[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bupleuri Radix (BR) is a major component of several Oriental herbal medicines used to treat stress and mental illness. There are evidences that antidepressant drugs modulate oxidative damage implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorder, including depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant and proliferative effects of BR against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation in SH-SY5Y cells.
We examined the antioxidant effects of BR on a number of measures, including cell viability, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and levels of both Bcl-2 and Bax. We also investigated the effects of BR on cell proliferation using the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay, and used Western blot analysis to measure changes in expression of the cell cycle phase regulators.
1) Serum deprivation significantly induced the loss of cell viability, the formation of ROS, the reduction of SOD activity, down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax expression. However, BR extract reversed these effects in dose-dependent manner. 2) Serum deprivation significantly reduced cell proliferation. Western blot analysis revealed that serum deprivation significantly decreased cyclinD1 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) expression, and increased p27 expression. On the other hand, BR dose dependently reversed these effects.
This study suggests that aqueous extract of BR may exert potent antioxidant effects and also play an important role in regulating cell cycle progression during neurogenesis. These effects of BR may be a potentially important mechanism of antidepressant underlying the observed antioxidant and proliferative effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study aims
Some oriental herbal medicines have been used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We found previously that Kami-shoyo-san (KSS) possesses antidepressant-like effects at both the behavioral and molecular levels. Bupleuri Radix (BR), a major component of KSS, has affinity for both dopamine D2 and 5-HT1A receptors, which may be responsible for its antidepressant-like effects. In the present study, we investigated the antidepressant-like effects of BR in rats using the forced swimming test (FST) and the potential mechanisms of BR action in SH-SY5Y cells.
Materials and methods
The immobility time of rats treated with BR extract was measured in the FST. Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of proteins involved in the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mediated signaling pathway, thought to be a major target of antidepressant drug action.
BR extract (900mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility time in the FST. Treatment with BR extract (10, 100 and 1000μg/mL) significantly increased CREB phosphorylation and elevated BDNF levels in SH-SY5Y cells. BR extract increased phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Moreover, BDNF small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced elevated Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation induced by BR extract. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor blocked the BR-induced increase in phosphorylated Akt levels.
These findings suggest that an aqueous extract of BR can exert antidepressant-like effects in behavioral and molecular assays. These results demonstrate that BR may exert its effects through actions on CREB and BDNF activation, leading to stimulation of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine 08/2012; 4(4):e392-e399. · 0.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetocardiography (MCG) is a device to measure the weak magnetic fields generated from the heart using a superconducting quantum interference device sensor which converts magnetic flux to voltage and is the most sensitive sensor to detect magnetism. In the previous study, authors found that the values of MCG parameters of patients with non-ST-segment myocardial infarction were greater than those of age-matched controls (AMCs). In this study, we selected five different groups of patients considering their severity. We compared 10 MCG parameters recorded from 19 healthy young subjects (26.8plusmn13.4 years), 19 age-matched healthy subjects (55.4plusmn10.7), 23 stable angina patients (56.4plusmn7.6 years) with no stenosis (=0% on coronary angiogram) and normal echocardiogram, 24 unstable angina patients (61.9plusmn9.8 years) with severe stenosis (ges70%), and 20 Q-wave myocardial infarction (QMI) patients (57.3plusmn11.2 years) with severe stenosis (ges70%). To record the magnetic signals from a heart with minimal noise, a magnetically shielded room was used. The number of abnormal parameters was counted and magnetic field map (MFM) patterns were compared. As a result, young healthy subjects showed the smallest values in all 10 MCG parameters and QMI subjects showed the greatest values. Significant difference was found from dynamics parameters such as current angle, map angle, and distance dynamics between young healthy controls and AMC groups (p>0.05). No significant difference was found from AMC and stable angina groups even though parameter values of stable angina were slightly greater than those of AMC. Significant difference was found from five parameters between AMC and QMI subjects. These results are supportive to the previous analysis. In addition, the abnormal MCG parameters increased when the ischemic disease was worsened. Abnormal MFM patterns were easily found from QMI patients than stable angina pectoris. It is clear that abnormal MFM and parameters -
increase when the status of ischemic heart disease patients are getting worse.
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 07/2009; · 1.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a computational study of reentry wave propagation using electrophysiological models of human cardiac cells and the associated magnetic field map of a human heart. We examined the details of magnetic field variation and related physiological parameters for reentry waves in two-dimensional (2-D) human atrial tissue and a three-dimensional (3-D) human ventricle model. A 3-D mesh system representing the human ventricle was reconstructed from the surface geometry of a human heart. We used existing human cardiac cell models to simulate action potential (AP) propagation in atrial tissue and 3-D ventricular geometry, and a finite element method and the Galerkin approximation to discretize the 3-D domain spatially. The reentry wave was generated using an S1-S2 protocol. The calculations of the magnetic field pattern assumed a horizontally layered conductor for reentry wave propagation in the 3-D ventricle. We also compared the AP and magnetocardiograph (MCG) magnitudes during reentry wave propagation to those during normal wave propagation. The temporal changes in the reentry wave motion and magnetic field map patterns were also analyzed using two well-known MCG parameters: the current dipole direction and strength. The current vector in a reentry wave forms a rotating spiral. We delineated the magnetic field using the changes in the vector angle during a reentry wave, demonstrating that the MCG pattern can be helpful for theoretical analysis of reentry waves.
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 01/2008; 96(1-3):339-56. · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined micro-Raman/UV-visible (vis)/fluorescence spectroscopy system, which can evaluate an integrated array of more than 10,000 microsamples with a minimuma size of 5 microm within a few hours, has been developed for the first time. The array of microsamples is positioned on a computer-controlled XY translation microstage with a spatial resolution of 1 mum so that the spectra can be mapped with micron precision. Micro-Raman spectrometers have a high spectral resolution of about 2 cm(-1) over the wave number range of 150-3900 cm(-1), while UV-vis and fluorescence spectrometers have high spectral resolutions of 0.4 and 0.1 nm over the wavelength range of 190-900 nm, respectively. In particular, the signal-to-noise ratio of the micro-Raman spectroscopy has been improved by using a holographic Raman grating and a liquid-nitrogen-cooled charge-coupled device detector. The performance of the combined spectroscopy system has been demonstrated by the high-throughput screening of a combinatorial ferroelectric (i.e., BaTi(x)Zr(1-x)O(3)) library. This system makes possible the structure analysis of various materials including ferroelectrics, catalysts, phosphors, polymers, alloys, and so on for the development of novel materials and the ultrasensitive detection of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals and diagnostic agents.
Review of Scientific Instruments 08/2007; 78(7):072205. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bi-functional nanoparticles (NPs) that consist of silica-coated magnetic cores and luminescent lanthanide (Ln) ions anchored on the silica surface via organic linker molecules are reported. Compared to individual Ln ions, the hybrid NPs show a drastically enhanced photoluminescence due to the efficient ligand-to-metal energy transfer in the Ln-loaded NPs: the new bi-functional NPs could be used in a variety of biological applications involving magnetic separation and optical detection.
Chemical Communications 05/2007; · 6.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetocardiography (MCG) has been introduced as an innovative non-invasive diagnostic tool to identify various heart diseases. However, there have been little data on the reliability of MCG parameters. The purpose of this study is to examine the test-retest reliability of different diagnostic parameters derived from MCG. We investigated short-, intermediate-, and long-term reliability of nine parameters from T (max/3)-T (max) interval, and five parameters from each time point such as QRS-wave, the peak of R-, and T-wave were evaluated. Short-term reliability was tested in the youngest 20 subjects (mean age = 26.3 +/- 4.9 years) in three sessions separated by 5 min. Intermediate-term reliability was tested in the 35 subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) (65.1 +/- 7.1 years) with two recording sessions each in the morning and afternoon, separated by more than four hours. Long-term reliability was tested in seven subjects (37.1 +/- 8.8 years) using seven daily sessions. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) showed that test-retest reliability was good to excellent (0.99 > or = ICC > or = 0.80) for six out of nine parameters within T (max/3)-T (max). In addition, all parameters on the peak of R-wave, T-wave, and QRS-wave integrated were good to excellent (0.99 > or = ICC > or = 0.80) except for one parameter of CAD patients showing lower ICC values under 0.7. In conclusion, our study showed that the test-retest characteristics of the studied MCG parameters are generally stable and reliable over periods of minutes to days in subjects with different age spectrums.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering 02/2007; 35(1):59-68. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetocardiography (MCG) has been proposed as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to risk-stratify patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia. The purpose of this study is to find the MCG parameters that are sensitive enough to detect the non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients.
MCG data were recorded and analyzed from 165 young controls (mean age = 27.2 +/- 9.0 years), 57 age-matched controls (mean age = 55.9 +/- 10.5 years) and 83 NSTEMI patients (mean age = 59.7 +/- 11.1 years). The MCG recordings were obtained using a 64-channel MCG system in a magnetically shielded room. Statistical analyses were performed for 24 parameters derived from QRS-, R-, T-wave, and ST-T period. Binary boundaries to detect NSTEMI patients out of control subjects were found using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for each parameter.
Fifteen parameters showed a significant difference (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) between NSTEMI and both of the control groups. For detection of NSTEMI, the angle of the maximum current and the filed map angle on T-wave peak showed the highest diagnostic performance from 75% to 92% including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (area under ROC curve = 0.87 approximately 0.93).
Our study showed that MCG has potential clinical application for detection of NSTEMI and should be further investigated.
Annals of Medicine 01/2007; 39(8):617-27. · 4.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed biocompatible ferrite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles whose surfaces are functionalized with biotin molecule. The resulting magnetic nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8nm have a biotin-anchored morphology, which gives an exceptionally high affinity for the Cy3-labeled streptavidin. The spectroscopic and magnetic data results confirmed the presence of the interaction between biotin-anchored Fe3O4 particles and Cy3-labeled streptavidins. These biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles can be used as a basic protocol for various biological applications, particularly linking molecules together to create signal generation systems.
Chemical Physics Letters 01/2006; 428(1):125-129. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly reliable 64-channel sequential and parallel tubular reactor for high-throughput screening of heterogeneous catalysts is constructed with stainless steel. In order to have a uniform flow rate at each channel, 64 capillaries are placed between the outlet of multiport valve and the inlet of each reactor. Flow rate can be controlled within ±1.5%. Flow distribution can be easily adjusted for sequential and parallel mode of operation. The reactor diameter is too big to have a uniform temperature distribution. Hence, the reactor body is separated into three radial zones and controlled independently with nine thermocouples. Temperature accuracy is ±0.5 °C at 300 °C and ±1 °C at 500 °C in sequential mode, while it is ±2.5 °C in the range of 250–500 °C in parallel mode. The temperature, flow rate, reaction sequence, and product analysis are controlled by LABVIEW™ software and monitored simultaneously with displaying a live graph. The accuracy in the conversion is ±2% at the level of 73% conversion when all reactors are loaded with same amount of catalyst. A quaternary catalyst library of 56 samples composed of Pt, Cu, Fe, and Co supported on AlSBA-15 (SBA-15 substituted with Al) are evaluated in the selective catalytic reduction of NO at various temperatures with our system. The most active compositions are rapidly screened at various temperatures.
Review of Scientific Instruments 05/2005; 76(6):062219-062219-7. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multichannel superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) systems based on double relaxation oscillation SQUIDs (DROS) were developed for measuring magnetocardiography (MCG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. Since DROS provides large fluxto-voltage transfer coeffcients, about 10 times larger than the DC SQUIDs, direct readout of the SQUID output was possible using compact roomtemperature electronics. Using DROSs, we fabricated two types of multichannel systems; a 37-channel magnetometer system with circular sensor distribution for measuring radial components of MEG signals, and two planar gradiometer systems of 40-channel and 62-channel measuring tangential components of MCG or MEG signals. The magnetometer system has external feedback to eliminate magnetic coupling with adjacent channels, and reference vector magnetometers were installed to form software gradiometers. The field noise of the magnetometers is around 3 fT/√Hz at 100 Hz inside a magnetically shielded room. The planar gradiometer systems have integrated first-order gradiometer in thin-film form with a baseline of 40 mm. The magnetic field gradient noise of the planar gradiometers is about 1 fT/cm/√Hz at 100 Hz. The planar gradiometers were arranged to measure field components tangential to the body surface, providing efficient measurement of especially MCG signals with smaller sensor coverage than the conventional normal component measurements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: YBCO dc SQUID magnetometers based on bicrystal Josephson junctions on 10 mm × 10 mm STO substrates have been fabricated. We have designed 16-parallel-loop pickup coil SQUID magnetometers with 50 mu m line width for use under a magnetically disturbed environment. The magnetometers exhibit stable flux locked loop operation under magnetically very noisy laboratory environment. We modified the coupling scheme between pickup coil and SQUID washer to replace the conventional narrow and long interconnection lines to reduce the residual inductance of the coupling lines. With the coupling line modification the effective area increased more than 12%. Finally, we could obtain optimized direct coupled YBCO SQUID magnetometer design having field sensitivity B_Phi of 4.5 nT/Phi 0 and magnetic field noise BN of 30 fT/Hz^1/2 measured at 100 Hz.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have studied properties of the superconducting MgB2 thin films made on sapphire substrates by radio frequency (rf) magnetron co-sputtering of Mg and B. The effects of annealing temperature and Mg:B ratio on the superconducting properties of the film were investigated. Films were prepared by room-temperature co-deposition of Mg and B using two guns and annealed in situ to form the superconducting MgB2 phase. Ar sputtering pressure was 20 mtorr with 5% of hydrogen gas to trap remnant oxygen gas in the deposition chamber. Average rf power density of Mg target was varied from 2 to 4 W cm−2 with that of B fixed at 12 W cm−2. An additional Mg layer was deposited on top to make up for Mg loss during in situ annealing. Films were heated up to 500–750 °C at the rate of 60 °C min−1, annealed for 20 min, and naturally cooled down by turning off the heater. The best results were obtained for films deposited with the rf power of Mg target at 50 W and annealed at 700 °C. The mechanism for MgB2 formation in low-pressure annealing is believed to be that during annealing the local Mg vapour pressure inside the film falls within the thermodynamic window.
Superconductor Science and Technology 11/2003; 16(12):1550. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The removal of nitric oxide from the exhaust gas of lean-burn engines is not fully commercialized since the current catalyst technology cannot meet the strict future emission regulations. Although ZSM-5 ion-exchanged with Pt (Pt/ZSM-5) has been considered as a promising catalyst due to its superior low-temperature activity, it has the drawback of a narrow “temperature window” for activity, i.e. an abrupt decrease in the activity above 300 °C. This paper reports on the preparation of novel Pt/ZSM-5 by subliming Pt(CO)2Cl2 into H-ZSM-5 at 220 °C, resulting in excellent activity within a wide temperature window between 230 and 500 °C. Pre-treatment of this Pt/ZSM-5 can change the width of the temperature window. Moreover, H2O plays a role as a promoter and SO2 reversibly reduces the activity by less than 20%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have designed a prototype single-layer second-order
high-T<sub>c</sub> SQUID gradiometer that detects the transverse field
gradient, and balanced the device by adopting a step-down method. The
device consists of symmetrically designed 3 parallel-connected square
pickup loops that are directly coupled to the SQUID. The dimensions of
side loops are 3 mm outside and 1.8 mm inside. The inner dimension of
the center loop is 1 mm. Step-down balancing was achieved by varying the
outer dimension of the center loop until a null response was detected
under uniform fields. The uniform field was generated by a 250
mm×25 mm square coil wound on a grooved garolite tube. Deviation
of the coil field along the abscissa was calculated to be less than
1×10<sup>-5</sup> within the sample range. We have investigated
response of the device to field gradients along the transverse
direction. Details of the design, fabrication, and results will be
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 04/2001; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Step-edge YBa<sub>2</sub>Cu<sub>3</sub>O<sub>7-x</sub> (YBCO) dc
SQUID magnetometers on sapphire substrates have been fabricated.
CeO<sub>2</sub> buffer layers and YBCO films were deposited in situ on
the low angle (~35°) steps formed on the sapphire substrates with
various thickness ratio of YBCO thin film to step height. Noise
properties of the magnetometer exhibit quite different behavior
according to the thickness ratio. The field noise of the dc SQUID
magnetometer was measured to be 100~300 fT/√Hz at 100 Hz and about
1.5 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz with a dc bias method, and 450 fT/√Hz at
1 Hz with an ac bias method
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 04/2001; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high-T<sub>c</sub> superconducting quantum interference device
(SQUID) gradiometer system was developed for operation in unshielded
environment. The system consists of the first-order gradiometer and the
flux-locked loop electronics. YBa<sub>2</sub>Cu<sub>3</sub>O<sub>7</sub>
single-layer first-order SQUID gradiometers were fabricated on 15
mm×7.5 mm SrTiO<sub>3</sub> bicrystal substrates with a baseline
of 7 mm. The gradient sensitivities at 77 K and 100 Hz were 0.1
pT/(cm√Hz) in magnetic shielding and 1.4 pT/(cm√Hz) when
operated unshielded in our laboratory. The high-T<sub>c</sub> SQUID
gradiometer system demonstrated successful measurement of small magnetic
fields in a laboratory environment without any shields
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 04/2001; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: YBa2Cu3O7 direct coupled dc SQUID magnetometers based on the step-edge junctions on sapphire substrates have been fabricated. 15-nm-thick CeO2 buffer layer and 120-nm-thick YBa2Cu3O7 film were in situ deposited on the 35° steps formed on the sapphire substrates by Ar ion milling. Large ICRN product of 250 μV with junction resistance RN ∼ 5 ω and critical current IC ∼ 50 μA at 77 K could be obatined reproducibly with 5 μm microbridges. The SQUID magnetometers fabricated on the 1×1 cm2 sapphire substrates based on the step-edge junctions exhibit a voltage modulation depth of 16μV and magnetic field noise of 170 fT/√Hz at 100 Hz for the 70 pH-SQUID.
Physica C Superconductivity 11/2000; 341:2715-2716. · 1.11 Impact Factor