Mark A Turco

Washington Adventist University, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (51)447.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the difference in neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) between ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), stable angina pectoris (SAP), and unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Patients and methods: From formal core laboratory intravascular ultrasound substudies, we compared NIH after paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) or bare metal stents (BMS) in STEMI lesions from HORIZONS-AMI trial with SAP and UAP lesions from TAXUS IV, V, and ATLAS studies. Results: At follow-up, %NIH at the minimum lumen area (MLA) site was less in STEMI (n=212) than in UAP (n=233) and SAP (n=440) lesions treated with PES (19.6 vs. 26.2 vs. 25.0%, P=0.002; all intravascular ultrasound data shown as least-square means in abstract) and less in STEMI (n=66) than in UAP (n=72) and SAP (n=143) lesions treated with BMS (34.0 vs. 26.7 vs. 45.5%, P=0.0003). As a result, MLA at follow-up was larger in STEMI than in UAP and SAP lesions treated with PES (5.9 vs. 5.2 vs. 5.0 mm, P<0.0001) or treated with BMS (5.1 vs. 4.3 vs. 4.0 mm, P=0.002). Net volume obstruction ([NIH/stent volume]×100) at follow-up was significantly less in STEMI than in UAP and SAP lesions treated with PES (7.8 vs. 13.4 vs. 13.4%, P<0.0001) or BMS (20.6 vs. 28.5 vs. 32.1%, P<0.0001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that STEMI was correlated independently and inversely with net volume obstruction compared with SAP (regression coefficient -6.99, P<0.0001) or UAP (regression coefficient -6.29, P<0.0001). Conclusion: Implantation of PES or BMS in STEMI compared with UAP and SAP was associated with less NIH.
    Coronary Artery Disease 06/2014; 25(7). DOI:10.1097/MCA.0000000000000131 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The provisional approach for bifurcation stenting with side-branch balloon angioplasty is associated with dissections and suboptimal results requiring kissing balloon techniques or bailout stenting. We hypothesized that employing a scoring balloon for the side-branch and a drug-eluting stent for the main vessel might improve outcomes of true bifurcation lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 93 patients with complex bifurcations were enrolled in a multi-center, single-arm, prospective clinical trial. A drug-eluting stent was deployed in the main vessel following dilatation of the side-branch stenosis with a scoring balloon. The overall angiographic success rate was 93.5% and procedural success rate was 91.4%. The final diameter stenosis was 13.9±7.2% for the main vessel and 33.3±22.9% for the side-branch. Crossover to stent deployment in the side-branch was required in 10.8%. The post-scoring balloon dissection rate was 8.2% and 6% (all ≤class C) for the main vessel and side-branch respectively, which was reduced to 1.1% and 2.1% post-stenting. At 9 months follow-up the composite MACE rate (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularization) was 5.4%, including a target lesion revascularization rate of 3.3% (1.1% from hospital discharge to 9 months). CONCLUSION: The 9-months results of the AGILITY trial support a simple provisional strategy for treating complex true bifurcation lesions with deployment of a drug eluting stent in the main vessel after dilatation of the side-branch vessel with a scoring balloon. This strategy was associated with excellent and safe procedural results, a low rate of crossover to side-branch stenting, and favorable outcomes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 09/2013; 82(3). DOI:10.1002/ccd.24630 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2013; 61(10). DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(13)61856-2 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse event (AE) rates for interventional stroke trials are not well established. We prospectively evaluated control arm AEs from a randomized stroke trial to establish expected rates of neurologic AEs. Control data from the Safety and Efficacy of NeuroFlo Technology in Ischemic Stroke (SENTIS) Trial were evaluated. Patients were ≥ 18 years with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores 5–18 within 14 h of stroke onset. Follow-up was 90 days. Neurological AEs and serious AEs (SAEs) were adjudicated and the following defined times used to determine treatment relatedness: 24-h imaging for intracranial hemorrhage (ICnH) including hemorrhagic transformation, 7 days each for cerebral edema and neurologic worsening/stroke progression, and 30 days for new ischemic strokes. The control group included 257 patients, 49.4% female, mean age of 68.3 years, and median NIHSS of 10. Neurologic AEs occurred at the following rates: ICnH 27.6%, cerebral edema 6.6%, neurologic worsening 18.3%, and new stroke 4.7%. Most of these events occurred within the defined times: ICnH 74.6%, cerebral edema 94.1%, neurologic worsening 87.2%, and new stroke 83.3%. SENTIS Trial control arm neurologic events provide estimates of expected AE rates and defined times that can be used for future stroke trial's safety assessments.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 09/2012; 127(2). DOI:10.1111/ane.12005 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Registry Experience at the Washington Hospital Center, DES - Taxus Liberte Versus Xience V (REWARDS TLX) is a physician-initiated, retrospective, real-world, multicenter, observational study for all patients >18 years of age subjected to percutaneous coronary intervention with everolimus-eluting stents (EESs) or paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs). Outcomes of patients receiving a TAXUS Liberté or XIENCE V drug-eluting stent were compared. Baseline clinical, procedural, and follow-up data at 12 months were collected from 10 clinical centers by an electronic data capture system. The study's primary end point was major adverse cardiac events: a composite of all-cause death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, and stent thrombosis. The trial is registered with (NCT01134159). Data were entered for 1,195 patients (PES, n = 595; EES, n = 600). Baseline clinical characteristics were similar except for higher dyslipidemia, systemic hypertension, and family history of coronary artery disease in the EES group. In-hospital outcome was similar between groups, with an overall in-hospital stent thrombosis rate of 0.2%. The primary end point at 12 months was similar (EES 7.8% vs 10.8%, p = 0.082). Overall stent thrombosis rate was lower in the EES group (0.3% vs 1.2%, respectively, p = 0.107); however, target lesion revascularization was similar (PES, hazard ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 2.19, p = 0.064). There was no difference in overall mortality between groups. In conclusion, second-generation EESs and PESs demonstrated similar efficacy and safety profiles for broadened patient and lesion subsets compared to a selected population from the pivotal trials. However, for composite efficacy and safety end points, EESs outperformed second-generation PESs.
    The American journal of cardiology 07/2012; 110(8):1119-24. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.05.050 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the changing health care environment, cost effectiveness is an important adjunct to clinical investigation when assessing new medical devices. This study presents an economic model to evaluate cost effectiveness of coronary stents. Markov modeling was developed comparing total costs (Medicare payer perspective) between TAXUS Liberté and TAXUS Express based on 3-year clinical outcomes from the TAXUS ATLAS Small Vessel and Long Lesion trials. The TAXUS Liberté 2.25-mm stent provided cost savings relative to TAXUS Express from a payer perspective ($17,605 vs. $20,281), driven by reduced target vessel revascularization (0.16 events/patient vs. 0.33 events/patient). In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, TAXUS Liberté was less costly with fewer major adverse cardiac events in over 99% of parameter sets. The TAXUS Liberté Long (38 mm) stent was cost neutral relative to TAXUS Express from a payer perspective ($18,545 vs. $18,551) with fewer myocardial infarctions and cardiac deaths. Accounting for angiography-driven revascularizations, TAXUS Liberté 2.25 mm still provided cost savings relative to TAXUS Express ($16,822 vs. $19,139), although TAXUS Liberté Long was more expensive than TAXUS Express ($17,886 vs. $17,652). From a hospital perspective, TAXUS Liberté Long provided cost savings up to a price premium of $671/stent, driven by fewer stents employed per patient. This analysis confirms the utility of economic modeling in assessing new stent platforms. TAXUS Liberté 2.25 mm is economically dominant relative to TAXUS Express when treating small vessels. TAXUS Liberté Long is cost neutral to modestly more costly than TAXUS Express 2.25 mm from a payer perspective.
    Journal of Interventional Cardiology 05/2012; 25(4):353-63. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-8183.2012.00737.x · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have not addressed vessel response >5 mm distal to the stent edge. Therefore, we investigated the impact of paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) versus bare metal stents (BMS) on distal vessels in the serial intravascular ultrasound substudies of TAXUS IV, V, and VI. TAXUS IV, V, and VI were double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trials comparing PES with BMS. In their intravascular ultrasound substudies, 103 patients (54 BMS, 49 PES) had intravascular ultrasound data ≥10 mm distal to the stent both postprocedure and at 9 months follow-up. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Multilevel modeling was used to account for the variation between patients and within patients among distal segments. Effect of stent type, time, and their interaction was tested using a mixed effect model controlling for distal segments. Postprocedure lumen and vessel were not significantly different between PES versus BMS; however, lumen (P=0.006) and vessel (P=0.0001) were significantly reduced for BMS at 9-month follow-up but not for PES. Conversely, there was a significant plaque increase from postprocedure to 9-month follow-up for PES (P=0.0008) but not for BMS. These vessel responses were statistically consistent among 0- to 5-mm versus 5- to 10-mm versus 10- to 15-mm segments distal to the stent in both groups. PES use was associated with plaque increase from baseline to 9-month follow-up >5 mm distal to the stent along with positive remodeling, whereas BMS use was associated with negative remodeling and no plaque increase. These vessel responses were consistent in 5-mm long subsegments: 0 to 5 mm versus 5 to 10 mm versus 10 to 15 mm distal to the stent. URL: HTTP://WWW.CLINICALTRIAL.GOV. Unique identifiers: TAXUS IV: NCT00292474; TAXUS V: NCT00301522; TAXUS VI: NCT00297804.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 04/2012; 5(2):211-9. DOI:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.111.965780 · 6.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stent design, metal alloy composition, and strut thickness may influence late lumen loss and clinical outcomes after bare metal stent deployment; however, their impact on outcomes after drug-eluting stent deployment is unknown. Although the TAXUS Liberté and ION paclitaxel-eluting stents use similar polymer and drug, the ION stent incorporates a novel thin-strut platinum chromium metal alloy and cell design. We therefore compared patient-level data from 2,298 subjects enrolled into the TAXUS ATLAS (TAXUS Liberté) and PERSEUS (ION) clinical trials. Propensity-score (1:1) matching was performed to adjust for covariate imbalance between stent types. Twelve-month major adverse cardiac events were less frequent after use of the ION compared to the TAXUS Liberté (12.7% vs 8.3%, p <0.001, unadjusted; 12.0% vs 7.5%, p = 0.007, propensity matched) largely because of decreased non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI; 2.9% vs 1.4%, p = 0.01, unadjusted; 3.2% vs 0.9%, p = 0.004, propensity matched). The MI difference was predominantly periprocedural and in patients treated with a single stent. In conclusion, this exploratory post hoc analysis demonstrated that the ION was associated with fewer adverse clinical events than the TAXUS Liberté because of decreased non-Q-wave MI. Stent platform-related variables may influence clinical outcomes after drug-eluting stent use despite similar polymer and drug elution. Differences in adjunctive pharmacotherapy and/or stenting technique may also be contributory.
    The American journal of cardiology 07/2011; 108(6):828-37. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.05.011 · 3.28 Impact Factor

  • Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine 05/2011; 12(3). DOI:10.1016/j.carrev.2011.04.261
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to compare late safety and efficacy outcomes following percutaneous coronary revascularization with zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES). Despite higher late lumen loss and binary restenosis with ZES compared with SES, it is uncertain whether differences in early angiographic measures translate into more disparate late clinical events. Clinical outcomes were prospectively evaluated through 5 years in the ENDEAVOR III (A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Medtronic Endeavor Drug [ABT-578] Eluting Coronary Stent System Versus the Cypher Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions) that randomized 436 patients of relatively low anatomic and clinical risk to treatment with ZES (n = 323) or SES (n = 113) and evaluated a primary endpoint of 8-month angiographic late lumen loss. At 5 years (completeness of follow-up: 95.2%), pre-specified endpoints of all-cause mortality (5.2% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.02), myocardial infarction (1.0% vs. 4.6%, p = 0.03), and the composite event rates of cardiac death/myocardial infarction (1.3% vs. 6.5%, p = 0.009) and major adverse cardiac events (14.0% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.05) were significantly lower among patients treated with ZES. Rates of target lesion (8.1% ZES vs. 6.5% SES, p = 0.68) and target vessel revascularization were similar between treatment groups. Stent thrombosis was infrequent and similar in both groups (0.7% ZES vs. 0.9% SES, p = 1.0). Between 9 months and 5 years, progression of major adverse cardiac events was significantly more common with SES than with ZES (16.7% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.015). Despite initially higher angiographic late lumen loss, rates of clinical restenosis beyond the protocol-specified angiographic follow-up period remain stable with ZES compared with the rates for SES, resulting in similar late-term efficacy. Over 5 years, significant differences in death, myocardial infarction, and composite endpoints favored treatment with ZES. (The Medtronic Endeavor III Drug Eluting Coronary Stent System Clinical Trial [ENDEAVOR III]; NCT00217256).
    JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 05/2011; 4(5):543-50. DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2010.12.014 · 7.35 Impact Factor

  • Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine 05/2011; 12(3). DOI:10.1016/j.carrev.2011.04.260
  • Mark A Turco ·
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    ABSTRACT: The Integrity Coronary Stent System (Medtronic Vascular, CA, USA) is a low-profile, open-cell, cobalt-chromium-alloy advanced bare-metal iteration of the well-known Driver/Micro-Driver Coronary Stent System (Medtronic Vascular). The Integrity stent is made with a process called continuous sinusoid technology. This process allows stent construction via wrapping a single thin strand of wire around a mandrel in a sinusoid configuration, with laser fusion of adjacent crowns. The wire-forming process and fusion pattern provide the stent with a continuous preferential bending plane, intended to allow easier access to, and smoother tracking within, distal and tortuous vessels while radial strength is maintained. Continuous sinusoid technology represents innovation in the design of stent platforms and will provide a future stent platform for newer technology, including drug-eluting stent platforms, drug-filled stents and core wire stents.
    Expert Review of Medical Devices 05/2011; 8(3):303-6. DOI:10.1586/erd.11.2 · 1.68 Impact Factor

  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2011; 57(14). DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(11)61185-6 · 16.50 Impact Factor

  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2011; 57(14). DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(11)61825-1 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term impact of treating de novo coronary lesions in native vessels and challenging small vessel and long lesion subsets with TAXUS Liberté stents is unknown. This report examines the 3-year efficacy and safety from the TAXUS ATLAS program. TAXUS ATLAS WH, Small Vessel, and Long Lesion are non-randomized studies comparing TAXUS Liberté (n = 871), TAXUS Liberté 2.25 mm (n = 261), and TAXUS Liberté 38 mm (n = 150) stents, respectively, to case-matched TAXUS Express historical controls. TAXUS Liberté demonstrated comparable 3-year rates of major adverse cardiac events (19.0% vs. 20.2%, P = 0.51) in de novo lesions, reduced target lesion revascularization (TLR, 10.0% vs. 22.1%, P = 0.008) in small vessels, and reduced myocardial infarction (MI, 2.9% vs. 10.4%; P = 0.01) and stent thrombosis (ST, 0.0% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.03) in long lesions vs. TAXUS Express. After propensity score adjustment, no statistically significant effect of TAXUS Liberté on TLR (9.7% vs. 16.9%, P = 0.12) in small vessels or MI (2.9% vs. 7.9%, P = 0.05) in long lesions was noted, although reduced ST (0.0% vs. 2.7%, P = 0.02) remained in long lesions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that TAXUS Liberté treatment significantly reduced TLR by 66% in small vessels, and MI by 75% in long lesions, vs. TAXUS Express. TAXUS Liberté suggests durable 3-year effectiveness in reducing restenosis and improved clinical outcomes in small vessels and long lesions compared with TAXUS Express.
    Circulation Journal 04/2011; 75(5):1120-9. DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-10-0848 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted the "TAXUS Woman" analysis to assess the influence of sex on long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention using paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) in a broad spectrum of patients. Previous studies indicate that the sex gap suggesting worse outcomes in women has narrowed. However, limited data are available on long-term sex-based outcomes with drug-eluting stents despite their extensive use in current practice. We analyzed 2,271 PES-treated patients (women = 665), from 5 randomized trials and 7,492 PES-treated patients (women = 2,449) from 2 "real-world" registries. The trial and registry datasets were stratified by sex to compare long-term outcomes. Additionally, the outcomes in PES-treated women were compared with bare-metal stent-treated women (n = 395) in the randomized trials. In the randomized trials, PES-treated women had a lower target lesion revascularization (TLR) rate (11.5% vs. 22.6%, p < 0.001) than bare-metal stent-treated women, with no significant sex-based differences in death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, or TLR through 5 years. In both the trials and the registries, although women had more adverse baseline characteristics including advanced age, hypertension, and diabetes, they had similar outcomes to men. In expanded-use patients, however, women showed significantly higher rates of death and TLR, although only the higher TLR rate was confirmed by multivariate analysis. This study of nearly 10,000 patients including more than 3,000 women demonstrates that despite their higher-risk profile, women have comparable benefits to men from percutaneous coronary intervention with PES except for a slightly higher revascularization rate in the high-risk cohort.
    JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 12/2010; 3(12):1250-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2010.08.020 · 7.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis was to evaluate the vascular response of the thin-strut TAXUS Liberté stent compared with the otherwise identical TAXUS Express stent. The TAXUS ATLAS and TAXUS ATLAS Long Lesion studies are nonrandomized trials comparing the thin-strut TAXUS Liberté stent to historical TAXUS Express controls from the TAXUS IV and TAXUS V trials. A total of 377 patients enrolled in the two TAXUS ATLAS studies were randomly selected for the IVUS subset and compared to 314 TAXUS Express IVUS controls. Despite increased lesion complexity in the TAXUS Liberté group, neointimal formation at 9 months was similar in both stents (TAXUS Liberté 13.8±11.0%; TAXUS Express 13.1±13.8%, P=.56). However, this neointima covered more of the overall stent in the TAXUS Liberté (67.9±32.5%) compared with the TAXUS Express (54.4±37.2%, P<.001), suggesting more uniform neointimal distribution. TAXUS Liberté also showed less pronounced negative remodeling at both stent edges and had significantly less (4.3% vs. 9.6%, P=.04) late incomplete stent apposition (ISA). Despite identical polymer and drug release characteristic, the thin-strut TAXUS Liberté stent demonstrates improved neointimal coverage, better edge remodeling, and less late ISA vs. TAXUS Express, hereby highlighting the importance of the platform design for drug-eluting stents.
    Cardiovascular revascularization medicine: including molecular interventions 12/2010; 12(4):247-57. DOI:10.1016/j.carrev.2010.09.008
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    Ralph Brindis · Samuel D Goldberg · Mark A Turco · Larry S Dean ·

    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2010; 57(1):111-3. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.12.006 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the 2-year impact of early and late-acquired incomplete stent apposition (ISA) on clinical events. The late clinical impact of early or late-acquired ISA in bare-metal stents (BMS) and TAXUS stents (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) is debatable. We evaluated 1,580 patients enrolled in the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) substudies of TAXUS IV, V, VI and TAXUS-ATLAS WH, LL, and DS trials. There were 96 cases of early ISA in 26 (7.2%) BMS patients, 35 (9.7%) TAXUS Express patients (p = 0.28 vs. BMS), and 35 (7.3%) TAXUS Liberté patients (p = 0.21 vs. TAXUS Express, and p = 1.00 vs. BMS). Major adverse cardiovascular events were similar at 9 months in patients with early ISA versus control subjects with no ISA for BMS (3.8% vs. 15.2%, p = 0.13) and for TAXUS (11.6% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.45). There was no impact of early ISA on stent thrombosis. At 9-month follow-up, there were 36 cases of late-acquired ISA in 7 (2.7%) BMS patients, 17 (3.1%) patients with TAXUS slow-release (TAXUS Express or TAXUS Liberté), and 12 (15.4%) patients receiving TAXUS moderate-release. Over 2 ensuing years, major adverse cardiovascular events were similar in patients with late-acquired ISA versus control subjects with no ISA for BMS (14.3% vs. 7.9%, p = 0.54), TAXUS (overall, 8.3% vs. 8.1% p = 0.87), or TAXUS slow-release formulation (0% vs. 7.9%, p = 0.28). There was no impact of late-acquired ISA on stent thrombosis. Neither routinely detected acute ISA nor routinely detected late-acquired ISA in BMS or TAXUS patients was associated with adverse clinical events over long-term follow-up.
    JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 05/2010; 3(5):486-94. DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2010.03.007 · 7.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to study the long-term clinical effects of routine angiographic follow-up and related reintervention after drug-eluting stenting. Prior stent trials have shown that protocol-mandated angiographic follow-up increases repeat interventions compared with clinical follow-up alone. The long-term clinical impact of this practice is unknown. Long-term outcomes of patients assigned to routine angiographic follow-up in 3 large-scale TAXUS (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) trials were compared with patients assigned to clinical follow-up alone, in a propensity score-adjusted patient-level meta-analysis. Outcomes were also compared in patients with treated versus untreated nonischemic intermediate lesions (quantitative angiographic stenosis between >or=40% and <70%) detected at angiographic follow-up. Target lesion revascularization (TLR) rates at 5 years were significantly higher in the angiographic compared with clinical follow-up cohort (18.3% vs. 11.1%, p < 0.001). This was due to more frequent treatment of intermediate lesions, but there was no associated reduction in rates of cardiac death or myocardial infarction (8.9% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.93). Of patients with nonischemic intermediate lesions, 17% who were not revascularized at the time of angiographic follow-up had a subsequent TLR, whereas 7% of patients who had TLR at this follow-up angiogram required additional revascularization during long-term follow-up. A strategy of routine angiographic follow-up increases oculostenotic revascularization of nonischemic intermediate lesions without affecting subsequent rates of cardiac death or myocardial infarction, and TLR was not required in 83% of those lesions. A conservative approach, in which repeat angiography is limited to patients with recurrent ischemia or progressive symptoms, minimizes repeat revascularization of nonischemic intermediate lesions and optimizes long-term event-free survival after drug-eluting stent implantation.
    JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 04/2010; 3(4):403-11. DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2010.01.010 · 7.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
447.47 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2013
    • Washington Adventist University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Washington Hospital Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2011
    • The Washington Institute
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2009
    • Skokie Hospital
      Skokie, Illinois, United States
    • Columbia University
      • Division of Cardiology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2004
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States