[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BCR-ABL1 mutations are a common, well-characterized mechanism of resistance to imatinib as first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). Less is known about mutation development during first-line treatment with dasatinib and nilotinib, despite increased use due to higher response rates compared with imatinib. Retrospective analyses were conducted to characterize mutation development in patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP treated with dasatinib (n=259) or imatinib (n=260) in DASISION, with 3-year minimum follow-up. Mutation screening, including patients who discontinued treatment and patients who had a clinically relevant on-treatment event (no confirmed complete cytogenetic response [cCCyR] and no major molecular response [MMR] within 12 months; five-fold increase in BCR-ABL1 with loss of MMR; loss of CCyR), yielded a small number of patients with mutations (dasatinib, n=17; imatinib, n=18). Dasatinib patients had a narrower spectrum of mutations (4 vs 12 sites for dasatinib vs imatinib), fewer phosphate-binding loop mutations (1 vs 9 mutations), fewer multiple mutations (1 vs 6 patients), and greater occurrence of T315I (11 vs 0 patients). This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00481247.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 29 June 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.168.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 06/2015; 29(9). DOI:10.1038/leu.2015.168 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serial quantification of BCR-ABL1 mRNA is an important therapeutic indicator in chronic myeloid leukemia, but there is substantial variation in results reported by different laboratories. To improve comparability, an internationally accepted plasmid certified reference material (CRM) was developed according to ISO Guide 34:2009. Fragments of BCR-ABL1 (e14a2 mRNA fusion), BCR and GUSB transcripts were amplified and cloned into pUC18 to yield plasmid pIRMM0099. Six different linearised plasmid solutions were produced with the following copy number concentrations, assigned by digital PCR, and expanded uncertainties: 1.08±0.13 × 10(6), 1.08±0.11 × 10(5), 1.03±0.10 × 10(4), 1.02±0.09 × 10(3), 1.04±0.10 × 10(2) and 10.0±1.5 copies/μL. The certification of the material for the number of specific DNA fragments per plasmid, copy number concentration of the plasmid solutions and the assessment of inter-unit heterogeneity and stability were performed according to ISO Guide 35:2006. Two suitability studies performed by 63 BCR-ABL1 testing laboratories demonstrated that this set of 6 plasmid CRMs can help to standardise the numbers of measured transcripts of e14a2 BCR-ABL1 and three control genes; ABL1, BCR and GUSB. The set of 6 plasmid CRMs is distributed worldwide by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium) and its authorised distributors (http://irmm.jrc.ec.europa.eu; CRM code ERM-AD623a-f).Leukemia accepted article preview online, 18 July 2014; doi:10.1038/leu.2014.217.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Ponatinib is a potent oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor of unmutated and mutated BCR-ABL, including BCR-ABL with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor-refractory threonine-to-isoleucine mutation at position 315 (T315I). We conducted a phase 2 trial of ponatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-positive ALL). Methods
We enrolled 449 heavily pretreated patients who had CML or Ph-positive ALL with resistance to or unacceptable side effects from dasatinib or nilotinib or who had the BCR-ABL T315I mutation. Ponatinib was administered at an initial dose of 45 mg once daily. The median follow-up was 15 months. ResultsAmong 267 patients with chronic-phase CML, 56% had a major cytogenetic response (51% of patients with resistance to or unacceptable side effects from dasatinib or nilotinib and 70% of patients with the T315I mutation), 46% had a complete cytogenetic response (40% and 66% in the two subgroups, respectively), and 34% had a major molecular response (27% and 56% in the two subgroups, respectively). Responses were observed regardless of the baseline BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation status and were durable; the estimated rate of a sustained major cytogenetic response of at least 12 months was 91%. No single BCR-ABL mutation conferring resistance to ponatinib was detected. Among 83 patients with accelerated-phase CML, 55% had a major hematologic response and 39% had a major cytogenetic response. Among 62 patients with blast-phase CML, 31% had a major hematologic response and 23% had a major cytogenetic response. Among 32 patients with Ph-positive ALL, 41% had a major hematologic response and 47% had a major cytogenetic response. Common adverse events were thrombocytopenia (in 37% of patients), rash (in 34%), dry skin (in 32%), and abdominal pain (in 22%). Serious arterial thrombotic events were observed in 9% of patients; these events were considered to be treatment-related in 3%. A total of 12% of patients discontinued treatment because of an adverse event. Conclusions
Ponatinib had significant antileukemic activity across categories of disease stage and mutation status. (Funded by Ariad Pharmaceuticals and others; PACE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01207440.)
New England Journal of Medicine 11/2013; 369(19). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1306494 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose was to assess predictive factors for outcome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CML-CP) treated with nilotinib after imatinib failure. Imatinib-resistant and -intolerant patients with CML-CP (n=321) were treated with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily. Of 19 baseline patient and disease characteristics and two response end points analyzed, 10 independent prognostic factors were associated with progression-free survival (PFS). In the multivariate analysis, major cytogenetic response (MCyR) within 12 months, baseline hemoglobin 120 g/l, baseline basophils <4%, and absence of baseline mutations with low sensitivity to nilotinib were associated with PFS. A prognostic score was created to stratify patients into five groups (best group: 0 of 3 unfavorable risk factors and MCyR by 12 months; worst group: 3 of 3 unfavorable risk factors and no MCyR by 12 months). Estimated 24-month PFS rates were 90%, 79%, 67% and 37% for patients with prognostic scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively, (no patients with score of 4). Even in the presence of poor disease characteristics, nilotinib provided significant clinical benefit in patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant CML. This system may yield insight on the prognosis of patients.Leukemia advance online publication, 23 November 2012; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.305.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 11/2012; 27(4). DOI:10.1038/leu.2012.305 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nilotinib (Tasigna) is a BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) who are newly diagnosed or intolerant of or resistant to imatinib. The 48-month follow-up data for patients with CML-CP treated with nilotinib after imatinib resistance or intolerance on an international phase II study were analyzed. Overall, 59% of patients achieved major cytogenetic response; 45% achieved complete cytogenetic response while on study. The estimated rate of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 48 months was 78% and 57%, respectively. Deeper levels of molecular responses at 3 and 6 months were highly positively correlated with long-term outcomes, including PFS and OS at 48 months. Of the 321 patients initially enrolled in the study, 98 (31%) were treated for at least 48 months. Discontinuations were primarily due to disease progression (30%) or adverse events (21%). Nilotinib is safe and effective for long-term use in responding patients with CML-CP who are intolerant of or resistant to imatinib. Further significant improvements in therapy are required for patients who are resistant or intolerant to imatinib.Leukemia advance online publication, 27 July 2012; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.181.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 07/2012; 27(1). DOI:10.1038/leu.2012.181 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials Newly Diagnosed Patients compares nilotinib and imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). With a minimum follow-up of 3 years, major molecular response, molecular response of BCR-ABL0.01% expressed on the international scale (BCR-ABL(IS); MR(4)) and BCR-ABL(IS)0.0032% (MR(4.5)) rates were significantly higher with nilotinib compared with imatinib, and differences in the depth of molecular response between nilotinib and imatinib have increased over time. No new progressions occurred on treatment since the 2-year analysis. Nilotinib was associated with a significantly lower probability of progression to accelerated phase/blast crisis vs imatinib (two (0.7%) progressions on nilotinib 300 mg twice daily, three (1.1%) on nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and 12 (4.2%) on imatinib). When considering progressions occurring after study treatment discontinuation, the advantage of nilotinib over imatinib in preventing progression remained significant (nine (3.2%) progressions on nilotinib 300 mg twice daily, six (2.1%) on nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and 19 (6.7%) on imatinib). Both nilotinib and imatinib were well tolerated, with minimal changes in safety over time. Nilotinib continues to demonstrate superior efficacy in all key response and outcome parameters compared with imatinib for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 05/2012; 26(10):2197-203. DOI:10.1038/leu.2012.134 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nilotinib is a highly selective Bcr-Abl inhibitor approved for imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Nilotinib and dasatinib, a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor also approved for second-line therapy in CML, have different patterns of kinase selectivity, pharmacokinetics, and cell uptake and efflux properties, and thus patients may respond to one following failure of the other. An international phase II study of nilotinib was conducted in CML patients (39 chronic phase (CP), 21 accelerated phase (AP)) after failure of both imatinib and dasatinib. Median times from diagnosis of CP or AP to nilotinib therapy were 89 and 83 months, respectively. Complete hematological response and major cytogenetic response (MCyR) rates in CP were 79% and 43%, respectively. Of 17 evaluable patients with CML-AP, 5 (29%) had a confirmed hematological response and 2 (12%) a MCyR. The median time to progression has not yet been reached in CP patients. At 18 months 59% of patients were progression-free. Median overall survival for both populations has not been reached, and the estimated 18-month survival rate in CML-CP was 86% and that at 12 months for CML-AP was 80%. Nilotinib is an effective therapy in CML-CP and -AP following failure of both imatinib and dasatinib therapy.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 07/2010; 24(7):1299-301. DOI:10.1038/leu.2010.110 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dasatinib is a highly potent BCR-ABL inhibitor that has shown durable efficacy in patients with chronic phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after resistance, suboptimal response, or intolerance to prior imatinib. In patients with CML, BCR-ABL transcript measurement is the most sensitive method for assessing minimal residual disease. Here, molecular responses were analyzed in 1067 patients with CML-CP treated with dasatinib during phase II/III trials. After 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of follow-up, a major molecular response (MMR) was achieved by 12, 22, 35, and 40% of patients, respectively. The 24-month MMR rate was 34% in patients with resistance or suboptimal response to imatinib (n=829) and 63% in imatinib-intolerant patients (n=238). Among patients who had achieved a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR), 72% also achieved MMR. Responses with dasatinib 100 mg once daily were similar to other doses. In landmark analyses, 24-month progression-free survival was higher in patients who had achieved MMR or CCyR at 12 months than in those without MMR or CCyR at 12 months. MMR at 12 months was associated with a longer duration of CCyR. Overall, this analysis shows that dasatinib treatment results in high MMR rates in patients with CML-CP after imatinib failure.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2009; 23(9):1628-33. DOI:10.1038/leu.2009.156 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dasatinib is an inhibitor of BCR-ABL and SRC-family kinases for patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In this international phase II trial, dasatinib was administered orally (70 mg twice daily) to patients with myeloid blast phase (MBP, n=109) or lymphoid blast phase (LBP, n=48) CML. After a minimum follow-up of 12 months (range 0.03-20.7 months), major hematologic responses were induced in 34% (MBP-CML) and 35% (LBP-CML) of patients. Major cytogenetic responses were attained in 33% (MBP-CML) and 52% (LBP-CML) of patients and complete cytogenetic responses were attained in 26 and 46%, respectively. Median progression-free survival was 6.7 (MBP-CML) and 3.0 (LBP-CML) months. Median overall survival was 11.8 (MBP-CML) and 5.3 (LBP-CML) months. Overall, dasatinib had acceptable tolerability. Fluid retention events were more frequent in the MBP-CML than the LBP-CML cohort: pleural effusion occurred in 36 and 13% (all grades) and 15 and 6% (grades 3/4), respectively. Other non-hematologic side effects were primarily grade 1/2; grade 3/4 events were recorded in <or=6% of patients, except febrile neutropenia (15%). Cytopenias were noted in the majority of patients, and were manageable with dose interruptions/reductions. Dasatinib is associated with a promising rate of response in this high-risk population.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 09/2008; 22(12):2176-83. DOI:10.1038/leu.2008.221 · 10.43 Impact Factor