R. P. Fender

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (436)1565.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.
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    ABSTRACT: Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.
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    ABSTRACT: The universal link between the processes of accretion and ejection leads to the formation of jets and outflows around accreting compact objects. Incoherent synchrotron emission from these outflows can be observed from a wide range of accreting binaries, including black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs. Monitoring the evolution of the radio emission during their sporadic outbursts provides important insights into the launching of jets, and, when coupled with the behaviour of the source at shorter wavelengths, probes the underlying connection with the accretion process. Radio observations can also probe the impact of jets/outflows (including other explosive events such as magnetar giant flares) on the ambient medium, quantifying their kinetic feedback. The high sensitivity of the SKA will open up new parameter space, enabling the monitoring of accreting stellar-mass compact objects from their bright, Eddington-limited outburst states down to the lowest-luminosity quiescent levels, whose intrinsic faintness has to date precluded detailed studies. A census of quiescently accreting black holes will also constrain binary evolution processes. By enabling us to extend our existing investigations of black hole jets to the fainter jets from neutron star and white dwarf systems, the SKA will permit comparative studies to determine the role of the compact object in jet formation. The high sensitivity, wide field of view and multi-beaming capability of the SKA will enable the detection and monitoring of all bright flaring transients in the observable local Universe, including the ULXs, ... [Abridged] This chapter reviews the science goals outlined above, demonstrating the progress that will be made by the SKA. We also discuss the potential of the astrometric and imaging observations that would be possible should a significant VLBI component be included in the SKA.
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsive radio bursts that are detectable across cosmological distances constitute extremely powerful probes of the ionized Inter-Galactic Medium (IGM), intergalactic magnetic fields, and the properties of space-time itself. Their dispersion measures (DMs) will enable us to detect the "missing" baryons in the low-redshift Universe and make the first measurements of the mean galaxy halo profile, a key parameter in models of galaxy formation and feedback. Impulsive bursts can be used as cosmic rulers at redshifts exceeding 2, and constrain the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, $w(z)$ at redshifts beyond those readily accessible by Type Ia SNe. Both of these goals are realisable with a sample of $\sim 10^4$ fast radio bursts (FRBs) whose positions are localized to within one arcsecond, sufficient to obtain host galaxy redshifts via optical follow-up. It is also hypothesised that gravitational wave events may emit coherent emission at frequencies probed by SKA1-LOW, and the localization of such events at cosmological distances would enable their use as cosmological standard sirens. To perform this science, such bursts must be localized to their specific host galaxies so that their redshifts may be obtained and compared against their dispersion measures, rotation measures, and scattering properties. The SKA can achieve this with a design that has a wide field-of-view, a substantial fraction of its collecting area in a compact configuration (80\% within a 3\,km radius), and a capacity to attach high-time-resolution instrumentation to its signal path.
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    ABSTRACT: We provide an overview of the science benefits of combining information from the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We first summarise the capabilities and timeline of the LSST and overview its science goals. We then discuss the science questions in common between the two projects, and how they can be best addressed by combining the data from both telescopes. We describe how weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering studies with LSST and SKA can provide improved constraints on the causes of the cosmological acceleration. We summarise the benefits to galaxy evolution studies of combining deep optical multi-band imaging with radio observations. Finally, we discuss the excellent match between one of the most unique features of the LSST, its temporal cadence in the optical waveband, and the time resolution of the SKA.
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    ABSTRACT: The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has greatly expanded the number and energy window of observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, the coarse localizations of tens to a hundred square degrees provided by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) instrument have posed a formidable obstacle to locating the bursts' host galaxies, measuring their redshifts, and tracking their panchromatic afterglows. We have built a target of opportunity mode for the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) in order to perform targeted searches for Fermi afterglows. Here, we present the results of one year of this program: eight afterglow discoveries, two of which (GRBs 130702A and 140606B) were at low redshift (z=0.145 and 0.384 respectively) and had spectroscopically confirmed broad-line type Ic supernovae. We present our broadband follow-up including spectroscopy as well as X-ray, UV, optical, millimeter, and radio observations. We study possible selection effects in the context of the total Fermi and Swift GRB samples. We identify one new outlier on the Amati relation. We find that two bursts are consistent with a mildly relativistic shock breaking out from the progenitor star, rather than the ultra-relativistic internal shock mechanism that powers standard cosmological bursts. Finally, in the context of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), we discuss how we will continue to expand this effort to find optical counterparts of binary neutron star mergers that may soon be detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the results of a search for radio transients between 115 and 190\,MHz with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR). Four different fields have been monitored with observational cadences between 15 minutes and several months. These fields have been chosen among the Medium Deep fields observed by the optical survey PanSTARRS. A total of 15 observing runs were performed giving a total survey area of 2275 deg$^2$. We analysed our data using standard LOFAR tools and searched for radio transients using the LOFAR Transient Pipeline (TraP). No credible radio transient candidate has been detected in our survey; however, it enables us to set upper limits on the surface density of radio transient sources at low radio frequencies, where little is yet known compared to frequencies above 1 GHz. To do this we used two new statistical methods. One is free of assumptions on the flux distribution of the sources, while the other assumes a power-law distribution in flux and sets more stringent constraints on the snapshot surface density. Our upper limit on the snapshot surface density of radio transients is $\rho <$ 10$^{-3}$ deg$^{-2}$ with flux densities $>$ 0.5 Jy. The corresponding radio transient rate is $\hat{\rho} <$ 0.3 deg$^{-2}$ yr$^{-1}$. We also analysed the snapshot surface density as a function of the time separation between different observations, providing insight into how this changes for different radio transient time-scales.
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    D. S. Plant, K. O'Brien, R. P. Fender
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from three recent XMM-Newton observations of GX 339$-$4 in the low/hard state, taken during the decay of a bright (peak $\sim 0.05$ L$_{\rm Edd}$) failed outburst. Uniquely, these are the first XMM-Newton EPIC-pn observations of this source using an imaging mode, which significantly enhances the quality of the data at hand. In particular, thanks to the larger available bandpass, this allows an unprecedented constraint of the thermal accretion disc component, and the level of photoelectric absorption. We simultaneously measured the inner radius of the accretion disc via the broadened Fe K$\alpha$ line and the disc component. The two methods agree, and the measured radii show good consistency over the three epochs. We find that the inner radius is at 20-30 $r_{\rm g}$, adding to the growing direct evidence for truncation of the inner accretion disc in the low/hard state.
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    M. Pietka, R. P. Fender, E. F. Keane
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we compile the analysis of ~ 200 synchrotron flare events from ~ 90 distinct objects/events for which the distance is well established, and hence the peak luminosity can be accurately estimated. For each event we measure this peak and compare it to the rise and decay timescales, as fit by exponential functions, which allows us in turn to estimate a minimum brightness temperature for all the events. The astrophysical objects from which the flares originate vary from flare stars to supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei, and include both repeating phenomena and single cataclysmic events (such as supernovae and gamma ray burst afterglows). The measured timescales vary from minutes to longer than years, and the peak radio luminosities range over 22 orders of magnitude. Despite very different underlying phenomena, including relativistic and non-relativistic regimes, and highly collimated versus isotropic phenomena, we find a broad correlation between peak radio luminosity and rise/decay timescales, approximately of the form L ~ t^5. This rather unexpectedly demonstrates that the estimated minimum brightness temperature, when based upon variability timescales, and with no attempt to correct for relativistic boosting, is a strongly rising function of source luminosity. It furthermore demonstrates that variability timescales could be used as an early diagnostic of source class in future radio transient surveys. As an illustration of radio transients parameter space, we compare the synchrotron events with coherent bursts at higher brightness temperatures to illustrate which regions of radio transient parameter space have been explored.
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    ABSTRACT: On 2014 April 23, the Swift satellite detected a gamma-ray superflare from the nearby star system DG CVn. This system comprises a M-dwarf binary with extreme properties: it is very young and at least one of the components is a very rapid rotator. The gamma-ray superflare is one of only a handful detected by Swift in a decade. As part of our AMI-LA Rapid Response Mode, ALARRM, we automatically slewed to this target, were taking data at 15 GHz within six minutes of the burst, and detected a bright (~100 mJy) radio flare. This is the earliest detection of bright, prompt, radio emission from a high energy transient ever made with a radio telescope, and is possibly the most luminous incoherent radio flare ever observed from a red dwarf star. An additional bright radio flare, peaking at around 90 mJy, occurred around one day later, and there may have been further events between 0.1-1 days when we had no radio coverage. The source subsequently returned to a quiescent level of 2-3 mJy on a timescale of about 4 days. Although radio emission is known to be associated with active stars, this is the first detection of large radio flares associated with a gamma ray superflare, and demonstrates both feasibility and scientific importance of rapid response modes on radio telescopes.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 10/2014; 446(1). DOI:10.1093/mnrasl/slu165 · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AX J1745.6-2901 is a high-inclination (eclipsing) neutron star Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) located less than ~1.5 arcmin from Sgr A*. Ongoing monitoring campaigns have targeted Sgr A* frequently and these observations also cover AX J1745.6-2901. We present here an X-ray analysis of AX J1745.6-2901 using a large dataset of 38 XMM-Newton observations, including eleven which caught AX J1745.6-2901 in outburst. Fe K absorption is clearly seen when AX J1745.6-2901 is in the soft state, but disappears during the hard state. The variability of these absorption features does not appear to be due to changes in the ionizing continuum. The small Kalpha/Kbeta ratio of the equivalent widths of the Fe xxv and Fe xxvi lines suggests that the column densities and turbulent velocities of the absorbing ionised plasma are in excess of N_H ~ 10^23 cm^-2 and v_turb >~ 500 km s^-1. These findings strongly support a connection between the wind (Fe K absorber) and the accretion state of the binary. These results reveal strong similarities between AX J1745.6-2901 and the eclipsing neutron star LMXB, EXO 0748-676, as well as with high-inclination black hole binaries, where winds (traced by the same Fe K absorption features) are observed only during the accretion-disc-dominated soft states, and disappear during the hard states characterised by jet emission.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2014; 446(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1853 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The binary millisecond radio pulsar PSR J1023+0038 has been recently the subject of multiwavelength monitoring campaigns which revealed that an accretion disc has formed around the neutron star (since 2013 June). We present here the results of X-ray and UV observations carried out by the Swift satellite between 2013 October and 2014 May, and of optical and NIR observations performed with the REM telescope, the Liverpool Telescope, the 2.1-m telescope at the San Pedro M\'artir Observatory and the 1.52-m telescope at the Loiano observing station. The X-ray spectrum is well described by an absorbed power law, which is softer than the previous quiescent epoch (up to 2013 June). The strong correlation between the X-ray and the UV emissions indicates that the same mechanism should be responsible for part of the emission in these bands. Optical and infrared photometric observations show that the companion star is strongly irradiated. Double-peaked emission lines in the optical spectra provide compelling evidence for the presence of an outer accretion disc too. The spectral energy distribution from IR to X-rays is well modelled if the contributions from the companion, the disc and the intra-binary shock emission are all considered. Our extensive data set can be interpreted in terms of an engulfed radio pulsar: the radio pulsar is still active, but undetectable in the radio band due to a large amount of ionized material surrounding the compact object. X-rays and gamma-rays are produced in an intra-binary shock front between the relativistic pulsar wind and matter from the companion and an outer accretion disc. The intense spin-down power irradiates the disc and the companion star, accounting for the UV and optical emissions.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2014; 444(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1552 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] We report on deep, coordinated radio and X-ray observations of the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1118+480 in quiescence. The source was observed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array for a total of 17.5 hrs at 5.3 GHz, yielding a 4.8 \pm 1.4 microJy radio source at a position consistent with the binary system. At a distance of 1.7 kpc, this corresponds to an integrated radio luminosity between 4-8E+25 erg/s, depending on the spectral index. This is the lowest radio luminosity measured for any accreting black hole to date. Simultaneous observations with the Chandra X-ray Telescope detected XTE J1118+480 at 1.2E-14 erg/s/cm^2 (1-10 keV), corresponding to an Eddington ratio of ~4E-9 for a 7.5 solar mass black hole. Combining these new measurements with data from the 2005 and 2000 outbursts available in the literature, we find evidence for a relationship of the form ellr=alpha+beta*ellx (where ell denotes logarithmic luminosities), with beta=0.72\pm0.09. XTE J1118+480 is thus the third system, together with GX339-4 and V404 Cyg, for which a tight, non-linear radio/X-ray correlation has been reported over more than 5 dex in ellx. We then perform a clustering and linear regression analysis on what is arguably the most up-to-date collection of coordinated radio and X-ray luminosity measurements from quiescent and hard state black hole X-ray binaries, including 24 systems. At variance with previous results, a two-cluster description is statistically preferred only for random errors <=0.3 dex in both ellr and ellx, a level which we argue can be easily reached when the known spectral shape/distance uncertainties and intrinsic variability are accounted for. A linear regression analysis performed on the whole data set returns a best-fitting slope beta=0.61\pm0.03 and intrinsic scatter sigma_0=0.31\pm 0.03 dex.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2014; 445(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1599 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    Rob Fender, Elena Gallo
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    ABSTRACT: In this book chapter, we will briefly review the current empirical understanding of the relation between accretion state and and outflows in accreting stellar mass black holes. The focus will be on the empirical connections between X-ray states and relativistic (`radio') jets, although we are now also able to draw accretion disc winds into the picture in a systematic way. We will furthermore consider the latest attempts to measure/order jet power, and to compare it to other (potentially) measurable quantities, most importantly black hole spin.
    Space Science Reviews 07/2014; 183(1-4). DOI:10.1007/s11214-014-0069-z · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have systematically studied a large sample of the neutron star low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) monitored by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (50 sources; 10000+ observations). We find that the hysteresis patterns between Compton dominated and thermal dominated states, typically observed in black hole LMXBs, are also common in neutron star systems. These patterns, which also sample intermediate states, are found when looking at the evolution of both X-ray colour and fast variability of ten systems accreting below ~ 30 % of the Eddington Luminosity. We show that hysteresis does not require large changes in luminosity and it is the natural form that state transitions take at these luminosities. At higher accretion rates neutron stars do not show hysteresis, and they remain in a thermal dominated, low variability state, characterized by flaring behaviour and fast colour changes. Only at luminosities close to the Eddington Luminosity, are high variability levels seen again, in correspondence to an increase in the fractional contribution of the Comptonization component. We compare this behaviour with that observed in LMXBs harbouring black holes, showing that the spectral, timing and multi-wavelength properties of a given source can be determined by its location in the fast variability-luminosity diagram, which, therefore, provides a common framework for neutron star and black hole accretion states.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 443(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1334 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to multiple supermassive black holes in some. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component is more distant at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence of a black hole with mass $\sim$10$^9$ M$_\odot$ (about 100 parsecs). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs. Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z=0.39, with the closest pair separated by $\sim$140 parsecs. The presence of the tight pair is imprinted onto the properties of the large-scale radio jets, as a rotationally-symmetric helical modulation, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments.
    Nature 06/2014; 511(7507). DOI:10.1038/nature13454 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the dynamics behind black hole state transitions and the changes they reflect in outbursts has become long-standing problem. The X-ray reflection spectrum describes the interaction between the hard X-ray source (the power-law continuum) and the cool accretion disc it illuminates, and thus permits an indirect view of how the two evolve. We present a systematic analysis of the reflection spectrum throughout three outbursts (500+ observations) of the black hole binary GX 339-4, representing the largest study applying a self-consistent treatment of reflection to date. Particular attention is payed to the coincident evolution of the power-law and reflection, which can be used to determine the accretion geometry. The hard state is found to be distinctly reflection weak, however the ratio of reflection to power-law gradually increases as the source luminosity rises. In contrast the reflection is found dominate the power-law throughout most of the soft state, with increasing supremacy as the source decays. We discuss potential dynamics driving this, favouring inner disc truncation and decreasing coronal height for the hard and soft states respectively. Evolution of the ionisation parameter, power-law slope and high-energy cut-off also agree with this interpretation.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 442(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu867 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Swift J1357.2-0933 is the first confirmed very faint black hole X-ray transient and has a short orbital period of 2.8 hr. We observed Swift J1357.2-0933 for ~50 ks with XMM-Newton in 2013 July during its quiescent state. The source is clearly detected at a 0.5-10 keV flux of ~3x10^-15 erg cm-2 s-1. If the source is located at a distance of 1.5 kpc (as suggested in the literature), this would imply a luminosity of ~8x10^29 erg s-1, making it the faintest detected quiescent black hole LMXB. This would also imply that there is no indication of a reversal in the quiescence X-ray luminosity versus orbital period diagram down to 2.8 hr, as has been predicted theoretically and recently supported by the detection of the 2.4 hr orbital period black hole MAXI J1659-152 at a 0.5-10 keV X-ray luminosity of ~ 1.2 x 10^31 erg s-1. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the distance of Swift J1357.2-0933 and it may be as distant as 6 kpc. In this case, its quiescent luminosity would be Lx ~ 1.3 x 10^31 erg s-1, i.e., similar to MAXI J1659-152 and hence it would support the existence of such a bifurcation period. We also detected the source in optical at r' ~22.3 mag with the Liverpool telescope, simultaneously to our X-ray observation. The X-ray/optical luminosity ratio of Swift J1357.2-0933 agrees with the expected value for a black hole at this range of quiescent X-ray luminosities.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 444(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1487 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GRB 130427A was extremely bright due to a combination of its low redshift and energetics typical of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). As a result, we were able to obtain high-quality light curves across the electromagnetic spectrum, providing an excellent opportunity for detailed broadband modeling. We observed GRB 130427A with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and collected well-sampled light curves at 1.4 and 4.8 GHz. Our observations with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network provide the best localization of this GRB, with a position uncertainty of 0.6 milliarcseconds. Our flux density measurements are combined with all the data available in the literature at radio, optical and X-ray frequencies to perform broadband modeling. We show that the reverse-forward shock model that has been suggested to explain the GRB 130427A observations does not give a good fit to all the light curve features once the entire broadband data set is modeled. We suggest a two-component jet model as an alternative, providing a better description of the data, and we discuss the implications and limitations of both models. The low density inferred from the modeling implies that the GRB 130427A progenitor is either a very low-metallicity Wolf-Rayet star, or a rapidly rotating, low-metallicity O star. In terms of the shock microphysics, we find that the fraction of the energy in electrons is evolving in time, and that the fraction of electrons participating in a relativistic power-law energy distribution is less than 15%. We observed intraday variability during the earliest WSRT observations, and the source sizes inferred from our modeling are consistent with this variability being due to interstellar scintillation effects. Finally, we present and discuss our limits on the linear and circular polarization, which are among the deepest limits of GRB radio polarization to date.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 444(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1664 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present one of the best sampled early time light curves of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) at radio wavelengths. Using the Arcminute Mircrokelvin Imager (AMI) we observed GRB 130427A at the central frequency of 15.7 GHz between 0.36 and 59.32 days post-burst. These results yield one of the earliest radio detections of a GRB and demonstrate a clear rise in flux less than one day after the gamma-ray trigger followed by a rapid decline. This early time radio emission probably originates in the GRB reverse shock so our AMI light curve reveals the first ever confirmed detection of a reverse shock peak in the radio domain. At later times (about 3.2 days post-burst) the rate of decline decreases, indicating that the forward shock component has begun to dominate the light-curve. Comparisons of the AMI light curve with modelling conducted by Perley et al. show that the most likely explanation of the early time 15.7 GHz peak is caused by the self-absorption turn-over frequency, rather than the peak frequency, of the reverse shock moving through the observing bands.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2014; 440(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu478 · 5.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,565.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014–2015
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2014
    • University of Southampton
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • University of Cape Town
      Kaapstad, Western Cape, South Africa
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998–2012
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Rice University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS)
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • University of New Hampshire
      Durham, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2000–2004
    • IMSA Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Alabama in Huntsville
      Huntsville, Alabama, United States
    • Universities Space Research Association
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2003
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Space Sciences Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Utrecht University
      • Astronomical Institute
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1996–2000
    • University of Sussex
      • Astronomy Centre
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • The University of Manchester
      • Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom