscopic pericardiectomy helped in good palliation and clinical recovery.
    World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery. 10/2013; 4(4):442-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is used to support children with end-stage heart failure to heart transplant. This was a retrospective cohort study of 7 years' experience with the Berlin Heart (BH) EXCOR (Berlin Heart AG, Berlin Germany) paracorporeal ventricular assist device (VAD) in 2 United Kingdom (UK) pediatric heart transplant centers and the effect of this program on the UK pediatric heart transplant service. Of 102 children who received BH support, 84% survived to transplant or BH explant and 81% survived to discharge. Neither age nor duration of support influenced outcome. Stroke, ongoing requirement for ventilation while on BH, and diagnosis other than dilated cardiomyopathy were the only independent mortality risk factors. Children who weighed < 20 kg had significantly (p = 0.03) longer support times than bigger children. The number of children treated with a BH increased over time (p = 0.01). Currently > 50% of pediatric heart transplants are bridged with a BH; however, pediatric transplants per year have not increased significantly (p = 0.07) CONCLUSIONS: BH use in the UK has allowed significant increases in the number of children with end-stage heart failure who can be successfully bridged to transplant and the length of time they can be supported. The total number of transplants has not increased.
    The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 09/2013; · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organ availability and acceptability limit pediatric HTx. What characteristics define an unacceptable or high-risk pediatric donor remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterize a large cohort of pediatric donors and determine the donor risk factors, including cumulative risk, that affect recipient survival. Data from the PHTS, a prospective multicenter study, were used to examine the impact of donor factors on the outcomes of patients listed <18 yr of age who received a HTx between 1993 and 2009. Donor data were available for 3149 of 3156 HTx (99.8%). Donor cause of death, need for inotropes, or CPR did not affect survival outcomes (p = 0.05). Ischemic time also did not have an impact on overall recipient survival; however, longer ischemic times negatively impacted one-yr post-transplant survival (p < 0.0001). There was no impact of cumulative risk factors on survival (p = 0.8). Although used in a minority of cases, hormonal therapy in the donor positively impacted survival (p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, the only donor factor associated with decreased survival was smaller donor BSA, the other factors being related to the recipient characteristics. When analyzed by recipient age, there were no donor-related factors that affected survival for those who received a transplant at <6 months of age. Longer ischemic time (p < 0.0001) and greater age difference between the recipient and donor (p = 0.0098) were donor-related factors impacting early-phase survival for recipients who received a graft at ≥10 yr of age. Factors perceived to define a marginal or high-risk pediatric heart donor including inotrope use, CPR and donor cause of death may have less impact on outcomes than previously thought. Longer ischemic times did impact one yr, but not overall survival, and this impact was much greater with older donors. Parameters for accepting a donor heart can potentially be expanded, especially in the infant age group, but strong consideration should always be given to the interaction between ischemic time and donor age.
    Pediatric Transplantation 09/2013; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A blunted heart rate recovery (HRR) from peak exercise is associated with adverse outcome in adults with ischemic heart disease. We assessed HRR after pediatric heart transplantation (HTx) and its prognostic use. Between 2004 and 2010 we performed 360 maximal exercise tests (median, 2 tests/patient; range, 1-7) in 128 children (66 men; age at test, 14±3 years) who received HTx (age, 8.5±5.1 years) because of cardiomyopathy (66%) or congenital heart defects (34%). The change in heart rate from peak exercise to 1 minute of recovery was measured as HRR and was expressed as Z score calculated from reference data obtained in 160 healthy children. HRR was impaired soon after HTx (average in first 2 years Z=-1.9±3.5) but improved afterward (Z=+0.52/y), such that HRR Z score normalized in most patients by 6 years after HTx (average, 0.6±1.8). A subsequent decline in HRR Z score was noted from 6 years after HTx (rate of Z=-0.11/y). After 27±15 months from the most recent exercise test, 19 patients died or were re-heart transplantation. For the follow-up after 6 years, HRR Z score was the only predictor of death/re-heart transplantation (P=0.003). Patients in the lowest quartile of HRR Z score had a much higher 5-year event rate (event-free rate, 29% versus 84%; hazard ratio, 7.0; P=0.0013). HRR is blunted soon after HTx but normalizes at ≈6 years, potentially as a result of parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft, but then declines. This late decline in HRR Z score is associated with worse outcome.
    Circulation 09/2013; 128(26 Suppl 1):S199-204. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus post paediatric heart transplantation: a prospective study
    47th Annual Meeting of the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology, Cardiology in the Young; 05/2013
  • Alan G Fraser, Michael Burch
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 05/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • 33rd Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the International-Society-for-Heart-and-Lung-Transplantation; 04/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Rejection with acute hemodynamic compromise after OHT is rare in children, and is associated with poor survival. We retrospectively reviewed the management, course and outcome of recipients with late (following initial hospital discharge) rejection with acute hemodynamic compromise who were supported on ECLS. Of 197 consecutive children undergoing OHT (84 male; mean [SD] age 8.3 [5.7] [range 0.1-18.8 yr]) between 2/2002 and 10/2012, 187 children survived and were discharged from hospital. Mean (SD) follow-up was 5.0 (3.1) (range 0.1-10.6) yr. During follow-up, seven presented with severe hemodynamic compromise after transplantation (of whom one patient had been transplanted elsewhere). All seven children, who presented in hemodynamic collapse with poor cardiac function refractory to inotropic support, were placed on ECLS-two following in-hospital cardiac arrest. The median duration of ECLS was 6 (range 5-15) days. All survived to decannulation, with one death from overwhelming sepsis 20 days after presentation. The median (range) duration (in days) of inotropic requirement post ECLS was 11 (5-27), the median ventilation time was 8 (7-30), median ICU length of stay was 14 (10-54), and median hospitalization was 24 (19-118). In all, ventricular function normalized (FS >28%) within 10 (7-22) days. There was significant short-term morbidity; however, over a median follow-up of 5.9 (range 0.7-9.2) yr, all survivors have good functional status with no significant apparent neurological sequelae. ECLS thus appears to be a good rescue therapy for children with severe acute rejection post OHT, refractory to conventional treatment, leading to good medium-term outcome.
    Pediatric Transplantation 04/2013; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest worse outcomes in pediatric orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) for congenital heart disease (CHD) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). We examined early outcomes in these diverse groups of patients in comparison with patients with dilatated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS: From 2000 to 2011, 209 patients were included: 50 with CHD, 23 with RCM, and 136 with DCM. Early survival was studied, as was the occurrence of acute rejection, donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) and nondonor-specific antibodies (NSDAs), incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PHT), right ventricular failure (RVF), and the need for mechanical circulatory support (MCS). RESULTS: The incidence of preoperative PHT was greatest in the RCM group (χ(2)p = 0.0006); the requirement for mechanical support before OHT was greatest in patients with DCM. Thirty-day survival was 92.0%, 97.1%, and 100% for patients with CHD, DCM, and RCM respectively. The incidence of RVF was highest for patients with RCM (43.5%; versus CHD, 26.0%; versus DCM, 14.7%). One-year survival estimates for patients with CHD, DCM, and RCM were 92.0%, 97.8%, and 82.6%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.165). Multivariable analysis revealed 4 significant risk factors for mortality: age, incidence of acute rejection, preoperative PHT, and the presence of NDSAs. The occurrence of DSAs was similar, although there was a significantly higher incidence of NDSAs in the CHD and RCM groups (36.0% and 30.4%, respectively, versus 14.0% in the DCM group; χ(2)p = 0.0024). CONCLUSIONS: Equivalent outcomes are achievable in pediatric OHT despite marked heterogeneity in anatomic and physiologic complexity in recipients. Physiologic factors such as PHT are likely to be more important than anatomic complexities in determining survival. The potential relevance of NDSAs warrants further investigation.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 04/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    Michael Burch, Nathalie Dedieu
    Archivos de cardiología de México 03/2013; 83(1):55-63.
  • Nathalie Dedieu, Michael Burch
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of paediatric heart failure has increased as a result of improvement in congenital heart surgery and heart failure therapy. It seems therefore essential to understand the different mechanisms of heart failure, identify the clinical signs as early as possible and understand the rationale and treatment options.Since some of these patients, especially those with cardiomyopathy, are especially at risk of death or transplantation, it is extremely important that they are referred to reference centres for management and that cardiologists work closely with paediatricians at local hospitals. Hence the need of providing a comprehensive framework for assessment and treatment of paediatric heart failure.
    Paediatrics and Child Health. 02/2013; 23(2):47–52.
  • Michael Burch, Nathalie Dedieu
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    ABSTRACT: This Almanac highlights recent papers on congenital heart disease in the major cardiac journals. Over 100 articles are cited. Subheadings are used to group relevant papers and allow readers to focus on their areas of interest, but are not meant to be comprehensive for all aspects of congenital cardiac disease.
    Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology 01/2013; · 0.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
547.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust
      • • Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Medicine
      Cardiff, WLS, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • King's College London
      • Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University of Toronto
      • Hospital for Sick Children
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • Children's Memorial Hospital
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1996–2000
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      • Department of Paediatric Cardiology
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom