R. G. Bower

Durham University, Durham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (269)952.97 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigate the evolution of galaxy masses and star formation rates in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These comprise a suite of hydrodynamical simulations in a $\Lambda$CDM cosmogony with subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. The subgrid feedback was calibrated to reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function and galaxy sizes. Here we demonstrate that the simulations reproduce the observed growth of the stellar mass density to within 20 per cent. The simulation also tracks the observed evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function out to redshift z = 7, with differences comparable to the plausible uncertainties in the interpretation of the data. Just as with observed galaxies, the specific star formation rates of simulated galaxies are bimodal, with distinct star forming and passive sequences. The specific star formation rates of star forming galaxies are typically 0.2 to 0.4 dex lower than observed, but the evolution of the rates track the observations closely. The unprecedented level of agreement between simulation and data makes EAGLE a powerful resource to understand the physical processes that govern galaxy formation.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the internal structure and density profiles of halos of mass $10^{10}-10^{14}~M_\odot$ in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These follow the formation of galaxies in a $\Lambda$CDM Universe and include a treatment of the baryon physics thought to be relevant. The EAGLE simulations reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function, as well as many other properties of the galaxy population as a function of time. We find significant differences between the masses of halos in the EAGLE simulations and in simulations that follow only the dark matter component. Nevertheless, halos are well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile at radii larger than ~5% of the virial radius but, closer to the centre, the presence of stars can produce cuspier profiles. Central enhancements in the total mass profile are most important in halos of mass $10^{12}-10^{13}M_\odot$, where the stellar fraction peaks. Over the radial range where they are well resolved, the resulting galaxy rotation curves are in very good agreement with observational data for galaxies with stellar mass $M_*<5\times10^{10}M_\odot$. We present an empirical fitting function that describes the total mass profiles and show that its parameters are strongly correlated with halo mass.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We use the "Evolution and assembly of galaxies and their environment" (EAGLE) cosmological simulation to investigate the effect of baryons on the density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. We focus on the six most massive EAGLE clusters ($M_{200} > 10^{14}M_\odot$) which can be compared with a recent analysis of seven real clusters by Newman et al. The central brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in EAGLE have steep stellar density profiles, $\rho_*(r) \propto r^{-3}$. Stars dominate the mass density for $r < 10~{\rm kpc}$, and, as a result, the total mass density profiles are steeper than the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. However, the dark matter halo itself closely follows the NFW form at all resolved radii ($r\gtrsim3.0~{\rm kpc}$). The \eagle BCGs have similar surface brightness and line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles as the BCGs observed by Newmanet al. The central slopes of the total mass profiles are also consistent with the observed clusters. However, after subtracting the contribution of the stars to the central density, Newman et al. find significantly shallower slopes than NFW, in contradiction with the EAGLE results. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy, such as differences in the mass of the simulated and observed clusters or orientation biases in the observed sample. We conclude that an inconsistency between the kinematical model adopted by Newman et al. for their BCGs, which assumes isotropic stellar orbits, and the kinematical structure of the EAGLE BCGs, in which the orbital stellar anisotropy varies with radius and tends to be radially biased, could explain at least part of the discrepancy.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We introduce the Virgo Consortium's EAGLE project, a suite of hydrodynamical simulations that follow the formation of galaxies and black holes in representative volumes. We discuss the limitations of such simulations in light of their finite resolution and poorly constrained subgrid physics, and how these affect their predictive power. One major improvement is our treatment of feedback from massive stars and AGN in which thermal energy is injected into the gas without the need to turn off cooling or hydrodynamical forces, allowing winds to develop without predetermined speed or mass loading factors. Because the feedback efficiencies cannot be predicted from first principles, we calibrate them to the z~0 galaxy stellar mass function and the amplitude of the galaxy-central black hole mass relation, also taking galaxy sizes into account. The observed galaxy mass function is reproduced to $\lesssim 0.2$ dex over the full mass range, $10^8 < M_*/M_\odot \lesssim 10^{11}$, a level of agreement close to that attained by semi-analytic models, and unprecedented for hydrodynamical simulations. We compare our results to a representative set of low-redshift observables not considered in the calibration, and find good agreement with the observed galaxy specific star formation rates, passive fractions, Tully-Fisher relation, total stellar luminosities of galaxy clusters, and column density distributions of intergalactic CIV and OVI. While the mass-metallicity relations for gas and stars are consistent with observations for $M_* \gtrsim 10^9 M_\odot$, they are insufficiently steep at lower masses. The gas fractions and temperatures are too high for clusters of galaxies, but for groups these discrepancies can be resolved by adopting a higher heating temperature in the subgrid prescription for AGN feedback. EAGLE constitutes a valuable new resource for studies of galaxy formation.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have observed a sample of typical z=1 star forming galaxies, selected from the HiZELS survey, with the new KMOS near-infrared, multi-IFU instrument on the VLT, in order to obtain their dynamics and metallicity gradients. The majority of our galaxies have a metallicity gradient consistent with being flat or negative (i.e. higher metallicity cores than outskirts). Intriguingly, we find a trend between metallicity gradient and specific star formation rate (sSFR), such that galaxies with a high sSFR tend to have relatively metal-poor centres, a result which is strengthened when combined with datasets from the literature. This result appears to explain the discrepancies reported between different high redshift studies and varying claims for evolution. From a galaxy evolution perspective, the trend we see would mean that a galaxy's sSFR is governed by the amount of metal poor gas that can be funnelled into its core, triggered either by merging or through efficient accretion. In fact merging may play a significant role as it is the starburst galaxies at all epochs, which have the more positive metallicity gradients. Our results may help to explain the origin of the fundamental metallicity relation, in which galaxies at a fixed mass are observed to have lower metallicities at higher star formation rates, especially if the metallicity is measured in an aperture encompassing only the central regions of the galaxy. Finally, we note that this study demonstrates the power of KMOS as an efficient instrument for large scale resolved galaxy surveys.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Since reionization prevents star formation in most halos below 3 x 10^9 solar masses, dwarf galaxies only populate a fraction of existing dark matter halos. We use hydrodynamic cosmological simulations of the Local Group to study the discriminating factors for galaxy formation in the early Universe and connect them to the present-day properties of galaxies and halos. A combination of selection effects related to reionization, and the subsequent evolution of halos in different environments, introduces strong biases between the population of halos that host dwarf galaxies, and the total halo population. Halos that host galaxies formed earlier and are more concentrated. In addition, halos more affected by tidal stripping are more likely to host a galaxy for a given mass or maximum circular velocity, vmax, today. Consequently, satellite halos are populated more frequently than field halos, and satellite halos of 10^8 - 10^9 solar masses or vmax of 12 - 20 km/s, similar to the Local Group dwarf spheroidals, have experienced a greater than average reduction in both mass and vmax after infall. They are on closer, more radial orbits with higher infall velocities and earlier infall times. Together, these effects make dwarf galaxies highly biased tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the data release of the Gemini-South GMOS spectroscopy in the fields of 11 galaxy groups at $0.8<z<1$, within the COSMOS field. This forms the basis of the Galaxy Environment Evolution Collaboration 2 (GEEC2) project to study galaxy evolution in haloes with $M\sim 10^{13}M_\odot$ across cosmic time. The final sample includes $162$ spectroscopically--confirmed members with $R<24.75$, and is $>50$ per cent complete for galaxies within the virial radius, and with stellar mass $M_{\rm star}>10^{10.3}M_\odot$. Including galaxies with photometric redshifts we have an effective sample size of $\sim 400$ galaxies within the virial radii of these groups. We present group velocity dispersions, dynamical and stellar masses. Combining with the GCLASS sample of more massive clusters at the same redshift we find the total stellar mass is strongly correlated with the dynamical mass, with $\log{M_{200}}=1.20\left(\log{M_{\rm star}}-12\right)+14.07$. This stellar fraction of $~\sim 1$ per cent is lower than predicted by some halo occupation distribution models, though the weak dependence on halo mass is in good agreement. Most groups have an easily identifiable most massive galaxy (MMG) near the centre of the galaxy distribution, and we present the spectroscopic properties and surface brightness fits to these galaxies. The total stellar mass distribution in the groups, excluding the MMG, compares well with an NFW profile with concentration $4$, for galaxies beyond $\sim 0.2R_{200}$. This is more concentrated than the number density distribution, demonstrating that there is some mass segregation.
    06/2014;
  • Ian Vernon, Michael Goldstein, Richard Bower
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    ABSTRACT: Cosmologists at the Institute of Computational Cosmology, Durham University, have developed a state of the art model of galaxy formation known as Galform, intended to contribute to our understanding of the formation, growth and subsequent evolution of galaxies in the presence of dark matter. Galform requires the specification of many input parameters and takes a significant time to complete one simulation, making comparison between the model's output and real observations of the Universe extremely challenging. This paper concerns the analysis of this problem using Bayesian emulation within an iterative history matching strategy, and represents the most detailed uncertainty analysis of a galaxy formation simulation yet performed.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Extending over three Hubble Space Telescope (HST) cycles, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) initiative constitutes the largest commitment ever of HST time to the exploration of the distant Universe via gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters. We here present models of the mass distribution in the six HFF cluster lenses, derived from a joint strong- and weak-lensing analysis anchored by a total of 618 multiple-image systems identified in existing HST data. The resulting maps of the projected mass distribution and of the gravitational magnification effectively calibrate the HFF clusters as gravitational telescopes. Allowing the computation of search areas in the source plane, these maps are provided to the community to facilitate the exploitation of forthcoming HFF data for quantitative studies of the gravitationally lensed population of background galaxies. Our models of the gravitational magnification afforded by the HFF clusters allow us to quantify the lensing-induced boost in sensitivity over blank-field observations and predict that galaxies at $z>10$ and as faint as m(AB)=32 will be detectable, up to 2 magnitudes fainter than the limit of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Extending over three Hubble Space Telescope (HST) cycles, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) initiative constitutes the largest commitment ever of HST time to the exploration of the distant Universe via gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters. We here present models of the mass distribution in the six HFF cluster lenses, derived from a joint strong- and weak-lensing analysis anchored by a total of 618 multiple-image systems identified in existing HST data. The resulting maps of the projected mass distribution and of the gravitational magnification effectively calibrate the HFF clusters as gravitational telescopes. Allowing the computation of search areas in the source plane, these maps are provided to the community to facilitate the exploitation of forthcoming HFF data for quantitative studies of the gravitationally lensed population of background galaxies. Our models of the gravitational magnification afforded by the HFF clusters allow us to quantify the lensing-induced boost in sensitivity over blank-field observations and predict that galaxies at $z>10$ and as faint as m(AB)=32 will be detectable, up to 2 magnitudes fainter than the limit of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field.
    04/2014;
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    Sean L. McGee, Richard G. Bower, Michael L. Balogh
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    ABSTRACT: The baryon cycle of galaxies is a dynamic process involving the intake, consumption and ejection of vast quantities of gas. In contrast, the conventional picture of satellite galaxies has them methodically turning a large gas reservoir into stars until this reservoir is forcibly removed due to external ram pressure. This picture needs revision. Our modern understanding of the baryon cycle suggests that in some regimes the simple interruption of the fresh gas supply may quench satellite galaxies long before stripping events occur, a process we call overconsumption. We compile measurements from the literature of observed satellite quenching times at a range of redshifts to determine if satellites are principally quenched through orbit-based gas stripping events -- either direct stripping of the disk (ram pressure stripping) or the extended gas halo (strangulation) -- or from internally-driven star formation outflows via overconsumption. The observed timescales show significant deviation from the evolution expected for gas stripping mechanisms and suggest that either ram pressure stripping is much more efficient at high redshift, or that secular outflows quench satellites before orbit-based stripping occurs. Given the strong redshift evolution of star formation rates, at high redshift (z > 1.5) even moderate outflow rates will lead to extremely short quenching times with the expectation that such satellites will be quenched almost immediately following the cessation of cosmological inflow, regardless of stripping events. Observations of high redshift satellites give an indirect but sensitive measure of the outflow rate with current measurements suggesting that outflows are no larger than 2.5 times the star formation rate for galaxies with a stellar mass of 10^{10.5} solar masses.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between galaxies and dark matter halos is of vital importance for evaluating theoretical predictions of structure formation and galaxy formation physics. We show that the widely used method of abundance matching based on dark matter only simulations fails at the low mass end because two of its underlying assumptions are broken: only a small fraction of low mass (below 10^9.5 solar masses) halos host a visible galaxy, and halos grow at a lower rate due to the effect of baryons. In this regime, reliance on dark matter only simulations for abundance matching is neither accurate nor self-consistent. We find that the reported discrepancy between observational estimates of the halo masses of dwarf galaxies and the values predicted by abundance matching does not point to a failure of LCDM, but simply to a failure to account for baryonic effects. Our results also imply that the Local Group contains only a few hundred observable galaxies in contrast with the thousands of faint dwarfs that abundance matching would suggest. We show how relations derived from abundance matching can be corrected, so that they can be used self-consistently to calibrate models of galaxy formation.
    04/2014;
  • Sean L. McGee, Richard G. Bower, Michael L. Balogh
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    ABSTRACT: The baryon cycle of galaxies is a dynamic process involving the intake, consumption and ejection of vast quantities of gas. In contrast, the conventional picture of satellite galaxies has them methodically turning a large gas reservoir into stars until this reservoir is forcibly removed due to external ram pressure. This picture needs revision. Our modern understanding of the baryon cycle suggests that in some regimes the simple interruption of the fresh gas supply may quench satellite galaxies long before stripping events occur, a process we call overconsumption. We compile measurements from the literature of observed satellite quenching times at a range of redshifts to determine if satellites are principally quenched through orbit-based gas stripping events -- either direct stripping of the disk (ram pressure stripping) or the extended gas halo (strangulation) -- or from internally-driven star formation outflows via overconsumption. The observed timescales show significant deviation from the evolution expected for gas stripping mechanisms and suggest that either ram pressure stripping is much more efficient at high redshift, or that secular outflows quench satellites before orbit-based stripping occurs. Given the strong redshift evolution of star formation rates, at high redshift (z > 1.5) even moderate outflow rates will lead to extremely short quenching times with the expectation that such satellites will be quenched almost immediately following the cessation of cosmological inflow, regardless of stripping events. Observations of high redshift satellites give an indirect but sensitive measure of the outflow rate with current measurements suggesting that outflows are no larger than 2.5 times the star formation rate for galaxies with a stellar mass of 10^{10.5} solar masses.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection at 850um of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal Lyman-alpha Blob (LAB), a 100kpc-scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z=3.1. The flux density of the source, $S_{850}=4.6\pm1.1$mJy implies the presence of a galaxy, or group of galaxies, with a total luminosity of $L_{\rm IR}\approx10^{12}L_\odot$. The position of an active source at the center of a ~50kpc-radius ring of linearly polarized Ly-alpha emission detected by Hayes et al. (2011) suggests that the central source is leaking Ly-alpha photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in HI clouds at large galactocentric radius. The Ly-alpha morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of biconical outflow, and the average Ly-alpha line profiles of the two `lobes' are dominated by a red peak, expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Ly-alpha emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Ly-alpha: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 793(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using a large sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey, we present the specific star formation rate (SSFR) - stellar mass (M*) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M* relation in different environments. We confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments ($M>10^{14}M_{solar}$), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star forming sequence of $17\%$ at 4$\sigma$ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass -- the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent galaxies for more massive galaxies, while less massive galaxies are quenched mostly through the environmental effect, with the transition mass around $1-2\times10^{10}M_{solar}$ in the group/cluster environment. (abridged)
    12/2013; 782(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We present new analysis from the GEEC2 spectroscopic survey of galaxy groups at $0.8<z<1$. Our previous work revealed an intermediate population between the star-forming and quiescent sequences and a strong environmental dependence in the fraction of quiescent galaxies. Only $\sim5$ per cent of star-forming galaxies in both the group and field sample show a significant enhancement in star formation, which suggests that quenching is the primary process in the transition from the star-forming to the quiescent state. To model the environmental quenching scenario, we have tested the use of different exponential quenching timescales and delays between satellite accretion and the onset of quenching. We find that with no delay, the quenching timescale needs to be long in order to match the observed quiescent fraction, but then this model produces too many intermediate galaxies. Fixing a delay time of 3 Gyr, as suggested from the local universe, produces too few quiescent galaxies. The observed fractions are best matched with a model that includes a delay that is proportional to the dynamical time and a rapid quenching timescale ($\sim0.25$ Gyr), but this model also predicts intermediate galaxies H{\delta} strength higher than that observed. Using stellar synthesis models, we have tested other scenarios, such as the rejuvenation of star formation in early-type galaxies and a portion of quenched galaxies possessing residual star formation. If environment quenching plays a role in the GEEC2 sample, then our work suggests that only a fraction of intermediate galaxies may be undergoing this transition and that quenching occurs quite rapidly in satellite galaxies ($\lesssim0.25$ Gyr).
    12/2013; 438(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Feedback from energy liberated by gas accretion onto black holes (BHs) is an attractive mechanism to explain the exponential cut-off at the massive end of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF). Semi-analytic models of galaxy formation in which this form of feedback is assumed to suppress cooling in haloes where the gas cooling time is large compared to the dynamical time do indeed achieve a good match to the observed SMF. Furthermore, hydrodynamic simulations of individual halos in which gas is assumed to accrete onto the central BH at the Bondi rate have shown that a self-regulating regime is established in which the BH grows just enough to liberate an amount of energy comparable to the thermal energy of the halo. However, this process is efficient at suppressing the growth not only of massive galaxies but also of galaxies like the Milky Way, leading to disagreement with the observed SMF. The Bondi accretion rate, however, is inappropriate when the accreting material has angular momentum. We present an improved accretion model that takes into account the circularisation and subsequent viscous transport of infalling material and include it as a "subgrid" model in hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of halos with a wide range of masses. The resulting accretion rates are generally low in low mass ($\lsim 10^{11.5} \msun$) halos, but show outbursts of Eddington-limited accretion during galaxy mergers. During outbursts these objects strongly resemble quasars. In higher mass haloes, gas accretion occurs continuously, typically at $~10$ % of the Eddington rate, which is conducive to the formation of radio jets. The resulting dependence of the accretion behaviour on halo mass induces a break in the relation between galaxy stellar mass and halo mass in these simulations that matches observations.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the spatially resolved H-alpha (Ha) dynamics of sixteen star-forming galaxies at z~0.81 using the new KMOS multi-object integral field spectrograph on the ESO VLT. These galaxies were selected using 1.18 um narrow-band imaging from the 10 deg^2 CFHT-HiZELS survey of the SA22hr field, are found in a ~4Mpc over-density of Ha emitters and likely reside in a group/intermediate environment, but not a cluster. We confirm and identify a rich group of star-forming galaxies at z=0.813+-0.003, with thirteen galaxies within 1000 km/s of each other, and 7 within a diameter of 3Mpc. All our galaxies are "typical" star-forming galaxies at their redshift, 0.8+-0.4 SFR*(z=0.8), spanning a range of specific star formation rate of sSFR=0.2-1.1 Gyr^-1 and have a median metallicity very close to solar of 12+log(O/H)=8.62+-0.06. We measure the spatially resolved Ha dynamics of the galaxies in our sample and show that thirteen out of sixteen galaxies can be described by rotating disks and use the data to derive inclination corrected rotation speeds of 50-275 km/s. The fraction of disks within our sample is 75+-8, consistent with previous results based on HST morphologies of Ha selected galaxies at z~1 and confirming that disks dominate the star formation rate density at z~1. Our Ha galaxies are well fitted by the z~1-2 Tully-Fisher relation, confirming the evolution seen in the zero-point. Apart from having, on average, higher stellar masses and lower sSFRs, our group galaxies at z=0.813 present the same mass-metallicity and TF relation as z~1 field galaxies, and are all disk galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 779(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained Subaru FMOS observations of Halpha emitting galaxies selected from the HiZELS narrow-band survey, to investigate the relationship between stellar mass, metallicity and star-formation rate at z = 0.84 - 1.47, for comparison with the Fundamental Metallicity Relation seen at low redshift. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time with a homogeneously selected sample, that a relationship exists for typical star-forming galaxies at z = 1 - 1.5 and that it is surprisingly similar to that seen locally. Therefore, star-forming galaxies at z = 1 - 1.5 are no less metal abundant than galaxies of similar mass and star formation rate (SFR) at z = 0.1, contrary to claims from some earlier studies. We conclude that the bulk of the metal enrichment for this star-forming galaxy population takes place in the 4 Gyr before z = 1.5. We fit a new mass-metallicity-SFR plane to our data which is consistent with other high redshift studies. However, there is some evidence that the mass-metallicity component of this high redshift plane is flattened, at all SFR, compared with z = 0.1, suggesting that processes such as star-formation driven winds, thought to remove enriched gas from low mass halos, are yet to have as large an impact at this early epoch. The negative slope of the SFR-metallicity relation from this new plane is consistent with the picture that the elevation in the SFR of typical galaxies at z > 1 is fuelled by the inflow of metal-poor gas and not major merging.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2013; 436(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine galaxy groups from the present epoch to z = 1 to explore the impact of group dynamics on galaxy evolution. We use group catalagues from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC) and the high redshift GEEC2 sample to study how the observed member properties depend on galaxy stellar mass, group dynamical mass and dynamical state of the host group. We find a strong correlation between the fraction of non-star-forming (quiescent) galaxies and galaxy stellar mass, but do not detect a significant difference in the quiescent fraction with group dynamical mass, within our sample halo mass range of 10^13-10^14.5 M_sun, or with dynamical sate. However, at a redshift of approximately 0.4 we do see some evidence that the quiescent fraction in low mass galaxies (log(M_star/M_sun) < 10.5) is lower in groups with substructure. Additionally, our results show that the fraction of groups with non-Gaussian velocity distributions increases with redshift to roughly z = 0.4, while the amount of detected substructure remains constant to z = 1. Based on these results, we conclude that for massive galaxies (log(M_star/M_sun_ > 10.5), evolution is most strongly correlated to the stellar mass of a galaxy with little or no additional effect related to either the group dynamical mass or dynamical state. For low mass galaxies, we do see some evidence of a correlation between the quiescent fraction and the amount of detected substructure, highlighting the need to probe further down the stellar mass function to elucidate the role of the environment in galaxy evolution.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 435(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
952.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2014
    • Durham University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1988–2011
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • University of Waterloo
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008–2009
    • University of Antwerp
      • Departement Fysica
      Antwerpen, VLG, Belgium
  • 2001
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Università degli Studi di Trieste
      • Department of Physics
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 1999
    • University of Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom