G. L. Carr

Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (212)345.37 Total impact

  • R. J. Smith · E. Stavitski · G. L. Carr
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    ABSTRACT: A low-cost optical feedback system using dynamic mirrors has been developed at the NSLS for stabilizing the position and direction of an infrared synchrotron beam against thermal drift and mechanical noise. The system design has some unique features that potentially simplify installation into an existing infrared beamline. We describe the system and its features along with some performance results.
    Vibrational Spectroscopy 11/2014; 75. DOI:10.1016/j.vibspec.2014.09.003 · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • Physical Review Letters 10/2014; 113(17). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.179902 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measured the spectroscopic response of stripe-and vortex-containing ErMnO 3 in order to uncover the electronic properties of the domain walls. We quantify Born effective charge and polarization differences using the lattice behavior, analyze the local rare earth environment from the f -manifold excitations, and reveal how shifts in the charge transfer excitations impact the band gap. The increased Born charge, polarization, and band gap in the vortex-containing material are brought together with a discussion of hybridization and wall density effects. The domain wall optical constants are strongly frequency dependent.
    Physical Review B 09/2014; 90(12):121303(R). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.90.121303 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high brightness, broad spectral coverage and pulsed characteristics of infrared synchrotron radiation enable time-resolved spectroscopy under throughput-limited optical systems, as can occur with the high-field magnet cryostat systems used to study electron dynamics and cyclotron resonance by far-infrared techniques. A natural extension for magnetospectroscopy is to sense circular dichroism, i.e. the difference in a material's optical response for left and right circularly polarized light. A key component for spectroscopic circular dichroism is an achromatic 1/4 wave retarder functioning over the spectral range of interest. We report here the development of an in-line retarder using total internal reflection in high-resistivity silicon. We demonstrate its performance by distinguishing electronic excitations of different handednesses for GaAs in a magnetic field. This 1/4 wave retarder is expected to be useful for far-infrared spectroscopy of circular dichroism in many materials.
    Infrared Physics & Technology 08/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.infrared.2014.09.004 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optical properties of hexagonal multiferroic oxides RMnO3, where R = Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu, have been studied in the far-infrared spectral range between 100 and 2000 cm(-1) and temperatures between 1.5 and 300 K by means of several experimental techniques: Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry, rotating analyzer ellipsometry, and optical transmission spectroscopy. Spectra of the optical phonons are described in terms of the temperature dependencies of their frequency, damping, and oscillator strength. For all studies, oxide materials' clear signatures of the spin-phonon interaction have been found below the temperature of the antiferromagnetic phase transition T-N due to magnetic ordering of Mn3+ spins. A decrease of the ionic radius for R3+ ions between Ho3+ and Lu3+ in the corresponding RMnO3 compounds resulted in systematic variation of the frequency for several optical phonons. A magnetic excitation at similar to 190 cm(-1) was observed at low temperatures below T-N and interpreted as resulting from two-magnon absorption.
    Physical Review B 07/2014; 90(2):024307. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.90.024307 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The characteristics of topological insulators are manifested in both their surface and bulk properties, but the latter remain to be explored. Here we report bulk signatures of pressure-induced band inversion and topological phase transitions in Pb$_{1-x}$Sn$_x$Se ($x=$0.00, 0.15, and 0.23). The results of infrared measurements as a function of pressure indicate the closing and the reopening of the band gap as well as a maximum in the free carrier spectral weight. The enhanced density of states near the band gap in the topological phase give rise to a steep interband absorption edge. The change of density of states also yields a maximum in the pressure dependence of the Fermi level. Thus our conclusive results provide a consistent picture of pressure-induced topological phase transitions and highlight the bulk origin of the novel properties in topological insulators.
    Physical Review Letters 06/2014; 113(9). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.096401 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    X. Xi · C. Ma · Z. Liu · Z. Chen · W. Ku · H. Berger · C. Martin · D. B. Tanner · G. L. Carr
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    ABSTRACT: X. Xi; C. Ma; Z. Liu; Z. Chen; W. Ku; H. Berger; C. Martin; D. B. Tanner; and G. L. Carr:
    APS March Meeting March 3 - 7, 2014 Denver, Colorado USA; 03/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We report the observation of two signatures of a pressure-induced topological quantum phase transition in the polar semiconductor BiTeI using x-ray powder diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The x-ray data confirm that BiTeI remains in its ambient-pressure structure up to 8 GPa. The lattice parameter ratio c/a shows a minimum between 2.0-2.9 GPa, indicating an enhanced c-axis bonding through p_{z} band crossing as expected during the transition. Over the same pressure range, the infrared spectra reveal a maximum in the optical spectral weight of the charge carriers, reflecting the closing and reopening of the semiconducting band gap. Both of these features are characteristics of a topological quantum phase transition and are consistent with a recent theoretical proposal.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2013; 111(15):155701. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.155701 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High contrast imaging can use pupil apodizers to suppress diffracted starlight from a bright source in order to observe its environs. Metallic half-tone dot transmissive apodizers were developed for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and ESO SPHERE coronagraphs for use in the near-IR. Dot sizes on the scale of the wavelength of the light often result in unexpected variations in the optical transmission vs. superficial dot density relation. We measured 5 and 10 micron half-tone microdot screens' transmissions between 550 -1050 nm to prepare to fabricate apodizations that mitigate diffraction by segments gaps and spiders on future large space telescopes. We utilized slow test beams (f/40, f/80) to estimate the on-axis (far-field, or zero-order) transmission of test patches using a Fourier Transform Spectrograph on Beamline U10B at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source (BNL NSLS). We also modified our previous GPI IR characterization hardware and methods for this experiment. Our measurements show an internal consistency of 0.1% in transmission, a factor of 5 better than our near-IR GPI work on the NSLS U4IR beamline. The systematics of the set-up appeared to limit the absolute calibration for our f/40 data on the 50-patch, maximum Optical Density 3 (OD3), sample. Credible measurements of transmissions down to about 3% transmission were achieved for this sample. Future work on apodizers for obstructed and segmented primary mirror coronagraphs will require configurations that mimic the intended diffractive configurations closely in order to tune apodizer fabrication to any particular application, and measure chromatic effects in representative diffractive regimes. Further experimental refinements are needed to measure the densest test patches which possess transmissions less than a few percent. The new NSLS-II should provide much greater spectral stability of its synchrotron beam, which will improve measurement accuracy and reduce systematics.
    SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a phase transition at a temperature of 340 K between an insulating monoclinic M1 phase and a conducting rutile phase. Accurate measurements of possible anisotropy of the electronic properties and phonon features of VO2 in the insulating monoclinic M1 and metallic rutile phases are a prerequisite for understanding the phase transition in this correlated system. Recently, it has become possible to grow single domain untwinned VO2 microcrystals which makes it possible to investigate the true anisotropy of VO2. We performed polarized transmission infrared micro-spectroscopy on these untwinned microcrystals in the spectral range between 200 cm-1 and 6000 cm-1 and have obtained the anisotropic phonon parameters and low frequency electronic properties in the insulating monoclinic M1 and metallic rutile phases. We have also performed ab initio GGA+U total energy calculations of phonon frequencies for both phases. We find our measurements and calculations to be in good agreement.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 07/2013; 87(11). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.87.115121 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    Xiaoxiang Xi · G. L. Carr
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    ABSTRACT: Finite-difference time-domain methods are increasingly being used to develop, model and analyze the response of materials, including engineered metamaterials that may contain superconductors. Though simple and useful expressions for the time-domain susceptibility exist for basic metals and dielectrics, the time-domain response for a superconductor has not been developed, mainly because the frequency-dependent expressions themselves are rather complex. In this paper we present a simple approximate expression for the time-domain susceptibility of a superconductor for the hbar/2Delta time scale (where Delta is the BCS energy gap) that fulfills causality requirements, and demonstrate its ability to model the transmission and reflection of a fully-gapped superconductor in the THz region. By allowing Delta to be a function of current, we also show how this model function can be used to describe nonlinear microwave response in superconductors.
    Superconductor Science and Technology 07/2013; 26(11). DOI:10.1088/0953-2048/26/11/114001 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reflection and transmission as a function of temperature (7–300 K and 5–300 K respectively) have been measured on single crystals of the multiferroic compound FeTe2O5Br utilizing light spanning from the far infrared to the visible. The complex dielectric function and other optical properties were obtained via Kramers-Kronig analysis and by fits to a Drude-Lortentz model. Analysis of the anisotropic excitation spectra via Drude-Lorentz fitting and lattice dynamical calculations have led to the observation of 43 of the 53 modes predicted along the b axis of the monoclinic cell. The phonon response parallel to the a and c axes are also presented. Assignments to groups (clusters) of phonons have been made and trends within them are discussed in light of our calculated displacement patterns.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 06/2013; 87(22). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.87.224108 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report conventional and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy on LaFeAsO$_{1-x}$F$_x$ superconducting thin films. The far-infrared transmission can be quantitatively explained by a two-component model including a conventional s-wave superconducting term and a Drude term, suggesting at least one carrier system has a full superconducting gap. Photo-induced studies of excess quasiparticle dynamics reveal a nanosecond effective recombination time and temperature dependence that agree with a recombination bottleneck in the presence of a full gap. The two experiments provide consistent evidence of a full, nodeless though not necessarily isotropic, gap for at least one carrier system in LaFeAsO$_{1-x}$F$_x$.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 04/2013; 87(18). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.87.180509 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    Xiaoxiang Xi · J. -H. Park · D. Graf · G. L. Carr · D. B. Tanner
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    ABSTRACT: The vortex-state electrodynamics of s-wave superconductors has been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Far-infrared transmission and reflection spectra of superconducting NbTiN and NbN thin films were measured in a magnetic field perpendicular to the film surface, and the optical conductivity was extracted. The data show clear reduction of superconducting signature. We consider the vortex state as a two-component effective medium of normal cores embedded in a BCS superconductor. The spectral features are well explained by the Maxwell-Garnett theory. Our analysis supports the presence of magnetic-field-induced pair-breaking effects in the superconducting component outside of the vortex cores.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 04/2013; 87(18). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.87.184503 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microspectroscopic imaging in the infrared (IR) spectral region allows for the examination of spatially-resolved chemical composition on the microscale. More than a decade ago, it was demonstrated that diffraction-limited spatial resolution can be achieved when an apertured, single-pixel IR microscope is coupled to the high brightness of a synchrotron light source. Nowadays, many IR microscopes are equipped with multi-pixel Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors, which dramatically improve data acquisition times for imaging large areas. Recently, progress been made toward efficiently coupling synchrotron IR beamlines to multi-pixel detectors, but they utilize expensive and highly customized optical schemes. Here we demonstrate the development and application of a simple optical configuration that can be implemented on most existing synchrotron IR beamlines in order to achieve full-field IR imaging with diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Specifically, the synchrotron radiation fan is extracted from the bending magnet and split into four beams that are combined on the sample, allowing it to fill a large section of the FPA. With this optical configuration, we are able to oversample an image by more than a factor of two, even at the shortest wavelengths, making image restoration through deconvolution algorithms possible. High chemical sensitivity, rapid acquisition times, and superior signal-to-noise characteristics of the instrument are demonstrated. The unique characteristics of this setup enabled the real-time study of heterogeneous chemical dynamics with diffraction-limited spatial resolution for the first time.
    Analytical Chemistry 03/2013; 85(7). DOI:10.1021/ac3033849 · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • G. L. Carr · Xiaoxiang Xi
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a simple time-domain electric susceptibility model for a BCS type superconductor, valid for the spectral range spanning the optical energy gap frequency φ˜2δ and TTC. The expression can be used in Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) calculations for propagating electromagnetic waves through systems containing superconductor materials, including meta-materials. Since the energy gap appears explicitly, it can be varied as a function of time to describe non-linear and non-equilibrium effects as observed in microwave experiments. We use the expression in a FDTD calculation for the transmission through and reflection from a thin film of NbN on a substrate, and compare with both conventional frequency domain calculations as well as actual experimental results.
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed both conventional as well as time-resolved far-infrared spectroscopy on LaFeAsO1-xFx pnictide thin films. The conventional spectroscopy results can be fit using a simple gapped superconductor + normal conductor two-component model. Absorption by quasiparticles in a gap system with nodes is a plausible explanation for the normal component [Lobo et al. Phys. Rev. B 82, 100506(R) (2010)]. The time-resolved study is performed by laser-pump, far-IR probe spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation at NSLS beamline U4IR. A laser pulse breaks superconducting pairs and the synchrotron probe is used to sense the recombination process. In contrast to the picosecond response observed for cuprate superconductors, we observe a nanosecond response typical of a fully gapped superconductor where phonon-bottleneck effects slow the effective recombination rate. This result suggests the presence of a full isotropic gap, as might exist at lower energies due to electronic scattering [Carbotte et al. Phys. Rev. B 81, 104510 (2010)].
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    ABSTRACT: Far-IR spectra of magneto-electric (ME) and multiferroic materials are in the focus of modern experimental and theoretical studies. Bi-anisotropic optical properties of these materials require consideration of not only dielectric susceptibility tensor ɛ(φ) but also magnetic permeability μ(φ) and ME α(φ) tensors that cannot be distinguished from a single transmission or reflection spectrum. We report on the application of Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry (MM-SE) for studies of elementary excitations in multiferroic materials such as TbMnO3, TbMn2O5, and TbFe3(BO3)4 single crystals. We show that magnetic, electric, and ME dipole excitations, such as magnons, phonons, and electromagnons can be distinguished from each other using a single MM measurement without introducing any modeling arguments. The fit of MM spectra based on the Berreman's 4x4 propagation matrix formalism allowed us to determine parameters of electromagnon excitations separating the electric ɛ(φ) and ME α(φ) tensors components.
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    ABSTRACT: We developed far-IR spectroscopic ellipsometer at the U4IR beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory. This ellipsometer is able to measure both, rotating analyzer and full-Mueller matrix spectra using rotating retarders, and wire-grid linear polarizers. We utilize exceptional brightness of synchrotron radiation in the broad spectral range between about 20 and 4000 cm. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer is used for multi-wavelength data acquisition. The sample stage has temperature variation between 4.2 and 450 K, wide range of θ-2θ angular rotation, χ tilt angle adjustment, and X-Y-Z translation. A LabVIEW-based software controls the motors, sample temperature, and FT-IR spectrometer and also allows to run fully automated experiments with pre-programmed measurement schedules. Data analysis is based on Berreman's 4 × 4 propagation matrix formalism to calculate the Mueller matrix parameters of anisotropic samples with magnetic permeability μ ≠ 1. A nonlinear regression of the rotating analyzer ellipsometry and∕or Mueller matrix (MM) spectra, which are usually acquired at variable angles of incidence and sample crystallographic orientations, allows extraction of dielectric constant and magnetic permeability tensors for bulk and thin-film samples. Applications of this ellipsometer setup for multiferroic and ferrimagnetic materials with μ ≠ 1 are illustrated with experimental results and simulations for TbMnO and DyFeO single crystals. We demonstrate how magnetic and electric dipoles, such as magnons and phonons, can be distinguished from a single MM measurement without adducing any modeling arguments. The parameters of magnetoelectric components of electromagnon excitations are determined using MM spectra of TbMnO.
    The Review of scientific instruments 02/2013; 84(2):023901. DOI:10.1063/1.4789495 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reflection and transmission as a function of temperature (5--300 K) have been measured on single crystals of the multiferroic compound FeTe$_{2}$O$_{5}$Br utilizing light spanning the far infrared to the visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The complex dielectric function and optical properties were obtained via Kramers-Kronig analysis and by fits to a Drude-Lortentz model. Analysis of the anisotropic excitation spectra via Drude-Lorentz fitting and lattice dynamical calculations have lead to the observation of all 52 IR-active modes predicted in the $ac$ plane and 43 or the 53 modes predicted along the b axis of the monoclinic cell. Assignments to groups (clusters) of phonons have been made and trends within them are discussed in light of our calculated displacement patterns.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
345.37 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2014
    • Brookhaven National Laboratory
      • • National Synchrotron Light Source
      • • Physics Department
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      스토니브룩, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      Los Alamos, California, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP)
      CGS, Maryland, United States
  • 2002
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Antō, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1999
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Physiology & Biophysics
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 1990–1996
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Physics
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 1983–1990
    • Emory University
      • Department of Physics
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1981–1983
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Physics
      Columbus, Ohio, United States