R. P. Fender

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (429)1444.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: On 2014 April 23, the Swift satellite detected a gamma-ray superflare from the nearby star system DG CVn. This system comprises a M-dwarf binary with extreme properties: it is very young and at least one of the components is a very rapid rotator. The gamma-ray superflare is one of only a handful detected by Swift in a decade. As part of our AMI-LA Rapid Response Mode, ALARRM, we automatically slewed to this target, were taking data at 15 GHz within six minutes of the burst, and detected a bright (~100 mJy) radio flare. This is the earliest detection of bright, prompt, radio emission from a high energy transient ever made with a radio telescope, and is possibly the most luminous incoherent radio flare ever observed from a red dwarf star. An additional bright radio flare, peaking at around 90 mJy, occurred around one day later, and there may have been further events between 0.1-1 days when we had no radio coverage. The source subsequently returned to a quiescent level of 2-3 mJy on a timescale of about 4 days. Although radio emission is known to be associated with active stars, this is the first detection of large radio flares associated with a gamma ray superflare, and demonstrates both feasibility and scientific importance of rapid response modes on radio telescopes.
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    ABSTRACT: AX J1745.6-2901 is a high-inclination (eclipsing) neutron star Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) located less than ~1.5 arcmin from Sgr A*. Ongoing monitoring campaigns have targeted Sgr A* frequently and these observations also cover AX J1745.6-2901. We present here an X-ray analysis of AX J1745.6-2901 using a large dataset of 38 XMM-Newton observations, including eleven which caught AX J1745.6-2901 in outburst. Fe K absorption is clearly seen when AX J1745.6-2901 is in the soft state, but disappears during the hard state. The variability of these absorption features does not appear to be due to changes in the ionizing continuum. The small Kalpha/Kbeta ratio of the equivalent widths of the Fe xxv and Fe xxvi lines suggests that the column densities and turbulent velocities of the absorbing ionised plasma are in excess of N_H ~ 10^23 cm^-2 and v_turb >~ 500 km s^-1. These findings strongly support a connection between the wind (Fe K absorber) and the accretion state of the binary. These results reveal strong similarities between AX J1745.6-2901 and the eclipsing neutron star LMXB, EXO 0748-676, as well as with high-inclination black hole binaries, where winds (traced by the same Fe K absorption features) are observed only during the accretion-disc-dominated soft states, and disappear during the hard states characterised by jet emission.
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    ABSTRACT: The binary millisecond radio pulsar PSR J1023+0038 has been recently the subject of multiwavelength monitoring campaigns which revealed that an accretion disc has formed around the neutron star (since 2013 June). We present here the results of X-ray and UV observations carried out by the Swift satellite between 2013 October and 2014 May, and of optical and NIR observations performed with the REM telescope, the Liverpool Telescope, the 2.1-m telescope at the San Pedro M\'artir Observatory and the 1.52-m telescope at the Loiano observing station. The X-ray spectrum is well described by an absorbed power law, which is softer than the previous quiescent epoch (up to 2013 June). The strong correlation between the X-ray and the UV emissions indicates that the same mechanism should be responsible for part of the emission in these bands. Optical and infrared photometric observations show that the companion star is strongly irradiated. Double-peaked emission lines in the optical spectra provide compelling evidence for the presence of an outer accretion disc too. The spectral energy distribution from IR to X-rays is well modelled if the contributions from the companion, the disc and the intra-binary shock emission are all considered. Our extensive data set can be interpreted in terms of an engulfed radio pulsar: the radio pulsar is still active, but undetectable in the radio band due to a large amount of ionized material surrounding the compact object. X-rays and gamma-rays are produced in an intra-binary shock front between the relativistic pulsar wind and matter from the companion and an outer accretion disc. The intense spin-down power irradiates the disc and the companion star, accounting for the UV and optical emissions.
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] We report on deep, coordinated radio and X-ray observations of the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1118+480 in quiescence. The source was observed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array for a total of 17.5 hrs at 5.3 GHz, yielding a 4.8 \pm 1.4 microJy radio source at a position consistent with the binary system. At a distance of 1.7 kpc, this corresponds to an integrated radio luminosity between 4-8E+25 erg/s, depending on the spectral index. This is the lowest radio luminosity measured for any accreting black hole to date. Simultaneous observations with the Chandra X-ray Telescope detected XTE J1118+480 at 1.2E-14 erg/s/cm^2 (1-10 keV), corresponding to an Eddington ratio of ~4E-9 for a 7.5 solar mass black hole. Combining these new measurements with data from the 2005 and 2000 outbursts available in the literature, we find evidence for a relationship of the form ellr=alpha+beta*ellx (where ell denotes logarithmic luminosities), with beta=0.72\pm0.09. XTE J1118+480 is thus the third system, together with GX339-4 and V404 Cyg, for which a tight, non-linear radio/X-ray correlation has been reported over more than 5 dex in ellx. We then perform a clustering and linear regression analysis on what is arguably the most up-to-date collection of coordinated radio and X-ray luminosity measurements from quiescent and hard state black hole X-ray binaries, including 24 systems. At variance with previous results, a two-cluster description is statistically preferred only for random errors <=0.3 dex in both ellr and ellx, a level which we argue can be easily reached when the known spectral shape/distance uncertainties and intrinsic variability are accounted for. A linear regression analysis performed on the whole data set returns a best-fitting slope beta=0.61\pm0.03 and intrinsic scatter sigma_0=0.31\pm 0.03 dex.
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    G. Ponti, T. Muñoz-Darias, R. P. Fender
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    ABSTRACT: High resolution X-ray spectra of accreting stellar mass Black Holes reveal the presence of accretion disc winds, traced by high ionisation Fe K lines. These winds appear to have an equatorial geometry and to be observed only during disc dominated states in which the radio jet is absent. Accreting neutron star systems also show equatorial high ionisation absorbers. However, the presence of any correlation with the accretion state has not been previously tested. We have studied EXO 0748-676, a transient neutron star system, for which we can reliably determine the accretion state, in order to investigate the Fe K absorption/accretion state/jet connection. Not one of twenty X-ray spectra obtained in the hard state revealed any significant Fe K absorption line. However, intense Fe ${\scriptsize{\rm XXV}}$ and Fe ${\scriptsize{\rm XXVI}}$ (as well as a rarely observed Fe ${\scriptsize{\rm XXIII}}$ line plus S ${\scriptsize{\rm XVI}}$; a blend of S ${\scriptsize{\rm XVI}}$ and Ar ${\scriptsize{\rm XVII}}$; Ca ${\scriptsize{\rm XX}}$ and Ca ${\scriptsize{\rm XIX}}$, possibly produced by the same high ionisation material) absorption lines ($EW_{\rm Fe~{XXIII-XXV}}=31\pm3$ eV, $EW_{\rm Fe~XXVI}=8\pm3$ eV) are clearly detected during the only soft state observation. This suggests that the connection between Fe K absorption and states (and anticorrelation between the presence of Fe K absorption and jets) is also valid for EXO 0748-676 and therefore it is not a unique property of black hole systems but a more general characteristic of accreting sources.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 444(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Rob Fender, Elena Gallo
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    ABSTRACT: In this book chapter, we will briefly review the current empirical understanding of the relation between accretion state and and outflows in accreting stellar mass black holes. The focus will be on the empirical connections between X-ray states and relativistic (`radio') jets, although we are now also able to draw accretion disc winds into the picture in a systematic way. We will furthermore consider the latest attempts to measure/order jet power, and to compare it to other (potentially) measurable quantities, most importantly black hole spin.
    Space Science Reviews 07/2014; 183(1-4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have systematically studied a large sample of the neutron star low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) monitored by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (50 sources; 10000+ observations). We find that the hysteresis patterns between Compton dominated and thermal dominated states, typically observed in black hole LMXBs, are also common in neutron star systems. These patterns, which also sample intermediate states, are found when looking at the evolution of both X-ray colour and fast variability of ten systems accreting below ~ 30 % of the Eddington Luminosity. We show that hysteresis does not require large changes in luminosity and it is the natural form that state transitions take at these luminosities. At higher accretion rates neutron stars do not show hysteresis, and they remain in a thermal dominated, low variability state, characterized by flaring behaviour and fast colour changes. Only at luminosities close to the Eddington Luminosity, are high variability levels seen again, in correspondence to an increase in the fractional contribution of the Comptonization component. We compare this behaviour with that observed in LMXBs harbouring black holes, showing that the spectral, timing and multi-wavelength properties of a given source can be determined by its location in the fast variability-luminosity diagram, which, therefore, provides a common framework for neutron star and black hole accretion states.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 443(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to multiple supermassive black holes in some. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component is more distant at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence of a black hole with mass $\sim$10$^9$ M$_\odot$ (about 100 parsecs). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs. Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z=0.39, with the closest pair separated by $\sim$140 parsecs. The presence of the tight pair is imprinted onto the properties of the large-scale radio jets, as a rotationally-symmetric helical modulation, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments.
    Nature. 06/2014; 511(7507).
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the dynamics behind black hole state transitions and the changes they reflect in outbursts has become long-standing problem. The X-ray reflection spectrum describes the interaction between the hard X-ray source (the power-law continuum) and the cool accretion disc it illuminates, and thus permits an indirect view of how the two evolve. We present a systematic analysis of the reflection spectrum throughout three outbursts (500+ observations) of the black hole binary GX 339-4, representing the largest study applying a self-consistent treatment of reflection to date. Particular attention is payed to the coincident evolution of the power-law and reflection, which can be used to determine the accretion geometry. The hard state is found to be distinctly reflection weak, however the ratio of reflection to power-law gradually increases as the source luminosity rises. In contrast the reflection is found dominate the power-law throughout most of the soft state, with increasing supremacy as the source decays. We discuss potential dynamics driving this, favouring inner disc truncation and decreasing coronal height for the hard and soft states respectively. Evolution of the ionisation parameter, power-law slope and high-energy cut-off also agree with this interpretation.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 442(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Swift J1357.2-0933 is the first confirmed very faint black hole X-ray transient and has a short orbital period of 2.8 hr. We observed Swift J1357.2-0933 for ~50 ks with XMM-Newton in 2013 July during its quiescent state. The source is clearly detected at a 0.5-10 keV flux of ~3x10^-15 erg cm-2 s-1. If the source is located at a distance of 1.5 kpc (as suggested in the literature), this would imply a luminosity of ~8x10^29 erg s-1, making it the faintest detected quiescent black hole LMXB. This would also imply that there is no indication of a reversal in the quiescence X-ray luminosity versus orbital period diagram down to 2.8 hr, as has been predicted theoretically and recently supported by the detection of the 2.4 hr orbital period black hole MAXI J1659-152 at a 0.5-10 keV X-ray luminosity of ~ 1.2 x 10^31 erg s-1. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the distance of Swift J1357.2-0933 and it may be as distant as 6 kpc. In this case, its quiescent luminosity would be Lx ~ 1.3 x 10^31 erg s-1, i.e., similar to MAXI J1659-152 and hence it would support the existence of such a bifurcation period. We also detected the source in optical at r' ~22.3 mag with the Liverpool telescope, simultaneously to our X-ray observation. The X-ray/optical luminosity ratio of Swift J1357.2-0933 agrees with the expected value for a black hole at this range of quiescent X-ray luminosities.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 444(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GRB 130427A was extremely bright due to a combination of its low redshift and energetics typical of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). As a result, we were able to obtain high-quality light curves across the electromagnetic spectrum, providing an excellent opportunity for detailed broadband modeling. We observed GRB 130427A with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and collected well-sampled light curves at 1.4 and 4.8 GHz. Our observations with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network provide the best localization of this GRB, with a position uncertainty of 0.6 milliarcseconds. Our flux density measurements are combined with all the data available in the literature at radio, optical and X-ray frequencies to perform broadband modeling. We show that the reverse-forward shock model that has been suggested to explain the GRB 130427A observations does not give a good fit to all the light curve features once the entire broadband data set is modeled. We suggest a two-component jet model as an alternative, providing a better description of the data, and we discuss the implications and limitations of both models. The low density inferred from the modeling implies that the GRB 130427A progenitor is either a very low-metallicity Wolf-Rayet star, or a rapidly rotating, low-metallicity O star. In terms of the shock microphysics, we find that the fraction of the energy in electrons is evolving in time, and that the fraction of electrons participating in a relativistic power-law energy distribution is less than 15%. We observed intraday variability during the earliest WSRT observations, and the source sizes inferred from our modeling are consistent with this variability being due to interstellar scintillation effects. Finally, we present and discuss our limits on the linear and circular polarization, which are among the deepest limits of GRB radio polarization to date.
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    ABSTRACT: We present one of the best sampled early time light curves of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) at radio wavelengths. Using the Arcminute Mircrokelvin Imager (AMI) we observed GRB 130427A at the central frequency of 15.7 GHz between 0.36 and 59.32 days post-burst. These results yield one of the earliest radio detections of a GRB and demonstrate a clear rise in flux less than one day after the gamma-ray trigger followed by a rapid decline. This early time radio emission probably originates in the GRB reverse shock so our AMI light curve reveals the first ever confirmed detection of a reverse shock peak in the radio domain. At later times (about 3.2 days post-burst) the rate of decline decreases, indicating that the forward shock component has begun to dominate the light-curve. Comparisons of the AMI light curve with modelling conducted by Perley et al. show that the most likely explanation of the early time 15.7 GHz peak is caused by the self-absorption turn-over frequency, rather than the peak frequency, of the reverse shock moving through the observing bands.
    03/2014; 440(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, Diaz Trigo et al. reported an XMM-Newton detection of relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines associated with steep-spectrum radio emission in the stellar-mass black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its 2012 outburst. They interpreted these lines as indicative of a baryonic jet launched by the accretion disk. Here we present a search for the same lines earlier in the same outburst using high-resolution X-ray spectra from the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. While our observations (eight months prior to the XMM-Newton campaign) also coincide with detections of steep spectrum radio emission by the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we find no evidence for any relativistic X-ray emission lines. Indeed, despite $\sim5\times$ brighter radio emission, our Chandra spectra allow us to place an upper limit on the flux in the blueshifted Fe XXVI line that is $\gtrsim20\times$ weaker than the line observed by Diaz Trigo et al. We explore several scenarios that could explain our differing results, including variations in the geometry of the jet or a mass-loading process or jet baryon content that evolves with the accretion state of the black hole. We also consider the possibility that the radio emission arises in an interaction between a jet and the nearby ISM, in which case the X-ray emission lines might be unrelated to the radio emission.
    02/2014; 784(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Transitions to high mass accretion rates in black hole X-ray binaries are associated with the ejection of powerful, relativistically-moving jets. The mechanism powering such events is thought to be linked to tapping of the angular momentum (spin) of the black hole, the rate of accretion through the disc or some combination of the two. We can attempt to discriminate between these possibilities by comparing proxies for jet power with spin estimates. Due to the small number of sources reaching Eddington rates and have therefore been suggested to act as 'standard candles', there has been much recent debate as to whether a significant correlation exists between jet power and spin. We perform continuum fitting to the high-quality, disc-dominated XMM-Newton spectra of the extragalactic microquasar discovered in M31. Assuming prograde spin, we find that, for sensible constraints the spin is always very low (a < 0.15 at 3-sigma). When combined with a proxy for jet power derived from the maximum 5 GHz radio luminosity during a bright flaring event, we find that the source sits well above the previously reported, rising correlation that would indicate that spin tapping is the dominant mechanism for powering the jets. The notable exceptions require the inclination to be improbably small or the jet to be very fast. We investigate whether this could be a by-product of selecting prograde-only spin, finding that the data statistically favour a substantially retrograde spin for the same constraints (a < -0.17 at 3-sigma). Although theoretically improbable, this remarkable finding could be confirmation that retrograde spin can power such jets via spin-tapping, as has been suggested for certain radio quasars. In either case this work demonstrates the value of studying local extragalactic microquasars as a means to better understand the physics of jet launching.
    01/2014; 439(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Because supernova remnants are short lived, studies of neutron star X-ray binaries within supernova remnants probe the earliest stages in the life of accreting neutron stars. However, such objects are exceedingly rare: none were known to exist in our Galaxy. We report the discovery of the natal supernova remnant of the accreting neutron star Circinus X-1, which places an upper limit of t < 4, 600 years on its age, making it the youngest known X-ray binary and a unique tool to study accretion, neutron star evolution, and core collapse supernovae. This discovery is based on a deep 2009 Chandra X-ray observation and new radio observations of Circinus X-1. Circinus X-1 produces type I X-ray bursts on the surface of the neutron star, indicating that the magnetic field of the neutron star is small. Thus, the young age implies either that neutron stars can be born with low magnetic fields or that they can rapidly become de-magnetized by accretion. Circinus X-1 is a microquasar, creating relativistic jets which were thought to power the arcminute scale radio nebula surrounding the source. Instead, this nebula can now be attributed to non-thermal synchrotron emission from the forward shock of the supernova remnant. The young age is consistent with the observed rapid orbital evolution and the highly eccentric orbit of the system and offers the chance to test the physics of post-supernova orbital evolution in X-ray binaries in detail for the first time.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 779(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Swift J1745-26 is an X-ray binary towards the Galactic Centre that was detected when it went into outburst in September 2012. This source is thought to be one of a growing number of sources that display "failed outbursts", in which the self-absorbed radio jets of the transient source are never fully quenched and the thermal emission from the geometrically-thin inner accretion disk never fully dominates the X-ray flux. We present multi-frequency data from the VLA, ATCA, and KAT-7 radio arrays, spanning the entire period of the outburst. Our rich data set exposes radio emission that displays a high level of large scale variability compared to the X-ray emission and deviations from the standard radio--X-ray correlation that are indicative of an unstable jet and confirm the outburst's transition from the canonical hard state to an intermediate state. We also observe steepening of the spectral index and an increase of the linear polarization to a large fraction (~50%) of the total flux, as well as a rotation of the electric vector position angle. These are consistent with a transformation from a self-absorbed compact jet to optically-thin ejecta -- the first time such a discrete ejection has been observed in a failed outburst -- and may imply a complex magnetic field geometry.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2013; 437(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nature of accretion onto stellar mass black holes in the low/hard state remains unresolved, with some evidence suggesting that the inner accretion disc is truncated and replaced by a hot flow. However the detection of relativistic broadened iron emission lines, even at relatively low luminosities, seems to require an accretion disc extending fully to its innermost stable circular orbit. Modelling such features is however highly susceptible to degeneracies, which could easily bias any interpretation. We present the first systematic study of the iron line region to track how the inner accretion disc evolves in the low/hard state of the black hole GX 339-4. Our four observations display increased broadening of the iron line over two magnitudes in luminosity, which we use to track any variation of the disc inner radius. We find that the disc extends closer to the black hole at higher luminosities, but is consistent with being truncated throughout the entire low/hard state, a result which renders black hole spin estimates inaccurate at these stages of the outburst. Furthermore we show that the evolution of our spectral inner disc radius estimates corresponds very closely to the trend of the break frequency in Fourier power spectra, supporting the interpretation of a truncated and evolving disc in the hard state.
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    ABSTRACT: MAXI J1659-152 was discovered on 2010 September 25 as a new X-ray transient, initially identified as a gamma-ray burst, but was later shown to be a new X-ray binary with a black hole as the most likely compact object. Dips in the X-ray light curves have revealed that MAXI J1659-152 is the shortest period black hole candidate identified to date. Here we present the results of a large observing campaign at radio, sub-millimeter, near-infrared (nIR), optical and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. We have combined this very rich data set with the available X-ray observations to compile a broadband picture of the evolution of this outburst. We have performed broadband spectral modeling, demonstrating the presence of a spectral break at radio frequencies and a relationship between the radio spectrum and X-ray states. Also, we have determined physical parameters of the accretion disk and put them into context with respect to the other parameters of the binary system. Finally, we have investigated the radio-X-ray and nIR/optical/UV-X-ray correlations up to ~3 years after the outburst onset to examine the link between the jet and the accretion disk, and found that there is no significant jet contribution to the nIR emission when the source is in the soft or intermediate X-ray spectral state, consistent with our detection of the jet break at radio frequencies during these states.
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    ABSTRACT: This White Paper, submitted to the recent ESA call for science themes to define its future large missions, advocates the need for a transformational leap in our understanding of two key questions in astrophysics: 1) How does ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures that we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe? Hot gas in clusters, groups and the intergalactic medium dominates the baryonic content of the local Universe. To understand the astrophysical processes responsible for the formation and assembly of these large structures, it is necessary to measure their physical properties and evolution. This requires spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy with a factor 10 increase in both telescope throughput and spatial resolving power compared to currently planned facilities. Feedback from supermassive black holes is an essential ingredient in this process and in most galaxy evolution models, but it is not well understood. X-ray observations can uniquely reveal the mechanisms launching winds close to black holes and determine the coupling of the energy and matter flows on larger scales. Due to the effects of feedback, a complete understanding of galaxy evolution requires knowledge of the obscured growth of supermassive black holes through cosmic time, out to the redshifts where the first galaxies form. X-ray emission is the most reliable way to reveal accreting black holes, but deep survey speed must improve by a factor ~100 over current facilities to perform a full census into the early Universe. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (Athena+) mission provides the necessary performance (e.g. angular resolution, spectral resolution, survey grasp) to address these questions and revolutionize our understanding of the Hot and Energetic Universe. These capabilities will also provide a powerful observatory to be used in all areas of astrophysics.
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the importance and potential contribution of Athena+ to the science questions related to gamma-ray bursts, tidal disruption events and supernova shock break-out. Athena+ will allow breakthrough observations involving high-resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations of high-z gamma-ray bursts, observations of tidal disruption events tailored to determine the mass and potentially the spin of the black hole responsible for the tidal disruption and observations of X-rays from the supernova shock breakout providing a measure of the radius of the exploding star or of the companion in the case of type Ia supernovae. We briefly discuss survey facilities that will provide triggers to these events envisaged to be operational around 2028.

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,444.15 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2014
    • University of Southampton
      • • Physics and Astronomy
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998–2012
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Rice University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Physics: Cavendish Laboratory
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • Columbia University
      • Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2004–2008
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2006
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Astronomical Institute of Romanian Academy
      Klausenburg, Cluj, Romania
    • University of New Hampshire
      Durham, New Hampshire, United States
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2000–2004
    • IMSA Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Alabama in Huntsville
      Huntsville, Alabama, United States
    • Universities Space Research Association
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Physics
      Princeton, NJ, United States
  • 2002
    • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
      Fontenay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2001
    • Utrecht University
      • Astronomical Institute
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1996–1997
    • University of Sussex
      • Astronomy Centre
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • The University of Manchester
      • Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom