Publications (2)0 Total impact
ABSTRACT: There are large differences in economic development across Native American reserva-tions today. This paper asks whether these differences can be in part explained by the forced integration of historically autonomous sub-tribal bands in the 19th century. To measure forced integration, I combine anthropological data on intra-tribal political in-tegration in pre-reservation times with historical information on the constituent bands of each reservation. Exploring variation in how politically integrated tribes were be-fore reservations and variation in how politically integrated reservations were at the time of their formation, I find that forced integration lowers per capita incomes today by about 30 percent. To account for potential selection into forced integration, I ex-ploit historical mining rushes as a source of exogenous variation in the government's incentive to combine bands onto reservations. The IV strategy confirms the baseline results. I also provide quantitative evidence on the channels through which forced integration affects incomes today. as well as participants at the 2010 CEA, CIFAR, EEA and EHA Meetings for in-sightful comments and valuable discussions. I also thank Matthew Baker for sharing the Ethnographic Atlas data and Richard Jantz for sharing the Franz Boas anthropometric data.
ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a theory of city size distribution via a hierarchy approach rather than the popular random growth process. It does so by formalizing central place theory using an equilibrium entry model and specifying the conditions under which city size distribution follows the power law. Central place theory describes the way in which a hierarchical city system with different layers of cities serving differently sized market areas is formed from a uniformly populated space. The force driving the city size differences in this model is the heterogeneity in economies of scale across goods. The city size distribution under a central place hierarchy exhibits the power law if the distribution of scale economies is regularly varying, which is a general class that encompasses many well-known, commonly used distributions. This model is also consistent with the power law for firms and the number-average-size rule, which is the log-linear relationship between the number and average size of the cities in which an industry is located. JEL: R12; L11; R13 Keywords: central place theory, power law, Zipf 's law, regular variation, number-average-size rule, fractal structure., the 2008 Annual Meeting of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, the EITSS conference of Nagoya University, and the 2009 Meeting of the Urban Economics Association. All errors are mine. 1 The difference between a high-order metropolis like Chicago and a lower-order town like Peoria or Burlington was not merely Chicago's much larger population. Chicago's high rank meant that its market attracted customers for many more goods and services from a much wider region ... Just as one can rank human settlements according to the number of people who live in them, so can one rank all economic goods according to the number of people and concentrations of wealth needed to create a market for them. The hierarchy of urban settlements is also a hierarchy of markets (Cronon 1991, pp. 279-280).
University of Toronto