J D Appleton

British Geological Survey, Nottigham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (33)49.19 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systematic mapping of the chemical environment of urban areas from around the world have shown varying degrees of control of element distributions by the underlying parent material (PM). The purpose of the study reported here is to assess whether geogenic signatures that dominate soil chemistry in rural domains of Eastern England and which are not strongly impacted by human activities, can also be detected in the London urban region. A PM soil chemistry mapping method is used to determine the spatial variation of topsoil chemistry data in London and the surrounding rural areas. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the soil data for the London region indicates that 26–33% of the variance of Al, Ce, Cs, Ga, K, La, Mg, Mn, Nb, Nd, Rb, Ti, V and Y is explained by soil PM (surface geology), and a slightly lesser proportion (19–25%) of the variance for Ca, Co, Fe, I, Ni, Sc, Sr and Th. In comparison, soil PM explains only 5% of the variance of Cd. The variance of some other elements appears to be influenced by a mixture of geogenic and anthropogenic controls, including As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and Zn for which PM controls 12–16% of the variance. Geogenic soil chemistry patterns observed for the elements strongly influenced by PM in the rural areas surrounding London can be quite clearly followed into and through the London urban area. Spatial patterns of a range of elements primarily controlled by PM have not been destroyed even in a major urban centre with a recorded history dating back over 2000 years and which has been subjected to extensive urban development, destruction and redevelopment especially during the last 200–300 years.
    Applied Geochemistry 12/2013; 39:169–180. · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • J D Appleton, M R Cave, B Palumbo-Roe, J Wragg
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    ABSTRACT: Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling indicates that total Pb is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating Pb bioaccessibility in "mineralisation domains" located in limestone (high pH) and partly peat covered (low pH) shale-sandstone terrains in England. Manganese is a significant minor predictor in the limestone terrain, whilst organic matter and sulphur explain 0.5% and 2% of the variance of bioaccessible Pb in the peat-shale-sandstone terrain, compared with 93% explained by total Pb. Bootstrap resampling shows that LR confidence limits overlap for the two mineralised terrains but the limestone terrain has a significantly lower bioaccessible Pb to total Pb slope than the urban domain. A comparison of the absolute values of stomach and combined stomach-intestine bioaccessibility provides some insight into the geochemical controls on bioaccessibility in the contrasting soil types.
    Environmental Pollution 04/2013; 178C:278-287. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • J D Appleton, M R Cave, J Wragg
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    ABSTRACT: Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible Pb and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed for the Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea urban areas in order to assess the potential for developing a national urban bioaccessible Pb dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total Pb is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating the bioaccessibility of Pb. Bootstrap resampling shows that the relationship between total Pb and bioaccessible Pb is broadly the same in the four urban areas. The median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38% in Northampton to 68% in London and Swansea. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study.
    Environmental Pollution 08/2012; 171:265-72. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • J D Appleton, M R Cave, J Wragg
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    ABSTRACT: Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible arsenic (B-As) and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed in order to assess the potential for developing a national B-As dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total arsenic (As) is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating B-As in urban areas where it explains 75-92% of the variance. The broad compatibility of the London, Glasgow and Swansea regression models suggests that application of these models to estimate bioaccessible As in UK soils impacted by diffuse anthropogenic urban contamination and non-ferrous metal processing should be relatively accurate. In areas dominated by Jurassic ironstones and associated clays and limestones, total As, P and pH are significant, accounting for 53, 14 and 5%, respectively, of the B-As variance. Models based on total As as the sole predictor in the combined Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary ironstones datasets explain about 40% of the B-As variance. The median As bioaccessible fraction (%As-BAF) is 19 to 28% in the anthropogenic contamination impacted urban domains, but much lower (5-9%) in geogenic terrains dominated by ironstones. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study.
    Science of The Total Environment 07/2012; 435-436:21-9. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    J. D. Appleton, K. A. M. Adlam
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study reported here is to assess whether it may in some circumstances be useful and appropriate to use a parent material (PM) soil chemistry mapping method developed for national soil chemistry data to portray spatial variation in urban soil chemistry data in Great Britain. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the urban soil data suggests that spatial interpolation of soil ambient background concentrations (ABCs) using PM classified soil data may be justified for those elements with strong geogenic control. The PM soil chemistry mapping method for urban soil data is demonstrated using data from the Northampton urban area, in the English Midlands. Geometric mean (GM) and inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolations based on the nearest four topsoil samples were evaluated. Independent validation indicated that for As, Cr, Fe and to a lesser extent K, which all exhibit relatively strong geogenic control in the Northampton urban area: (i) the PM soil chemistry mapping method is more accurate and effective than the conventional IDW grid mapping and (ii) PM soil chemistry mapping based on the average of the nearest four Lne element concentrations is more accurate than mapping based on IDW values calculated from the nearest four Lne element concentrations. The variation in effectiveness of the methods can be explained by the fact that PM exerts a significant control on As, Cr, Fe and K in the Northampton area whereas anthropogenic inputs appear to be the dominant control on the spatial variation of Pb, especially at high concentrations. The PM mapping method would be expected to work efficiently in other urban areas and for those elements where a significant proportion of the variation can be explained by PM.
    Applied Geochemistry - APPL GEOCHEM. 01/2012;
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    J D Appleton, E Doyle, D Fenton, C Organo
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    ABSTRACT: The probability of homes in Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is estimated on the basis of known in-house radon measurements averaged over 10 km × 10 km grid squares. The scope for using airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data for the Tralee-Castleisland area of county Kerry and county Cavan to predict the radon potential (RP) in two distinct areas of Ireland is evaluated in this study. Airborne data are compared statistically with in-house radon measurements in conjunction with geological and ground permeability data to establish linear regression models and produce radon potential maps. The best agreement between the percentage of dwellings exceeding the reference level (RL) for radon concentrations in Ireland (% > RL), estimated from indoor radon data, and modelled RP in the Tralee-Castleisland area is produced using models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry equivalent uranium (eU) and ground permeability data. Good agreement was obtained between the % > RL from indoor radon data and RP estimated from eU data in the Cavan area using terrain specific models. In both areas, RP maps derived from eU data are spatially more detailed than the published 10 km grid map. The results show the potential for using airborne radiometric data for producing RP maps.
    Journal of Radiological Protection 06/2011; 31(2):221-35. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    J D Appleton, J C H Miles, M Young
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    ABSTRACT: Publicly available information about radon potential in Northern Ireland is currently based on indoor radon results averaged over 1-km grid squares, an approach that does not take into account the geological origin of the radon. This study describes a spatially more accurate estimate of the radon potential of Northern Ireland using an integrated radon potential mapping method based on indoor radon measurements and geology that was originally developed for mapping radon potential in England and Wales. A refinement of this method was also investigated using linear regression analysis of a selection of relevant airborne and soil geochemical parameters from the Tellus Project. The most significant independent variables were found to be eU, a parameter derived from airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of radon decay products in the top layer of soil and exposed bedrock, and the permeability of the ground. The radon potential map generated from the Tellus data agrees in many respects with the map based on indoor radon data and geology but there are several areas where radon potential predicted from the airborne radiometric and permeability data is substantially lower. This under-prediction could be caused by the radon concentration being lower in the top 30 cm of the soil than at greater depth, because of the loss of radon from the surface rocks and soils to air.
    Science of The Total Environment 02/2011; 409(8):1572-83. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Least squares (LS), Theil's (TS) and weighted total least squares (WTLS) regression analysis methods are used to develop empirical relationships between radium in the ground, radon in soil and radon in dwellings to assist in the post-closure assessment of indoor radon related to near-surface radioactive waste disposal at the Low Level Waste Repository in England. The data sets used are (i) estimated ²²⁶Ra in the < 2 mm fraction of topsoils (eRa226) derived from equivalent uranium (eU) from airborne gamma spectrometry data, (ii) eRa226 derived from measurements of uranium in soil geochemical samples, (iii) soil gas radon and (iv) indoor radon data. For models comparing indoor radon and (i) eRa226 derived from airborne eU data and (ii) soil gas radon data, some of the geological groupings have significant slopes. For these groupings there is reasonable agreement in slope and intercept between the three regression analysis methods (LS, TS and WTLS). Relationships between radon in dwellings and radium in the ground or radon in soil differ depending on the characteristics of the underlying geological units, with more permeable units having steeper slopes and higher indoor radon concentrations for a given radium or soil gas radon concentration in the ground. The regression models comparing indoor radon with soil gas radon have intercepts close to 5 Bq m⁻³ whilst the intercepts for those comparing indoor radon with eRa226 from airborne eU vary from about 20 Bq m⁻³ for a moderately permeable geological unit to about 40 Bq m⁻³ for highly permeable limestone, implying unrealistically high contributions to indoor radon from sources other than the ground. An intercept value of 5 Bq m⁻³ is assumed as an appropriate mean value for the UK for sources of indoor radon other than radon from the ground, based on examination of UK data. Comparison with published data used to derive an average indoor radon: soil ²²⁶Ra ratio shows that whereas the published data are generally clustered with no obvious correlation, the data from this study have substantially different relationships depending largely on the permeability of the underlying geology. Models for the relatively impermeable geological units plot parallel to the average indoor radon: soil ²²⁶Ra model but with lower indoor radon: soil ²²⁶Ra ratios, whilst the models for the permeable geological units plot parallel to the average indoor radon: soil ²²⁶Ra model but with higher than average indoor radon: soil ²²⁶Ra ratios.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 10/2010; 102(3):221-34. · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • Scottish Journal of Geology - SCOT J GEOL. 01/2010; 46(1):88-88.
  • J D Appleton, J C H Miles
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    ABSTRACT: ANOVA is used to show that approximately 25% of the total variation of indoor radon concentrations in England and Wales can be explained by the mapped bedrock and superficial geology. The proportion of the total variation explained by geology is higher (up to 37%) in areas where there is strong contrast between the radon potential of sedimentary geological units and lower (14%) where the influence of confounding geological controls, such as uranium mineralisation, cut across mapped geological boundaries. When indoor radon measurements are grouped by geology and 1-km squares of the national grid, the cumulative percentage of the variation between and within mapped geological units is shown to be 34-40%. The proportion of the variation that can be attributed to mapped geological units increases with the level of detail of the digital geological data. This study confirms the importance of radon maps that show the variation of indoor radon concentrations both between and within mapped geological boundaries.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 08/2009; 101(10):799-803. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data collected as a part of a survey on radon concentrations from about 40 000 dwellings in England for six contrasting geological units were analysed to evaluate the impact of house-specific factors (building characteristics and construction dates) and of proximity to geological boundaries. After adjusting for temperature and outdoor radon, geological unit, house type, double glazing and date of building were found to have a statistically significant influence on indoor radon concentrations and explained about 29 % of the total variation between dwellings in logarithmically transformed radon values. In addition, there were statistically significant differences in radon concentrations according to proximity to geological boundaries categories for most of the geological units, but no consistent pattern could be detected.
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 02/2009; 136(1):17-22. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An assessment of the natural radiation dose to wildlife in England and Wales was made to determine the contribution it may make to the total radiation dose estimated during environmental impact assessments. Significant use was made of systematic datasets for environmental media (stream sediments, stream waters and soils), in particular those produced by the Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) project. This provided extensive, although variable, coverage for different elements and sample types after normalisation of data to account for changes in sampling and analysis over time. Almost complete coverage for K in stream sediments was achieved by merging G-BASE and Wolfson Atlas data. This required normalisation of the Wolfson data to the G-BASE results. Coverage was improved greatly for U and Th in sediments, and K, U and Th in soils, by using the strong relationship between soils and sediments and geology (both solid and superficial) to extrapolate the data. The total U, Th and K data were used to derive activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th series radionuclides and 40K. External dose rates to wildlife were then estimated from derived media concentrations; internal dose rates were estimated from measured activities in biota or activities predicted using recommended concentration ratios.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/radiopro/20095116. 01/2009;
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    Scottish Journal of Geology - SCOT J GEOL. 01/2009; 45(2):147-160.
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    ABSTRACT: The scope for using Tellus Project airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and soil geochemical data to predict the probability of houses in Northern Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is evaluated, in a pilot study in the southeast of the province, by comparing these data statistically with in-house radon measurements. There is generally good agreement between radon maps modelled from the airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data using multivariate linear regression analysis and conventional radon maps which depend solely on geological and indoor radon data. The radon maps based on the Tellus Project data identify some additional areas where the radon risk appears to be relatively high compared with the conventional radon maps. One of the ways of validating radon maps modelled on the Tellus Project data will be to carry out additional indoor measurements in these areas.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 07/2008; 99(10):1687-97. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that, when assessing radiation impacts on non-human biota, estimated dose rates due to anthropogenically released radionuclides should be put in context by comparison to dose rates from natural background radiation. In order to make these comparisons, we need data on the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental media and organisms of interest. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the exposure of terrestrial organisms in England and Wales to naturally occurring radionuclides, specifically (40)K, (238)U series and (232)Th series radionuclides. Whole-body activity concentrations for the reference animals and plants (RAPs) as proposed by the ICRP have been collated from literature review, data archives and a targeted sampling campaign. Data specifically for the proposed RAP are sparse. Soil activity concentrations have been derived from an extensive geochemical survey of the UK. Unweighted and weighted absorbed dose rates were estimated using the ERICA Tool. Mean total weighted whole-body absorbed dose rates estimated for the selected terrestrial organisms was in the range 6.9 x 10(-2) to 6.1 x 10(-1) microGy h(-1).
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 05/2008; 99(9):1430-9. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    J.D. Appleton, B.G. Rawlins, I. Thornton
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory authorities require estimates of ambient background concentrations (ABCs) of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in topsoil; such data are currently not available in many countries. High resolution soil geochemical data exist for only part of England and Wales, whilst stream sediment data cover the entire landscape. A novel methodology is presented for estimating soil equivalent ABCs for PHEs from high-resolution (HR) stream sediment geochemical data grouped by common parent materials (PM), using arsenic (As) as an example. Geometric mean (GM) values for local PM groups are used to investigate different approaches for transforming sediment to soil equivalent concentrations. Holdout validation is used to assess: (i) the optimum number of samples for calculating local GM values, and (ii) the optimum scale at which to group data when using linear regression analysis to estimate GM soil ABCs from local sediment geochemical values. Holdout validation showed that the smallest differences were generally observed when five observations were used to calculate the GM and that these should be grouped over the smallest possible area in order to encompass soils over PMs with elevated GM As concentrations. Geometric mean ABCs are estimated and mapped for As in mineral soil across all of England and Wales within delineations of PM polygons. Errors for the estimation of soil equivalent GM As ABCs based on sediment data for an independent validation set were of a similar magnitude to those from holdout validation applied to the original data suggesting the approach is robust. The estimates of soil equivalent ABCs suggest that As exceeds the regulatory threshold used in risk assessments for residential land use (20 mg kg−1) across 16% of the landscape of England and Wales. The applicability of the method for cognate landscapes, and potential refinements is discussed.
    Applied Geochemistry. 01/2008;
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    J D Appleton
    AMBIO A Journal of the Human Environment 03/2007; 36(1):85-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rice paddy fields in the Naboc area, near Monkayo on the island of Mindanao, Philippines, have been irrigated four times a year over the last decade using Naboc River water contaminated with mercury (Hg) by artisanal gold mining in the Diwalwal area. Silt containing up to at least 90 mg Hg/kg (d.w.) has been deposited in rice paddy fields during the 1990s and this has been repeatedly mixed into the rice root zone through ploughing. Hg in the rice paddy field soils averages 24 mg Hg/kg and generally exceeds the UK and Canadian soil quality thresholds for agricultural soils as well as the proposed Dutch Intervention value and the USEPA soil ingestion Soil Screening Level (SSL) for inorganic Hg. Much lower Hg concentrations (0.05-0.99 mg/kg) within the range expected for uncontaminated soils, characterise soils on which corn and bananas are cultivated, largely because these are not irrigated with Hg-contaminated water from the Naboc River. The estimated total weekly MeHg intake for a person living in the Naboc area related to the weekly consumption of 2.1 kg of rice grown on Hg-contaminated soils (15 microg MeHg) in conjunction with 1 kg of fish (220 microg MeHg) and 100 g of mussels (50 microg MeHg) from the Naboc River, would total 285 microg MeHg (equivalent to 4.75 microg/kg bw for a 60 kg adult), which is nearly three times the JECFA PTWI of 1.6 microg/kg bw. This will significantly contribute to the population mercury exposure and might explain why 38% of the local inhabitants were classified as Hg intoxicated during a mercury toxicity assessment [Drasch GS, Böse, O'Reilly S, Beinhoff C, Roider G, Maydl S. The Mt. Diwata study on the Philippines 1999-assessing mercury intoxication of the population by small scale gold mining. Sci Total Environ 2001; 267(1-3): 151-168.].
    Science of The Total Environment 03/2006; 354(2-3):198-211. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selenium deficiency was suspected to be a factor in the aetiology of esophageal cancer in the Linxian and Cixian regions of the People’s Republic of China and vitamin trials in the Linxian area indicated that combined supplementation with β-carotene, vitamin E and Se reduced the mortality rate. In order to further evaluate the role of Se, the distribution of total Se in cultivated topsoils, grain, human hair and drinking water was studied in 15 villages in the Cixian area, People’s Republic of China, which in the 1980–1990s had one of the highest mortality rates from esophageal cancer in the world. This study demonstrated that total Se concentrations in drinking water, soil, grain and hair increase from the low esophageal cancer area to the high cancer area, contrary to the expected trend. This suggests that Se deficiency does not play a major role in the aetiology of esophageal cancer in the study area. Nitrate in drinking water is much higher in the area with high esophageal cancer mortality rate than in the low mortality rate area, and this may be a significant factor. Mycotoxins (especially fumonisin), nitrosamine and nitrosamine precursors in grain, in drinking water, and dietary β-carotene and Vitamin E remain as potential factors which need to be evaluated further.
    Applied Geochemistry. 01/2006;
  • J C H Miles, J D Appleton
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, the potential for high radon levels in UK houses has been mapped either on the basis of grouping the results of radon measurements in houses by grid squares or by geological units. In both cases, lognormal modelling of the distribution of radon concentrations was applied to allow the estimated proportion of houses above the UK radon Action Level (AL, 200 Bq m(-3)) to be mapped. This paper describes a method of combining the grid square and geological mapping methods to give more accurate maps than either method can provide separately. The land area is first divided up using a combination of bedrock and superficial geological characteristics derived from digital geological map data. Each different combination of geological characteristics may appear at the land surface in many discontinuous locations across the country. HPA has a database of over 430,000 houses in which long-term measurements of radon concentration have been made, and whose locations are accurately known. Each of these measurements is allocated to the appropriate bedrock--superficial geological combination underlying it. Taking each geological combination in turn, the spatial variation of radon potential is mapped, treating the combination as if it were continuous over the land area. All of the maps of radon potential within different geological combinations are then combined to produce a map of variation in radon potential over the whole land surface.
    Journal of Radiological Protection 10/2005; 25(3):257-76. · 1.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

327 Citations
49.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2013
    • British Geological Survey
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Public Health England
      • Health Protection Agency - North East
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China