Mark Edwards

London Research Institute, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (4)29.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The prognosis of functional (or psychogenic) motor symptoms (weakness and movement disorder) has not been systematically reviewed. We systematically reviewed PubMed for all studies of eight or more patients with functional motor symptoms reporting follow-up data longer than 6 months (excluding studies reporting specific treatments). We recorded symptom duration, physical and psychiatric comorbidity, disability, occupational functioning at follow-up and prognostic factors. 24 studies were included. There was heterogeneity regarding study size (number of patients (n)=10 491), follow-up duration clinical setting and data availability. Most studies (n=15) were retrospective. Reported symptom outcome was highly variable. Mean weighted follow-up duration was 7.4 years (in 13 studies where data was extractable). The mean percentage of patients same or worse at follow-up for all studies was 39%, range 10% to 90%, n=1134. Levels of physical disability and psychological comorbidity at follow-up were high. Short duration of symptoms, early diagnosis and high satisfaction with care predicted positive outcome in two studies. Gender had no effect. Delayed diagnosis and personality disorder were negatively correlated with outcome. Prognostic factors that varied between studies included age, comorbid anxiety and depression, IQ, educational status, marital status and pending litigation. Existing follow-up studies of functional motor symptoms give us some insights regarding outcome and prognostic factors but are limited by their largely retrospective and selective nature. Overall, prognosis appears unfavourable. The severity and chronicity of functional motor symptoms argues for larger prospective studies including multiple prognostic factors at baseline in order to better understand their natural history.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 09/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • Nitin K Sethi, Jon Stone, Mark Edwards
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    ABSTRACT: I read with interest the recent article by Drs. Stone and Edwards.(1) Their experience was that if patients with functional motor symptoms were shown their physical signs, they could be persuaded of the accuracy of their diagnosis and the potential reversibility of their symptoms. While this may be true, my personal experience of patients with nonepileptic events has varied. Many patients feel vindicated when shown the nonepileptic event captured on video-EEG. Their complaints finally stand justified in the eyes of their doctor and loved ones. That said, patients rarely if ever completely stop having their typical events after this. In a few patients, the event frequency may exacerbate and new events with previously unreported clinical semiology may be reported.(2) These patients are frequently lost to follow-up only to seek medical care in another institution under another physician where invariably diagnostic workup is repeated. This also adds to health care costs to society as a whole. Explicitly telling patients that their events are psychogenic in origin has its own challenges. The discussion is invariably rough for the physician-sometimes heated-and the psychogenic explanation is not readily accepted by most patients. I tell my patients that there is no organic basis to the symptomatology and advise that underlying psychogenic factors need to be aggressively addressed rather than say that the events are real, not imagined, or "all in the mind."
    Neurology 02/2013; 80(9):869. · 8.30 Impact Factor
  • Jon Stone, Mark Edwards
    Neurology 02/2013; 80(9):869. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    Jon Stone, Mark Edwards
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    ABSTRACT: Functional (psychogenic) motor symptoms are diagnosed on the basis of positive signs of inconsistency or incongruity with known neurologic disease. These signs, such as Hoover sign or tremor entrainment, are often regarded by neurologists as 'tricks of the trade,' to 'catch the patient out, ' and certainly not to be shared with them. In this reflective article, the authors suggest that showing the patient with functional motor symptoms their physical signs, if done in the right way, is actually one of the most useful things a neurologist can do for these patients in persuading them of the accuracy of their diagnosis and the potential reversibility of their symptoms.
    Neurology 07/2012; 79(3):282-4. · 8.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17 Citations
29.78 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • New York State
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Division of Clinical Neurosciences
      Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom