J S Davison

Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

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Publications (118)432.11 Total impact

  • Pancreatology 01/2012; 12(1):41-3. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cervical sympathetic nerves which innervate the medial basal hypothalamus-hypophyseal complex, primary and secondary lymph organs, and numerous glands, such as the pineal, thyroid, parathyroid and salivary glands form a relevant neuroimmunoendocrine structure that is involved in the regulation of systemic homeostasis. The superior cervical ganglia and the submandibular glands form a 'neuroendocrine axis' called the cervical sympathetic trunk submandibular gland (CST-SMG) axis. The identification of this axis usurps the traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures and reinforces the view that they are important sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors whose release is intimately controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and in particular the sympathetic branch. An end component of the CST-SMG axis is the synthesis, processing and release of submandibular rat-1 protein (SMR1), a prohormone, that generates several different peptides, one from near its N-terminus called sialorphin and another from its C-terminus called - submandibular gland peptide-T (SGP-T). SGP-T formed the template for tripeptide fragment (FEG) and its metabolically stable D-isomeric peptide feG, which are potent inhibitors of allergy and asthma (IgE-mediated allergic reactions) and several non-IgE-mediated inflammations. The translation from rat genetics and proteomics to humans has yielded structural and functional correlates that hopefully will lead to the development of new medications and therapeutic approaches for difficult to treat disorders. Although the CST-SMG axis has barely been explored in humans recognition of the importance of this axis could facilitate an understanding and improved management of periodontal disease, and other diseases with a more systemic and nervous system basis such as asthma, autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease and even Parkinson's disease.
    Progress in allergy 01/2012; 98:176-95.
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility is regulated in part by fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), including the endocannabinoid (EC) anandamide (AEA). The actions of FAEs are terminated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We investigated the actions of the novel FAAH inhibitor AM3506 on normal and enhanced GI motility. We examined the effect of AM3506 on electrically-evoked contractility in vitro and GI transit and colonic faecal output in vivo, in normal and FAAH-deficient mice treated with saline or LPS (100 µg·kg(-1), i.p.), in the presence and absence of cannabinoid (CB) receptor antagonists. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real time-PCR, EC levels by liquid chromatography-MS and FAAH activity by the conversion of [(3)H]-AEA to [(3)H]-ethanolamine in intestinal extracts. FAAH expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. FAAH was dominantly expressed in the enteric nervous system; its mRNA levels were higher in the ileum than the colon. LPS enhanced ileal contractility in the absence of overt inflammation. AM3506 reversed the enhanced electrically-evoked contractions of the ileum through CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. LPS increased the rate of upper GI transit and faecal output. AM3506 normalized the enhanced GI transit through CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and faecal output through CB(1) receptors. LPS did not increase GI transit in FAAH-deficient mice. Inhibiting FAAH normalizes various parameters of GI dysmotility in intestinal pathophysiology. Inhibition of FAAH represents a new approach to the treatment of disordered intestinal motility.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2011; 165(5):1556-71. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    Sara N Davison, Joseph S Davison
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic pain is a common and debilitating symptom experienced in the context of numerous other physical and emotional symptoms by many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Management of pain with opioids in CKD can be problematic given the prominence of adverse effects of opioids in CKD, which may exacerbate symptoms, such as nausea, anorexia, pruritus, and insomnia, all of which impact negatively on patients' health-related quality of life. Novel therapeutic approaches for pain and symptom management in CKD are required. Recent research in the area of cannabinoids (CBs) is legitimizing the use of cannabis-based medicine. In this review, we describe the symptom burden borne by patients with CKD and review some of the key basic science and clinical literature to evaluate the potential use of CBs for the management of overall symptom burden in CKD.
    Journal of pain and symptom management 04/2011; 41(4):768-78. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The limitations of steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have prompted investigation into other biologically based therapeutics, and identification of immune selective anti-inflammatory agents of salivary origin. The traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures is changing as their importance as sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors is recognized. Salivary gland involvement in maintenance of whole body homeostasis is regulated by the nervous system and thus constitutes a "neuroendocrine axis". The potent anti-inflammatory activities, both in vivo and in vitro, of the tripeptide Phe-Glu-Gly (FEG) are reviewed. FEG is a carboxyl terminal peptide of the prohormone SMR1 identified in the rat submandibular salivary gland, The D-isomeric form (feG) mimics the activity of its L-isomer FEG. Macropharmacologically, feG attenuates the cardiovascular and inflammatory effects of endotoxemia and anaphylaxis, by inhibition of hypotension, leukocyte migration, vascular leak, and disruption of pulmonary function and intestinal motility. Mechanistically, feG affects activated inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, by regulating integrins and inhibiting intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. Pharmacodynamically, feG is active at low doses (100 μg/kg) and has a long (9-12 hour) biological half life. As a therapeutic agent, feG shows promise in diseases characterized by over exuberant inflammatory responses such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome and other acute inflammatory diseases. Arthritis, sepsis, acute pancreatitis, asthma, acute respiratory inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, and equine laminitis are potential targets for this promising therapeutic peptide. The term "Immune Selective Anti-Inflammatory Derivatives" (ImSAIDs) is proposed for salivary-derived peptides to distinguish this class of agents from corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
    Journal of Inflammation 09/2010; 7:49. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marijuana has been used for thousands of years to affect human health. Dissecting the peripheral effects from the central psychotropic effects has revealed a complex interplay between cannabinoids, endocannabinoids and their receptors. This review examines recent advances in understanding the expression, regulation and utilization of the CB2 receptor. Here we highlight the molecular aspects of the CB2 receptor, CB2 receptor signaling and new ligands for this receptor. We focus in the rest of the review on recent findings in the immune system, the gastrointestinal tract and liver, the brain and the cardiovascular system and airways as examples of areas where new developments in our understanding of the CB2 receptor have occurred. Early studies focused on expression of this receptor under baseline physiologic conditions; however, perturbations such as those that occur during inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion injury and cancer are revealing a critical role for the CB2 receptor in regulating these disease processes amongst others. As a result, the CB2 receptor is an appealing therapeutic target as well as a useful tool for shedding new light on physiological regulatory processes throughout the body.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 04/2010; 17(14):1394-1410. · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that galantide ameliorates mild acute pancreatitis (AP), and the salivary tripeptide analogue, feG, ameliorates severe AP in mice. In this study, we compared the efficacy of combining galantide and feG with that of the individual agents in treating mild AP induced in mice with 7-hourly caerulein injections. Galantide was co-administered with each caerulein injection commencing with the first injection. feG was co-administered with the first injection of caerulein as a single intraperitoneal injection. Combination of the agents was also administered. Control animals received galantide, feG, or saline alone. Pancreata were harvested for histological examination and estimation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Plasma enzyme activities were measured. Galantide significantly reduced AP-induced hyperenzymemia by 41-49%. The combination of galantide and feG significantly reduced AP-induced hyperenzymemia by 39-40%, whereas feG alone was without effect. Plasma enzyme activity in the control groups was comparable with pre-treatment activity. Galantide, feG, and their combination significantly reduced MPO activity by 83, 44 and 74% respectively, and % abnormal acinar cells by 32, 29 and 36% respectively. This study demonstrates for the first time the beneficial effect of feG in mild caerulein-induced AP. Moreover the data indicate that the hyperenzymemia in mild caerulein-induced AP at 12h possibly reflect a larger secretory component as compared to enzyme release due to neutrophil-mediated acinar cell damage. The effects of the treatment with both peptides indicate a possible role for galantide in modulating neutrophil chemotaxis/activation and supports the hypothesis that galantide may influence neurogenic inflammation in AP.
    Peptides 03/2010; 31(6):1076-82. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marijuana has been used for thousands of years to affect human health. Dissecting the peripheral effects from the central psychotropic effects has revealed a complex interplay between cannabinoids, endocannabinoids and their receptors. This review examines recent advances in understanding the expression, regulation and utilization of the CB(2) receptor. Here we highlight the molecular aspects of the CB(2) receptor, CB(2) receptor signaling and new ligands for this receptor. We focus in the rest of the review on recent findings in the immune system, the gastrointestinal tract and liver, the brain and the cardiovascular system and airways as examples of areas where new developments in our understanding of the CB(2) receptor have occurred. Early studies focused on expression of this receptor under baseline physiologic conditions; however, perturbations such as those that occur during inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion injury and cancer are revealing a critical role for the CB(2) receptor in regulating these disease processes amongst others. As a result, the CB(2) receptor is an appealing therapeutic target as well as a useful tool for shedding new light on physiological regulatory processes throughout the body.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2010; 17(14):1393-410. · 3.72 Impact Factor
  • J. S. Davison, R. Mathison
    Autonomic Neuroscience 08/2009; 149(1):94-95. · 1.37 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2009; 136(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allergen-induced inflammation manifests as allergic asthma, dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, food aller-gies, and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Allergic reactions consist of an acute phase hypersensitivity reaction and late phase inflammation. Current therapeutic strategies consist of immunotherapy to induce tolerance to an allergen or pharma-cotherapy to treat either the acute phase reaction or the chronic inflammation associated with allergic disease. For bron-chial asthma, the allergic disease with the greatest worldwide burden, three medications (2-adrenoceptor agonists, gluco-corticoids and leukotriene antagonists) are the mainstays of therapy, which when used alone or in combination control asthma symptoms in many asthmatics. A recent anti-IgE therapy has benefited some difficult to manage patients, however a significant proportion of asthma patients do not respond well to currently available drugs. There is a need for new effec-tive lost-cost therapies for asthma and other allergic diseases to complement existing therapies and improve long-term outcomes. There are several potential therapeutic targets including transcription factors, cytokines, chemokines and their receptors, proteases, and cell adhesion molecules. Within the next generation of anti-allergy drugs one or more will pro-bably be a peptide or a peptide mimetic.
    Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents) 12/2008; 7(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Enhanced intestinal transit due to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is reversed by cannabinoid (CB)2 receptor agonists in vivo, but the site and mechanism of action are unknown. We have tested the hypothesis that CB2 receptors are expressed in the enteric nervous system and are activated in pathophysiological conditions. Tissues from either saline- or LPS-treated (2 h; 65 microg/kg ip) rats were processed for RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry or were mounted in organ baths where electrical field stimulation was applied in the presence or absence of CB receptor agonists. Whereas the CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 did not affect the electrically evoked twitch response of the ileum under basal conditions, in the LPS-treated tissues JWH133 was able to reduce the enhanced contractile response in a concentration-dependent manner. Rat ileum expressed CB2 receptor mRNA and protein under physiological conditions, and this expression was not affected by LPS treatment. In the myenteric plexus, CB2 receptors were expressed on the majority of neurons, although not on those expressing nitric oxide synthase. LPS did not alter the distribution of CB2 receptor expression in the myenteric plexus. In vivo LPS treatment significantly increased Fos expression in both enteric glia and neurons. This enhanced expression was significantly attenuated by JWH133, whose action was reversed by the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630. Taking these facts together, we conclude that activation of CB2 receptors in the enteric nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract dampens endotoxin-induced enhanced intestinal contractility.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 08/2008; 295(1):G78-G87. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The management of pancreatic pain is a significant clinical problem so understanding of how sensory signals are generated in pancreatic tissue is fundamental. We aimed to characterize mechanosensitive and chemosensitive properties of pancreatic spinal and vagal afferents in vitro. Spinal and vagal afferent preparations from Sprague-Dawley rats were established incorporating the left splanchnic nerve or vagus nerves respectively. The common bile duct was cannulated for distension of the pancreatic duct with fluid. Nerve discharge evoked by blunt probing, duct distension or electrical stimulation was obtained from teased nerve bundles using standard extra-cellular recording. Discharge from 197 spinal afferent bundles was recorded, of which 57% displayed spontaneous activity. Blunt probing revealed 61 mechanosensitive receptive fields which were associated primarily with arteries/blood vessels (33/61) and the parenchyma (22/61). All mechanosensitive responses were slowly adapting, with 33% continuing to discharge after termination of the stimulus and 60% displaying a response threshold <10 g. Application of chemical mediators (bradykinin, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, cholecystokinin octapeptide) evoked a response from 31/57 units, with 33% excitatory and 23% inhibitory. Spontaneous discharge was recorded from 72% of 135 vagal bundles. Mechanosensitive receptive fields were not identified in the pancreas but were evident in adjacent organs. No spinal or vagal afferent response to duct distension was obtained. In conclusion, pancreatic mechanosensitive spinal afferents are common, in contrast to pancreatic mechanosensitive vagal afferents indicating that pancreatic sensory innervation is predominantly spinal. Chemosensitive spinal afferent nerve endings are present in the pancreas and respond to a variety of inflammatory and physiological mediators.
    Neurogastroenterology and Motility 06/2008; 20(9):1060-9. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality; however, there is no specific treatment for this disease. A novel salivary tripeptide analog, feG, reduces inflammation in several different animal models of inflammation. The aims of this study were to determine whether feG reduced the severity of AP and modifies the expression of pancreatic ICAM-1 mRNA during AP in a mouse model. AP was induced in mice by hourly (x12) intraperitoneal injections of caerulein. A single dose of feG (100 microg/kg) was coadministered with caerulein either at time 0 h (prophylactic) or 3 h after AP induction (therapeutic). Plasma amylase and pancreatic MPO activities and pancreatic ICAM-1 mRNA expression (by RT-PCR) were measured. Pancreatic sections were histologically assessed for abnormal acinar cells and interstitial space. AP induction produced a sevenfold increase in plasma amylase, a tenfold increase in pancreatic MPO activity, and a threefold increase in interstitial space, and 90% of the acinar cells were abnormal. Prophylactic treatment with feG reduced the AP-induced plasma amylase activity by 45%, pancreatic MPO by 80%, the proportion of abnormal acinar cells by 30%, and interstitial space by 40%. Therapeutic treatment with feG significantly reduced the AP-induced abnormal acinar cells by 10% and the interstitial space by 20%. Pancreatic ICAM-1 mRNA expression was upregulated in AP and was reduced by 50% with prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with feG. We conclude that feG ameliorates experimental AP acting at least in part by modulating ICAM-1 expression in the pancreas.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 05/2008; 294(4):G1094-9. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    Ronald D Mathison, Emily Christie, Joseph S Davison
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    ABSTRACT: The tripeptide feG (D-Phe-D-Glu-Gly) is a potent anti-inflammatory peptide that reduces the severity of type I immediate hypersensitivity reactions, and inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion to tissues. feG also reduces the expression of beta1-integrin on circulating neutrophils, but the counter ligands involved in the anti-adhesive actions of the peptide are not known. In this study the effects of feG on the adhesion of rat peritoneal leukocytes and extravasated neutrophils to several different integrin selective substrates were evaluated. The adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes and extravasated neutrophils from rats to adhesive proteins coated to 96-well plates was dependent upon magnesium (Mg2+) ion, suggestive of integrin-mediated adhesion. feG inhibited leukocyte adhesion, but only if the cells were stimulated with PAF (10-9M), indicating that feG's actions in vitro require cell activation. In the dose range of 10-10M to 10-12M feG inhibited the adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes to fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not IgG, vitronectin or ICAM-1. feG inhibited the binding of extravasated neutrophils to heparin, IgG, fibronectin and CD16 antibody. Antigen-challenge of sensitized rats reduced the adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes to most substrates and abolished the inhibitory effects of feG. However, pretreating the animals with intraperitoneal feG (100 mug/kg) 18 h before collecting the cells from the antigen-challenged animal restored the inhibition of adhesion by in vitro feG of peritoneal leukocytes and extravasated neutrophils to fibronectin. The modulation of leukocyte adhesion by feG appears to involve actions on alphaMbeta2 integrin, with a possible interaction with the low affinity FcgammaRIII receptor (CD16). The modulation of cell adhesion by feG is dual in nature. When administered in vivo, feG prevents inflammation-induced reductions in cell adhesion, as well as restoring its inhibitory effect in vitro. The mechanism by which in vivo treatment with feG exerts these effects remains to be elucidated.
    Journal of Inflammation 02/2008; 5:6. · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Pancreas 01/2008; 36(2). · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Pancreas 01/2008; 36(2). · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2008; 134(4). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabinoid (CB) agonists suppress nausea and vomiting (emesis). Similarly, transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptor agonists are anti-emetic. Arvanil, N-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzyl)-arachidonamide, is a synthetic 'hybrid' agonist of CB1 and TRPV1 receptors. Anandamide and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) are endogenous agonists at both these receptors. We investigated if arvanil, NADA and anandamide were anti-emetic in the ferret and their mechanism of action. All compounds reduced the episodes of emesis in response to morphine 6 glucuronide. These effects were attenuated by AM251, a CB1 antagonist that was pro-emetic per se, and TRPV1 antagonists iodoresiniferatoxin and AMG 9810, which were without pro-emetic effects. Similar sensitivity to arvanil and NADA was found for prodromal signs of emesis. We analysed the distribution of TRPV1 receptors in the ferret brainstem and, for comparison, the co-localization of CB1 and TRPV1 receptors in the mouse brainstem. TRPV1 immunoreactivity was largely restricted to the nucleus of the solitary tract of the ferret, with faint labeling in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and sparse distribution in the area postrema. A similar distribution of TRPV1, and its extensive co-localization with CB1, was observed in the mouse. Our findings suggest that CB1 and TRPV1 receptors in the brainstem play a major role in the control of emesis by agonists of these two receptors. While there appears to be an endogenous 'tone' of CB1 receptors inhibiting emesis, this does not seem to be the case for TRPV1 receptors, indicating that endogenously released endocannabinoids/endovanilloids inhibit emesis preferentially via CB1 receptors.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 06/2007; 25(9):2773-82. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    Ronald Mathison, Joseph S Davison
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    ABSTRACT: The tripeptide FEG (Phe-Glu-Gly) and its D-isomer feG are potent anti-inflammatory peptides that reduce type I immediate hypersensitivity reactions (antigen-induced contraction of sensitized intestine), and inhibit the binding of CD16b (FCyRIII) antibody to human neutrophils. However, significant differences exist in the structure activity relationships (SAR) with FEG-like peptides for these two activities. By comparing biological activities to the topological features of FEG and its analogues this study identifies the distinguishing features of the peptides that explain the differential SAR on the immediate hypersensitivity reaction and CD16b antibody binding. Using DeepView (http://www.expasy.org/spdbv/), the distances between side-chain atoms and the angles between side-chain terminal carbon residues and their backbone juncture were determined. The electrostatic force field of the peptides was calculated using DeepView, which employs the GROMOS96 43B1 parameter set. The primary topological feature of FEG-like molecules that impacts the immediate hypersensitivity reaction was the relative positioning of the aromatic ring to the carboxyl group of position-2 amino acid. In contrast, the electrostatic potential of the peptides primarily determined the inhibition of CD16b antibody binding, although the separation of the carboxyl groups on position-2 amino acid and the C-terminal provided a topological component to biological activity. Thus, the topological features and the electrostatic potential of FEG and its analogues account for differential SAR, and suggest that the FEG may act on several distinct recognition sites.
    Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society 02/2007; 50:101-4.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
432.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2012
    • Flinders University
      • Flinders Medical Centre
      Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • 1988–2012
    • The University of Calgary
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
      • • Division of Medical Physics
      • • Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 1994–2011
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Medicine
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 1996
    • The University of Sheffield
      • School of Clinical Dentistry
      Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Central Lancashire
      Preston, England, United Kingdom