[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although inflammation-induced expansion of the intestinal lymphatic vasculature (lymphangiogenesis) is known to be a crucial event in limiting inflammatory processes, through clearance of interstitial fluid and immune cells, considerably less is known about the impact of an impaired lymphatic clearance function (as seen in inflammatory bowel diseases) on this cascade. We aimed to investigate whether the impaired intestinal lymphatic drainage function observed in FoxC2 mice would influence the course of disease in a model of experimental colitis.
Acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in wild-type and haploinsufficient FoxC2 mice, and survival, disease activity, colonic histopathological injury, neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration were evaluated. Functional and structural changes in the intestinal lymphatic vessel network were analyzed, including submucosal edema, vessel morphology, and lymphatic vessel density.
We found that FoxC2 downregulation in FoxC2 mice significantly increased the severity and susceptibility to experimental colitis, as displayed by lower survival rates, increased disease activity, greater histopathological injury, and elevated colonic neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration. These findings were accompanied by structural (dilated torturous lymphatic vessels) and functional (greater submucosal edema, higher immune cell burden) changes in the intestinal lymphatic vasculature.
These results indicate that sufficient lymphatic clearance plays a crucial role in limiting the initiation and perpetuation of experimental colitis and those disturbances in the integrity of the intestinal lymphatic vessel network could intensify intestinal inflammation. Future therapies might be able to exploit these processes to restore and maintain adequate lymphatic clearance function in inflammatory bowel disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postprandial lipidemia is important in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Consumption of a meal high in monounsaturated fat was correlated with acute impairment of endothelial function. But the mechanisms underlying impaired endothelial function in the postprandial state have not yet been elucidated. The effects of polyunsaturated fat (corn oil) and monounsaturated fat (olive oil) on vascular dysfunction in intestinal postcapillary venules and arterioles were examined in wild-type (WT) mice, mice genetically deficient in TLR4 (TLR4-/-) and mice pre-treated with antibiotics by intravital microscopy which was performed 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 hours after oil administration. After intravital microscopy, samples of jejunum were therefore collected to test TLR4, pNF-kB p65 and SIRT1 protein expression by western blotting.
Our findings showed that feeding mono-unsaturated olive oil or polyunsaturated corn oil promoted leukocyte and platelet trafficking in the gut microvasculature, and impaired endothelium-dependent arteriolar vasodilator responses during postprandial lipidemia. And the expression of TLR4, pNF-kB p65 was significantly increased in mice gavaged with olive oil at 2 h and was significantly reduced in mice gavaged for 7 days with antibiotics and in TLR4 knockout (TLR4-/-) mice. At the same time, SIRT1 protein expression is diminished by feeding olive oil for 2 h, a phenomenon that is attenuated in mice pre-treated with antibiotics and in TLR4-/- mice. Corn oil treated mice exhibited a pattern of response similar to olive oil.
Dietary oils may be negative regulators of SIRT1 which activate the innate immune response through the endotoxin/TLR4 axis. Our findings establish a link between innate immunity (i.e. the endotoxin/TLR4 axis) and epigenetic controls mediated by SIRT1 in the genesis of diet associated vascular stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor dissemination to cervical lymph nodes via lymphatics represents the first step in the metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and is the most significant predictor of tumor recurrence decreasing survival by 50%. The lymphatic suppressing properties of mTOR inhibitors are not yet well understood.
Lymphatic inhibiting effects of rapamycin were evaluated in vitro using two lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) lines. An orthotopic mouse model of HNSCC (OSC-19 cells) was used to evaluate anti-lymphangiogenic effects of rapamycin in vivo. The incidence of cervical lymph node metastases, numbers of tumor-free lymphatic vessels and those invaded by tumor cells in mouse lingual tissue, and expression of pro-lymphangiogenic markers were assessed.
Rapamycin significantly decreased lymphatic vascular density (p = 0.027), reduced the fraction of lymphatic vessels invaded by tumor cells in tongue tissue (p = 0.013) and decreased metastasis-positive lymph nodes (p = 0.04). Rapamycin also significantly attenuated the extent of metastatic tumor cell spread within lymph nodes (p < 0.0001). We found that rapamycin significantly reduced LEC proliferation and was correlated with decreased VEGFR-3 expression in both LEC, and in some HNSCC cell lines.
The results of this study demonstrate anti-lymphangiogenic properties of mTOR inhibitors in HNSCC. mTOR inhibitors suppress autocrine and paracrine growth stimulation of tumor and lymphatic endothelial cells by impairing VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 axis and release of soluble VEGFR-2. In a murine HNSCC orthotopic model rapamycin significantly suppressed lymphovascular invasion, decreased cervical lymph node metastasis and delayed the spread of metastatic tumor cells within the lymph nodes.
BMC Cancer 07/2013; 13(1):320. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-320 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension Research, official publication of the Japanese Society of Hypertension, publishes papers reporting original clinical and experimental research in the field of hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases.
Hypertension Research 07/2012; 35(9):892-3. DOI:10.1038/hr.2012.101 · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokines contribute to cerebro-vascular inflammatory and immune responses by inducing ECAMs' expression. Ischemic insults can be separated into aglycemic and hypoxic components. However, whether aglycemia, hypoxia or OGD plays a major role in dysregulating BBB or promotes immune cell infiltration via ECAMs' expression is not clear. We investigated how expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MAdCAM-1, PECAM-1, E- and P-selectin in response to TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-γ was altered by aglycemia (A), hypoxia (H) or combined oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD).
A cell surface enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (cell surface ELISA) was used to analyze ECAM expression.
We observed that ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 expressions were insensitive to hypoxia, aglycemia or OGD. Conversely, VCAM-1 and E-selectin were increased by hypoxia, but not by aglycemia. MAdCAM-1 and P-selectin were induced by hypoxia, and decreased by aglycemia. Patterns of cytokine-regulated ECAMs' expression were also modified by metabolic conditions.
Our results indicate that patterns of inflammation-associated ECAMs represent cumulative influences from metabolic stressors, as well as cytokine activation. The expression of ECAMs following tissue injury reflects mechanistic interactions between metabolic disturbances, and alterations in tissue cytokines. Normalization of tissue metabolism, as well as cytokine profiles, may provide important targets for therapeutic treatment of inflammation.
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 02/2012; 19(2):155-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1549-8719.2011.00141.x · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infiltration of leukocytes into post-ischemic cerebrum is a well-described phenomenon in stroke injury. Because CD-8(+) T-lymphocytes secrete cytotoxic proteases, including granzyme-b (Gra-b) that exacerbates post-ischemic brain damage, we investigated roles of Gra-b in human stroke. To study the role of Gra-b in stroke, ischemic and non-ischemic tissues (from post-mortem stroke patients) were analyzed using immunoblotting, co-immunoprecipitation, terminal deoxy uridine nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Annexin-V immunostaining, and in vitro neuron survival assays. Activated CG-SH cells and supernatants were used to model leukocyte-dependent injury. Non-ischemic brain tissues were used as non-pathological controls. Non-activated CG-SH cells and supernatants were used as controls for in vitro experiments. Human stroke (ischemic) samples contained significantly higher levels of Gra-b and interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10) than non-ischemic controls. In stroke, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and heat shock protein-70 were cleaved to canonical proteolytic "signature" fragments by Gra-b. Gra-b was also found to bind to Bid and caspase-3. Gra-b also co-localized with Annexin-V(+) /TUNEL(+) in degenerating neurons. Importantly, Gra-b inhibition protected both normal and ischemia-reperfused neurons against in vitro neurotoxicity mediated by activated CG-SH cells and supernatants. These results suggest that increased leukocyte infiltration and elevated Gra-b levels in the post-stroke brain can induce contact-dependent and independent post-ischemic neuronal death to aggravate stroke injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation.