[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cattle besnoitiosis due to the cyst-forming coccidian parasite Besnoitia besnoiti has recently been reported in expansion in Europe since the end of the twentieth century. The B. besnoiti life cycle and many epidemiological traits are still poorly known. Hematophagous flies, including the worldwide-distributed Stomoxys calcitrans, could be mechanical vectors in the contamination of mouthparts after the puncture of cutaneous cysts or ingestion of infected blood. In this study, a protocol is presented to assess more deeply the role of S. calcitrans, reared in laboratory conditions, in parasite transmission. A preliminary trial showed that stable flies could transmit tachyzoites from bovine artificially parasite-enriched blood to B. besnoiti-free blood using glass feeders. Evidence of transmission was provided by the detection of parasite DNA with Ct values ranging between 32 and 37 in the blood recipient. In a second time, a B. besnoiti-infected heifer harboring many cysts in its dermis was used as a donor of B. besnoiti. An interruption of the blood meal taken by 300 stable flies from this heifer was performed. Immediately after the blood meal was interrupted, they were transferred to a glass feeder containing B. besnoiti-free blood from a non-infected heifer. Quantitative PCR and modified direct fluorescence antibody test (dFAT) were used to detect B. besnoiti DNA and entire parasites, respectively, in the blood recipient, the mouthparts, and the gut contents of S. calcitrans at two time intervals: 1 and 24 h after the interrupted blood meal. Parasite DNA was detected at both time intervals (1 and 24 h) in all samples (blood recipient, mouthparts, and gut contents of stable flies) while entire parasites by dFAT were only found in the abdominal compartment 1 h after the interrupted blood meal. Then, S. calcitrans were able to carry B. besnoiti from chronically infected cattle to an artificial recipient in the conditions of the protocol.
Parasitology Research 10/2012; · 2.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the main health issues in sheep breeding. To identify loci affecting the resistance to Haemonchus contortus, a genome scan was carried out using 1275 Romane x Martinik Blackbelly back-cross lambs. The whole population was challenged with Haemonchus contortus in two consecutive experimental infections and fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volumes were measured. A subgroup of 332 lambs with extreme FEC was sacrificed to determine the total worm burden, length of female worms, sex ratio in the worm population, abomasal pH and serum and mucosal IgG responses. The pepsinogen concentration was measured in another subset of 229 lambs. For QTL detection, 160 microsatellite markers were used as well as the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip that provided 42,469 SNP markers after quality control. Linkage, association and joint linkage and association analyses were performed with the QTLMAP software. The linkage disequilibrium was estimated within each pure breeds and association analyses were carried out either considering or not the breed origin of the haplotypes. Four QTL regions on OAR5, 12, 13 and 21 were identified as key players among many other QTL with low to moderate effects. A QTL on OAR21 affecting the pepsinogen concentration exactly matched the pepsinogen (PGA5) locus. A 10-Mbp region affecting FEC both the 1st and 2nd infections was found on OAR12. SNP markers outperformed microsatellites in the linkage analysis. Taking advantage of the linkage disequilibrium helped to refine the locations of the QTL mapped on OAR5 and 13.
Journal of Animal Science 07/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine besnoitiosis is considered an emerging chronic and debilitating disease in Europe. Many infections remain subclinical, and the only sign of disease is the presence of parasitic cysts in the sclera and conjunctiva. Serological tests are useful for detecting asymptomatic cattle/sub-clinical infections for control purposes, as there are no effective drugs or vaccines. For this purpose, diagnostic tools need to be further standardized. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the serological tests available in Europe in a multi-centred study. A coded panel of 241 well-characterized sera from infected and non-infected bovines was provided by all participants (SALUVET-Madrid, FLI-Wusterhausen, ENV-Toulouse, IPB-Berne). The tests evaluated were as follows: an in-house ELISA, three commercial ELISAs (INGEZIM BES 12.BES.K1 INGENASA, PrioCHECK Besnoitia Ab V2.0, ID Screen Besnoitia indirect IDVET), two IFATs and seven Western blot tests (tachyzoite and bradyzoite extracts under reducing and non-reducing conditions). Two different definitions of a gold standard were used: (i) the result of the majority of tests ('Majority of tests') and (ii) the majority of test results plus pre-test information based on clinical signs ('Majority of tests plus pre-test info'). Relative to the gold standard 'Majority of tests', almost 100% sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) were obtained with SALUVET-Madrid and FLI-Wusterhausen tachyzoite- and bradyzoite-based Western blot tests under non-reducing conditions. On the ELISAs, PrioCHECK Besnoitia Ab V2.0 showed 100% Se and 98.8% Sp, whereas ID Screen Besnoitia indirect IDVET showed 97.2% Se and 100% Sp. The in-house ELISA and INGEZIM BES 12.BES.K1 INGENASA showed 97.3% and 97.2% Se; and 94.6% and 93.0% Sp, respectively. IFAT FLI-Wusterhausen performed better than IFAT SALUVET-Madrid, with 100% Se and 95.4% Sp. Relative to the gold standard 'Majority of test plus pre-test info', Sp significantly decreased; this result was expected because of the existence of seronegative animals with clinical signs. All ELISAs performed very well and could be used in epidemiological studies; however, Western blot tests performed better and could be employed as a posteriori tests for control purposes in the case of uncertain results from valuable samples.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 03/2012; · 2.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the cyst-forming apicomplexan Besnoitia besnoiti, is commonly reported in some restricted regions of South-Western Europe, and in larger regions of Africa and Asia. This infection is thought to be transmitted by blood feeding insects and is responsible for major economic losses in cattle production. A recent emergence in Europe, notified in the Centre of France, Spain and Germany, has attracted more attention to this disease. Clinical signs could appear in some animals; however, many infected cattle remain asymptomatic or show scleral-conjunctival cysts (SCC) only. Recent development of serological methods allows carrying out seroepidemiological field studies. In this respect, a long-term investigation was performed in a dairy cattle farm localized in an enzootic area of besnoitiosis of South-western France between March 2008 and May 2009. The objective was to estimate the seasonal pattern of B. besnoiti infections based on the presence of SCC and serology (ELISA and Western blot). In parallel, an entomological survey was conducted to describe population dynamics of Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanidae species. The seroprevalence determined by Western blot in a cohort of 57 animals continuously present during the whole survey increased from 30% in March 2008 to 89.5% in May 2009 and was always higher than the prevalence based on clinically assessed SCC. New positive B. besnoitia seroconversions occurred throughout the year with the highest number in spring. In addition, many seroconversions were reported in the two months before turn-out and could be associated with a high indoors activity of S. calcitrans during this period.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comparative experimental study was performed between Barbados Black Belly (resistant) and INRA-401 (susceptible) breeds of sheep in which primary infection with Haemonchus contortus was terminated on day 16. Measurements of parasite burden, abomasal tissue eosinophilia, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA transcripts in abomasal mucosa, and in vitro larval killing abilities of blood eosinophils were performed. The results show that: (1) worm burden was significantly lower and blood eosinophilia higher in the Black Belly than in the INRA breed. (2) Abomasal cytokine expression was noticed but no difference existed between the two breeds. (3) Three out of four Black Belly sheep had higher tissue eosinophil numbers compared to the INRA sheep (more eosinophils observed in the pyloric than in the fundic region in both breeds). (4) No significant difference was observed in the in vitro larval immobilizing potential of eosinophils between the two breeds. Collectively, abomasal eosinophil number and larval killing abilities of blood eosinophils do not seem to explain the difference in worm burden between the two breeds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Larvae of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) are ubiquitous parasites of nasal and sinusal cavities of sheep and goats. According to the chronobiology of O. ovis infections in Sardinia and the seasonal pattern of the IgG response, the optimal period to investigate the relationships between O. ovis larval populations and intensity of local and systemic IgG antibody responses was mid-July in the summer season. Sarda x Lacaune ewes (n=186), divided into three ram-families were used in the study. Systemic and local IgG responses were measured by ELISA tests using second stage larval crude extracts (L2CE) and L2 (L2SGC) and L3 (L3SGC) salivary gland contents as coating antigens. The number of larval instars, larval length of L1, L2 and L3 larvae, and larval weight of L2 and L3 larvae were individually recorded after ewe necropsy. Negative correlations among larval establishment and/or larval development on the one hand and intensity of local or systemic IgG responses on the other hand were found in two out of three studied ram-families.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immune responses to Haemonchus contortus were compared in studies in resistant Barbados Black Belly (BBB) and susceptible INRA 401 (INRA) breeds of lambs. The cytokine patterns indicated a Th2-biased response in both breeds. A more persistent and elevated Th2 cytokine mRNA transcription and blood eosinophilia were noted in the BBB lambs. However, at days 4 and 30 post-infection, abomasal recruitment of eosinophils and mast cells were similar between the two breeds. Following primary infections, the BBB demonstrated a substantially lower faecal egg count compared to the INRA lambs. Furthermore, worm counts at 4 and 30 days post-infection, and adult female worm size and in utero egg counts 30 days after the first infection were significantly lower in the BBB than in the INRA breed. In the INRA breed, re-infection caused a significant reduction in most parasitological parameters compared with those observed after the primary infection. A similar response was not observed in the BBB sheep. In conclusion, while the major driving force in the response to H. contortus infection is a Th2-biased immunity in which the BBB showed its maximal performance during the primary infection, the INRA breed performed better after re-infection compared to its response to first exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Larval midgut proteins of hematophagous parasites contain strong antigens that can be used for host immunization. This concept has been applied for immunization of Pelibuey sheep against Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of immunization on larval establishment (LE) and development. Immunized lambs (I, n = 6) received two injections of crude gut membrane protein extracts (GMPE) from third instar larvae with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) on days 0 (Day of first immunization) and 21 (0.4 and 0.45 mg GMPE/lamb, respectively). The control group (C, n = 5) received physiological saline with FIA. Lambs were challenged with first instars on Day 29 (20 larvae) and Day 43 (25 larvae). Blood samples were collected biweekly and IgG titers were analyzed by ELISA. All lambs were slaughtered on Day 90 and number of larvae recovered, larval stage and larval weight were recorded at necropsy. No significant effect of immunization on LE (C = 28.9%; I = 31.0% P > 0.05) was observed. Antibody titers were higher in the immunized group on Day 28 (P < 0.05), but subsequently similar in both groups. Larval physiological age and weight were also significantly (P < 0.05) affected by immunization. Immunization of Pelibuey lambs with GMPE did not affect LE but did delay O. ovis larval development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different authors have reported that eosinophils are capable of immobilising infective larvae of different species of nematodes in vitro. However, classifying larvae as mobile or immobile is so subjective that it does not always mean all apparently immobile larvae are dead or those that are mobile are capable of surviving further immune responses if administered to their natural hosts. The objective of this experimental study was therefore to substantiate the role of eosinophils in the killing of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae by comparing the infectivity in sheep of larvae that had been incubated with eosinophil-enriched cell suspensions with control larvae. Since it was not possible to isolate pure eosinophils from sheep blood, we were compelled to evaluate the effects of other blood cells contaminating our eosinophil-enriched suspensions. Although eosinophils and neutrophils were the only cells found adherent to H. contortus infective larvae in vitro, induced eosinophils in the presence of immune serum were primarily responsible for the drastic reduction in larval motility compared to the minor effects of neutrophils and mononuclear cells. Corresponding reductions in faecal egg count and worm numbers were observed when the incubated larvae were transferred intra-abomasally to sheep. Interestingly, the proportion of larvae that failed to establish was much higher following incubation with induced eosinophils compared with other cells or with immune serum alone. Although this study did not address the in vivo role of eosinophils in sheep, the results strongly indicate that sheep blood eosinophils have a larval killing potential in vitro, and a larval mobility test alone may not fully explain the level of damage inflicted on the larvae.
Veterinary Research 01/2007; 38(4):647-54. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells and eosinophils are known to participate in the processes of al-lergic inflammation and gastrointestinal parasitic diseases. Sodium cromo-glycate (SCG), a non steroid anti-allergic drug is used in the prophylaxis and treatment of asthma and GIT allergic disorders in human. This experimental study has used SCG to reduce the population and degranulation of mast cells and the subsequent mobilisation of eosinophils during Haemonchus contor-tus infection, in an attempt to rendering the relatively nematode resistant Black Belly breed of sheep more prone to the infection. Animals were divi-ded in to three groups of 5 sheep (groups SH, H and C: SCG treated and in-fected, non-treated and infected and negative control respectively). Blood and bone marrow eosinophil counts, faecal egg count (FEC), tissue eosino-phil, mast cell and globule leukocyte counts as well as measurement of other parasitological parameters were performed. Oral administration of SCG for 5 consecutive weeks successfully reduced the level of blood and bone mar-row eosinophil number but not tissue eosinophil level. Furthermore, a signi-ficant reduction in mast cells, and a moderate reduction in globule leucocyte numbers were observed in the abomasal mucosa. Mean values for FEC and worm counts were higher in group SH. However, there was no significant difference between SCG-treated and non-treated group, which suggests the reduction in the inflammatory response alone, may not be sufficient enough to influence H. contortus development in sheep. As the dose and mode of administration of this drug is not fully established for sheep, further studies might be required to make SCG a useful tool for experimental studies during gastrointestinal parasitism. RÉSUMÉ Un traitement quotidien au cromoglycate de sodium diminue les ré-ponses mastocytaires et éosinophiliques sanguines chez des moutons de race Black Belly résistants à Haemonchus contortus . Mastocytes et éosinophiles sont des cellules impliquées dans les proces-sus allergiques et les maladies parasitaires du tube digestif. Le cromoglycate de sodium (CGS), une drogue non stéroïdienne, est utilisée dans la préven-tion et le traitement de l'asthme bronchique et des manifestations allergiques du tube digestif. Cette expérimentation a utilisé le CGS afin de réduire la po-pulation et la dégranulation des mastocytes muqueux mais également la mo-bilisation des éosinophiles durant une infestation par Haemonchus contortus chez des moutons de race Barbados Black Belly réputés résistants à ce para-site. 15 agneaux de cette race ont été répartis en trois groupes de 5 animaux : i) traités au CGS et infestés par H. contortus (SH), ii) non traités au CGS et infestés (H) et iii) témoins non traités et non infestés (C). Des comptages ré-guliers d'éosinophiles sanguins ont été réalisés de même que des comptages d'oeufs dans les matières fécales. Après l'autopsie, 30 jours après l'infesta-tion, une évaluation de la proportion d'éosinophiles dans la moelle osseuse, du nombre d'éosinophiles, de mastocytes et de leucocytes dans la muqueuse abomasale a été menée sur tous les animaux. L'administration quotidienne de CGS avant l'infestation puis durant toute la durée de l'infestation a réduit significativement l'éosinophilie sanguine et la proportion d'éosinophiles dans la moelle osseuse mais n'a pas eu d'effet sur le recrutement de ce type cellulaire dans la muqueuse abomasale. Une réduction significative du nom-bre de mastocytes et, dans une moindre mesure, de leucocytes est constatée chez les animaux du groupe SH. La diminution de réponse cellulaire dans ce dernier groupe ne s'est pourtant pas traduite par une installation significati-vement supérieure, un meilleur développement ou une plus grande fécondité des vers femelles même si des tendances apparaissent dans ce sens. Comme la posologie et le rythme d'administration du CGS ne sont pas complètement validés chez le mouton, d'autres expérimentations sont nécessaires pour fai-re du CGS un outil d'étude de la réponse cellulaire des ovins aux strongylo-ses gastro-intestinales.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oestrosis is a nasal myiasis of sheep and goats caused by larvae of the fly Oestrus ovis and can lead to severe clinical signs, which together with the disturbance caused by the adult fly may result into serious economic losses. Infection rates and larval burdens are always higher in sheep than in goats after either natural or artificial infestation. The aim of this study was to compare the host preference of the adult fly O. ovis between sheep and goats in mixed flocks, where they are kept together under the same husbandry conditions and hence, are very similarly exposed to the fly preference. Blood sera samples were collected from a total of 397 sheep and 335 goats, from 43 mixed flocks located at different regions of Greece. Antibodies specific to O. ovis IgG were measured by ELISA. A flock was considered positive when at least one individual was positive, i.e. showed a seropositivity of >or=20% in relation to positive control sera. A total of 193 (48.6%) sheep and 58 (17.9%) goats were found to be seropositive against O. ovis. Thirty-eight (88.4%) out of 43 flocks had at least one seropositive animal. The mean seroconversion against O. ovis in animals from the different flocks was 38.6% and 13.6% for sheep and goats, respectively, whereas the variance of infection within each flock was 0-100%. The mean seropositivity between sheep that were found to be positive or negative was 60.6% and 5.4%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values between goats were 35.2% and 5.2%, respectively. No significant difference in the seroconversion values was noted between flocks from the different areas (P=0.817), whereas a very significant difference was observed between animal species (P=0.001). However, there was no significant difference when seroconversion comparisons were made within samples of the same animals species, sheep or goats from different flocks of all the regions included in the study (P=0.695). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that O. ovis has a widespread distribution in Greece, and the seroprevalence is significantly higher in sheep than goats (P=0.001).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if an earlier infection with Oestrus ovis would down regulate an infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis when the larvae of O. ovis were expelled from the nasal cavities of sheep by a specific treatment. Three groups of five lambs were used: group 1 was artificially infected with O. ovis larvae and later with T. colubriformis, group 2 received O. ovis larvae and later was treated with ivermectin 14 days before being infected with T. colubriformis. Group 3 was infected with T. colubriformis only. The criteria examined were: the effects on nematode egg excretion, worm fecundity, nematode burdens and the kinetics of blood eosinophils. Significant decreases of nematode egg excretion, worm fecundity, nematode burdens were observed in group 1 compared to group 3. However, no changes were observed in either group 2 or 3. In group 2 it was noted that antiparasitic treatment induced a rapid decrease in blood eosinophils to a range close to the non-infected control group and this was associated with the removal of the down regulation effects of nematode burdens. This experiment showed that there is no cross immunity between O. ovis and T. colubriformis and that eosinophils may act against any parasite without specific priming.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anthelmintic properties of tanniferous plants and of their secondary metabolites represent one possible alternative to chemotherapy that is currently being explored as a means of achieving sustainable control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Previous in vivo and in vitro results suggest that tanniferous plants can have direct anti-parasitic effect against different stages of nematodes. However, the mode of action of the bioactive plant compounds remains obscure. The objectives of the current study were (1) to examine the hypothesis that extracts of tanniferous plants might interfere with the exsheathment of third-stage infective larvae (L3); (2) to assess the role of tannins in the process by examining the consequence of adding an inhibitor of tannins (polyethylene glycol: PEG) to extracts. The effects of 4 tanniferous plant extracts on exsheathment have been examined on L3 of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Artificial exsheathment was induced in vitro by adding hypochloride solution to larval suspension. The evolution of exsheathment with time was measured by repeated observations at 10-min interval for 60 min. The selected plants were: genista (Sarothamnus scoparius), heather (Erica erigena), pine tree (Pinus sylvestris), and chestnut tree (Castanea sativa), with tannin contents ranging from 1.5 to 24.7% of DM. Extracts of a non-tanniferous plant (rye grass, tannin content: 0.3% of DM) were included in the assay as negative controls. The extracts were tested at the concentration of 600 microg/ml and the effects were compared to the rate of exsheathment of control larvae in PBS. No statistical differences in the pattern of exsheathment was observed after addition of rye grass or genista extracts for both nematode species and with heather extracts for T. colubriformis. In contrast, pine tree extracts on larvae of both species and heather extracts with H. contortus induced a significant delay in exsheathment. Last, contact with chest nut extracts led to a total inhibition of the process for both nematodes. These results suggest that extracts of tanniferous plants might affect a key process in the very early stages of larval invasion of the host. In most cases, the addition of PEG led to a total or partial restoration towards control values. This suggests that tannins are largely involved in the inhibitory process. However, other secondary metabolites may also interfere with the process that would help to explain some of the differences in response observed between the two nematode species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to anthelmintics in populations of gastrointestinal nematodes is a major concern in small ruminants. One solution
to limit the spread of anthelmintic resistance is to apply treatments selectively by targeting the most susceptible animals within
a flock. In dairy goats, previous studies have shown that, within a flock, goats in first lactation and those with high level of milk
production were highly receptive to nematode infections. These results provided the rationale for targeted treatments. In dairy
ewes, such epidemiological information on possible factors modulating the susceptibility to parasitism were still lacking. The
objective of the current study was therefore to examine differences in the level of parasite infection and in the pathophysiological
consequences in dairy ewes, depending on the age or on the level of milk production. In three farms, parasite egg excretion, and the
serum concentrations of pepsinogen and inorganic phosphate were compared on one hand between primiparous and multiparous
ewes; on the other hand, between ewes with the highest and the lowest level of milk production, within a cohort of 3–5-year
old animals. Overall, the results did not indicate significant differences for both either the parasitological or pathophysiological
measurements depending on the level of milk production. In contrast, significant differences were found according to age,
indicating higher levels of infections in the primiparous ewes than in the multiparous ones and suggesting that this category of
animals represents a particular parasitic risk within a flock.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of tannins on adult populations of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta in goats are characterised mainly by a decrease in egg excretion without any significant changes in worm number. In contrast, the impact of tannins on T. colubriformis or T. circumcincta third-stage larvae (L3) is associated with a significant reduction in worm establishment. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of quebracho extract tannins on H. contortus L3. The consequences of consumption of sainfoin hay were also examined. Twenty-one naïve kids were divided into three experimental groups. Group Q received quebracho extract and group S received sainfoin hay from days D3 to D5. Group C remained as an infected control group. All kids received 1500 L3 H. contortus on D0, D1 and D2. On D18, post-infection, the kids were slaughtered and the worm populations compared in the different groups. Compared to the control values, the worm counts decreased, respectively, by 33% and 38% in groups Q and S but the differences were not significant. No differences were found in pathophysiological measurements between the three groups. The results confirm differences in tannin effect according to nematode species but not parasitic stage.
The Veterinary Journal 10/2005; 170(2):260-3. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Larvae of Oestrus ovis (Insecta: Diptera: Oestridae) are common parasites of nasal and sinus cavities of sheep and goats. During larval development, a specific immune reaction is initiated by the host with a humoral local and systemic response and the recruitment of eosinophils and mast cells in the upper airways mucosae. Nevertheless, the roles of these responses in the regulation of O. ovis larvae populations in sheep are not yet known. The aim of this study was to compare the establishment and the development of larvae as well as some inflammatory or immune parameters between different groups of half-sibling sheep: (i) a primed group experimentally infected twice before a challenge infection, (ii and iii) two groups infected once only and previously treated with a long-lasting corticoïd before the challenge (one group) or not (the other group). A fourth group of non-infected animals was added in the experimental design. The larval establishment rate was 23% in the corticoïd treated group compared to about 10% in the two other infected groups. Moreover, the larval development appeared more rapid in the corticoïd treated group than in the two other infected groups suggesting that the inflammatory response is involved in the regulation of O. ovis populations. By contrast, no differences in the establishment rates were shown in the primed group compared to the naïve group (without corticoïd treatment) despite evidence of higher eosinophilia, serum specific IgG, and immediate hypersensibility to excretory-secretory products of larvae. The specific lymphocyte proliferation was reduced in the primed group compared to the naïve one suggesting that an immuno-suppression occurs following repetitive O. ovis infections.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 06/2005; 105(1-2):95-103. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mixed parasitic infection of animals is a common phenomenon in nature. The existence of one species often positively or negatively influences the survival of the other. Our experimental study was started with the objectives to demonstrate the interaction of Haemonchus contortus and Oestrus ovis in relation to cellular and humoral immune responses in sheep. Twenty-two sheep of Tarasconnais breed (France) were divided into four groups (O, OH, H and C) of five or six animals. Group O and OH received 5 weekly consecutive inoculations with O. ovis L1 larvae (total = 82 L1) in the first phase of the experiment between days 0 and 28. On the second phase, groups OH and H received 5000 L3 of H. contortus on day 48 while group C served as our control throughout the experimental period. Parasitological, haematological, serological and histopathological examinations were made according to standard procedures and all animals were slaughtered at day 95. There was no significant variation in the number and degree of development of O. ovis larvae between the two infected groups. Furthermore, in tissues examined in the upper respiratory tract (nasal septum, turbinate, ethmoide and sinus), group O and OH has responded similarly on the basis of cellular inflammatory responses (blood and tissue eosinophils, mast cells and globule leucocytes (GL)) and serum antibody responses against the nasal bots. This may indicate that the presence of H. contortus in the abomasa of group OH had no marked influence over the development of O. ovis larvae in the upper respiratory tract. On the other hand, we have observed a significantly lower H. contortus female worm length, fecal egg count (FEC) and in utero egg count in animals harbouring the nasal bot (OH) than in the mono-infected group (H). This was significantly associated with higher blood eosinophilia, higher packed cell volume (PCV) and increased number of tissue eosinophils and globule leucocytes. We conclude that, the establishment of O. ovis larvae in the upper respiratory tract has initiated higher inflammatory cellular activity in group OH there by influencing the development and fecundity of H. contortus in the abomasum.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats, the need to explore novel approaches to control nematodes and to reduce the exclusive reliance on chemotherapy is strongly demanded in this host species. In sheep, several studies have shown that the consumption of tannin-rich legume forages was associated with positive effects on host resilience and resistance to parasite infection. In goats, studies on such interactions between tanniferous plants and nematode infections remain few. The objectives of the current study were to examine under natural conditions the effects of consumption of sainfoin hay by goats on the parasite populations and on host resilience. Eighteen adult cull goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were used in the study. At the start of the assay, the goats were allocated into two groups, balanced according to weight and the levels of egg excretion. The two groups grazed separate pastures for 3 months with similar stocking rates. Goats from group S received each month indoors, for 7 days, sainfoin hay and control goats (group C) received hay of ryegrass. The diets in both groups were made isoenergetic and isoproteic and the refusals measured. Individual parasitological and pathophysiological measurements were performed fortnightly in order to compare host resistance and resilience. At the end of the study, five goats per group were necropsied. The distribution of sainfoin was associated with: (1) a higher consumption of hay; (2) significant, lower levels of nematode egg excretion which was associated with a decrease in worm fertility but no change in worm population; however, the number of intestinal worms was reduced by 50% in group S; (3) a better host resilience. In particular, after 2 months of grazing, two control goats died and half of the remaining animals needed to be treated whereas this was not the case in group S. These differences were related to significant changes in pepsinogen and phosphate values (PCV) but not in pepsinogen and phosphate concentrations. These results demonstrate that a repeated distribution of sainfoin hay to grazing goats might be beneficial in regard of pasture contamination and host resilience. They suggest that administration of sainfoin hay might represent a valuable alternative and adjunct to reduce nematode infections in dairy goat flock.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twelve lambs were divided into two groups: Group C control, non-infected, and Group O infected once a week for 5 weeks with OEstrus ovis L1 through the same nostril. The first objective of this experiment was to check whether larvae moving through a given nostril remain in the same side nasal cavity or might to spread in both nasal cavities. It has been observed that larvae invade and spread through the entire nasal cavities. The only possible passage way between both sides is via the choanae and velum palatinum. The second objective was to follow the kinetics of blood eosinophilia. A primary peak in eosinophil numbers was noted 4 days following infection, with a higher peak following the second infection. After that, no major changes were seen. Nevertheless, the numbers of eosinophils were always higher than in control animals until the end of the follow-up. The third objective of the study was an enumeration of reactive cells (mast cells, globule leucocytes, and eosinophils) in the mucosae of the upper and lower respiratory tract after necropsy of the animals of the two groups. As observed in previous experiments, there was a large accumulation of these cells in mucosae of the upper respiratory tract. It was also worth noting a significant accumulation of eosinophils in the tissues of the trachea, bronchae and lungs even though OE. ovis was not present there. This "distant" eosinophilic reaction may have important consequences on patho-physiology of other parasites living in these locations: eosinophils have the potential to kill them even though these cells are not activated by their specific antigens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seasonal population trends and effects of Oestrus ovis in naturally infected sheep were studied over 13 months, in the Western of the Pampeana region. At weaning, 140 growing lambs were randomly allocated to two groups: UG, untreated group and TG treated every 4 weeks with closantel (10 mg/kg). Successive Oestrus free tracer lambs (TL) by previous treatment (n = 65) were slaughtered after 20-30 exposition days for larval counts. Likewise, other group PL of 117 permanent untreated lambs was slaughtered from four to 17 months of age. Weighing and assessment of health signs of UG and TG and blood samples were monthly carried out. The prevalence of infection in permanent group varied from 33% to 100%. Mean number of larvae in PL was 6.1 with 3 L1, 1.4 L2 and 1.6 L3 during spring-summer and 17.9 with 16.9 L1, 0.5 L2 and 0.4 L3 during autumn-winter months. In PL the proportions of larvae in each of the different larval stages was similar during spring and summer, but a significant (P < 0.01) increase of L1 was detected during autumn and winter. The prevalence in tracer lambs was 100% during summer time and larvae were absent from 25-May to 25-October. Mean larval burdens of positive TL varied from 6.4 to one Oestrus and a significant peak (P < 0.05) of larvae was seen from December to March. Since March to November only L1 was recovered from TL. TG group showed a reduction in nasal discharge and in antibody ELISA levels, but no difference was observed in live weight gain between TG and UG. These results show a high prevalence during summer and that the perpetuation of Oestrus is ensured by an autumn period of arrested development and the over wintering larvae in the sheep heads.