Noriyuki Otsuki

National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (12)36.39 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nucleocapsid formation is a primary function of the rubella virus capsid protein, which also promotes viral RNA synthesis via an unknown mechanism. The present study demonstrates that in infected cells, the capsid protein is associated with the nonstructural p150 protein via the short self-interacting N-terminal region of the capsid protein. Mutational analyses indicated that hydrophobic amino acids in this N-terminal region are essential for its N-terminal self-interaction, which is critical for the capsid-p150 association. An analysis based on a subgenomic replicon system demonstrated that the self-interacting N-terminal region of the capsid protein plays a key role in promoting viral gene expression. Analyses using a virus-like particle (VLP) system also showed that the self-interacting N-terminal region of the capsid protein is not essential for VLP production, but is critical for VLP infectivity. These results demonstrate that the close cooperative actions of the capsid protein and p150 require the short self-interacting N-terminal region of the capsid protein during the life cycle of the rubella virus.
    Journal of virology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitor of κB kinase ε (IKKε) and TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), so-called non-canonical IKKs or IKK-related kinases, are involved in the cellular innate immunity by inducing type I IFNs. Two kinases commonly phosphorylate transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7 in type I IFN production pathway. In contrast to TBK1, underlying mechanisms of IKKε activation and regions required for activation of downstream molecules are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated regions of IKKε required for the activation of type I IFN promoter specially, by focusing on the C-terminal region. To show the functional significance of the IKKε C-terminal region on type I IFN production, we employed various mutant forms of IKKε and compared to corresponding region of TBK1. We identified the specific regions and residues of IKKε involved in the activation of downstream signaling. Interestingly, corresponding region and residues are not required for activation of downstream signaling by TBK1. The results highlight the importance of the C-terminal region in the functional activity of IKKε in innate immune response and also the difference in activation mechanisms between IKKε and the closely related TBK1.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94999. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rubella virus is the causative agent of rubella. The symptoms are usually mild, and characterized by a maculopapular rash and fever. However, rubella infection in pregnant women sometimes can result in the birth of infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Global efforts have been made to reduce and eliminate CRS. Although a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detection of rubella virus has been reported, the primers contained several mismatched nucleotides with the genomes of currently circulating rubella virus strains. In the present study, a new RT-LAMP assay was established. The detection limit of this assay was 100–1000 PFU/reaction of viruses for all rubella genotypes, except for genotype 2C, which is not commonly found in the current era. Therefore, the new RT-LAMP assay can successfully detect all current rubella virus genotypes, and does not require sophisticated devices like TaqMan real-time PCR systems. This assay should be a useful assay for laboratory diagnosis of rubella and CRS.
    Journal of Virological Methods. 01/2014; 207:73–77.
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    ABSTRACT: Canine distemper virus (CDV) becomes able to use human receptors through a single amino acid substitution in the H protein. In addition, CDV strains possessing an intact C protein replicate well in human epithelial H358 cells. The present study showed that CDV strain 007Lm, which was isolated from lymph node tissue of a dog with distemper, failed to replicate in H358 cells, although it possessed an intact C protein. Sequence analyses suggested that a cysteine-to-tyrosine substitution at position 267 of the V protein caused this growth defect. Analyses using H358 cells constitutively expressing the CDV V protein showed that the V protein with a cysteine, but not that with a tyrosine, at this position effectively blocked the interferon-stimulated signal transduction pathway, and supported virus replication of 007Lm in H358 cells. Thus, the V protein as well as the C protein appears to be functional and essential for CDV replication in human epithelial cells.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e82343. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent outbreaks in monkeys have proven that canine distemper virus (CDV) causes diseases in a wide range of mammals. CDV uses SLAM and nectin4 as receptors to replicate in susceptible animals. Here, we show that human nectin4, but not human SLAM, is fully functional as a CDV receptor. The CDV Ac96I strain hardly replicated in nectin4-expressing human epithelial NCI-H358 cells, but readily adapted to grow in them. Unsurprisingly, no amino acid change in the H protein was required for the adaptation. The original Ac96I strain possessed a truncated C protein, and a subpopulation possessing the intact C protein was selected after growth in NCI-H358 cells. Other CDV strains possessing the intact C protein showed significantly higher growth abilities in NCI-H358 cells than the Ac96I strain with the truncated C protein. These findings suggest that the C protein is functional in human epithelial cells and critical for CDV replication in them.
    Virology 11/2012; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to non-human primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, a CDV outbreak also occurred in cynomolgus monkeys imported from China. In that outbreak, forty-six monkeys died from severe pneumonia during a quarantine period. A CDV strain (CYN07-dV) was isolated in Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Phylogenic analysis showed that CYN07-dV was closely related to the recent CDV outbreaks in China, suggesting continuing chains of CDV infection in monkeys. In vitro, CYN07-dV uses macaca SLAM and macaca nectin4 as receptors as efficiently as dog SLAM and dog nectin4, respectively. CYN07-dV showed high virulence in experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys and excreted progeny viruses in oral fluid and feces. These data revealed that some of the CDV strains, like CYN07-dV, have the potential to cause acute systemic infection in monkeys.
    Journal of Virology 11/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine distemper virus (CDV) uses signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), expressed on immune cells, as a receptor. However, epithelial and neural cells are also affected by CDV in vivo. Wild-type CDV strains showed efficient replication with syncytia in Vero cells expressing dog nectin4, and the infection was blocked by an anti-nectin4 antibody. In dogs with distemper, CDV antigen was preferentially detected in nectin4-positive neurons and epithelial cells, suggesting that nectin4 is an epithelial cell receptor for CDV and also involved in its neurovirulence.
    Journal of Virology 07/2012; 86(18):10207-10. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many pathogens important for medicine, veterinary medicine or public health belong to the genera alphavirus and rubivirus within the family Togaviridae. 29 species of alphaviruses have been reported, and most of them are arboviruses. Chikungnya virus re-emerged in Kenya in 2004 and the epidemics spread to the Indian Ocean islands and many countries in South Asia, South-East Asia and Europe. On the other hand, rubella virus, a sole member of the genus rubivirus, is the causative agent of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Because human is only a natural host of the virus and effective live attenuated vaccines are available, immunization activities are strengthened globally to eliminate rubella and CRS, together with measles.
    Uirusu 12/2011; 61(2):211-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Rubella is a mild disease characterized by low-grade fever, and a morbilliform rash, but causes congenital defects in neonates born from mothers who suffered from rubella during the pregnancy. After many passages of wild-type rubella virus strains in various types of cultured cells, five live attenuated rubella vaccines were developed in Japan. An inability to elicit anti-rubella virus antibodies in experimentally infected animals was used as an in vivo marker phenotype of Japanese rubella vaccines. All Japanese rubella vaccine viruses exhibit a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype, and replicate very poorly at a high temperature. We determined the entire genome sequences of three Japanese rubella vaccines (Matsuba, TCRB19, and Matsuura), thereby completing the sequencing of all five Japanese rubella vaccines. In addition, the entire genome sequences of three vaccine progenitors were determined. Comparative nucleotide sequence analyses revealed mutations that were introduced into the genomes of the TO-336 and Matsuura vaccines during their production by laboratory passaging. Analyses involving cellular expression of viral P150 nonstructural protein-derived peptides revealed that the N1159S mutation conferred the ts phenotype on the TO-336 vaccine, and that reduced thermal stability of the P150 protease domain was a cause of the ts phenotype of some rubella vaccine viruses. The ts phenotype of vaccine viruses was not necessarily correlated with their inability to elicit humoral immune responses in animals. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms underlying the inability of these vaccines to elicit humoral responses in animals are more complicated than the previously considered mechanism involving the ts phenotype as the major cause.
    Vaccine 02/2011; 29(10):1863-73. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family proteins regulates innate immune responses by controlling transcription induced by Toll-like receptor, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, and JAK/STAT pathways. Here, we show that PIASy negatively regulates type I interferon (IFN) transcription. Virus infection led to enhanced type I IFN induction in PIASy null cells, and conversely PIASy overexpression reduced IFN transcription. A mutation in the LXXLL motif of the SAP domain abolished inhibition of IFN-stimulated gene expression but did not affect virus or Toll-like receptor/RIG-I-like receptor-stimulated IFN transcription, indicating that PIASy employs distinct mechanisms to inhibit virus-induced and IFN-stimulated transcription. SUMO E3 activity was not required for PIASy inhibition of IFN transcription; however, PIASy relied on the SUMO modification mechanism to inhibit IFN transcription, because the activity of the SUMO-interacting motif was required for inhibition, and knockdown of SUMO E2 enzyme UBC9 decreased inhibitory activity of PIASy. Our results demonstrate that PIASy negatively regulates both IFN transcription and IFN-stimulated gene expression through multiple mechanisms utilizing the function of different domains.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(10):8165-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether rubella virus is involved in the pathogenesis of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI). Fourteen patients (14 eyes) diagnosed with FHI based on characteristic ocular manifestations and eight control subjects were studied. Aqueous humor (AH) samples from 14 FHI patients and one vitreous sample from a FHI patient were analyzed for intraocular antibody production against rubella virus by calculation of the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (GWC). Viral detection by nested polymerase chain reaction and isolation by culture in RK-13 cells were conducted in nine FHI patients. In addition to laboratory examinations, medical history of rubella virus vaccination was also obtained. Ten patients with FHI examined showed intraocular synthesis of rubella virus antibodies (GWC > 3). A high index of rubella virus antibody production was also found in the vitreous sample (GWC = 30.6). GWC in all control subjects were below detectable level. The rubella genome was detected in two of nine patients, and rubella virus was isolated from one of nine patients with FHI. None of the patients with FHI had been vaccinated against rubella. Our laboratory data strongly suggest a relationship between FHI and rubella virus.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 10/2010; 248(10):1487-91. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sendai virus (SeV) encodes two accessory proteins, V and C, in the alternative reading frames in the P gene that are accessed transcriptionally (V) or translationally (C). The C protein is expressed as a nested set of four C-coterminal proteins, C', C, Y1, and Y2, that use different initiation codons. Using HeLa cell lines constitutively expressing the various C proteins, we previously found that the smallest (the 175-residue Y2) of the four C proteins was fully capable of counteracting the antiviral action of interferons (IFNs) and inhibiting viral RNA synthesis and that the C-terminal half of 106 residues was sufficient for both of these inhibitory functions (A. Kato et al., J. Virol. 75:3802-3810, 2001, and A. Kato et al., J. Virol. 76:7114-7124, 2002). Here, we further generated HeLa cell lines expressing the mutated C (Cm) proteins with charged amino acids substituted for alanine residues at either positions 77 and 80; 114 and 115; 139 and 142; 151, 153, and 154; 156; or 173, 175, and 176. We found that only the mutations at positions 151, 153, and 154 abolished IFN antagonism. All the Cm proteins lost the ability to bind with STAT1 under our assay conditions, regardless of their ability to inhibit IFN signaling. On the other hand, the Cm proteins that altered the tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 always retained IFN antagonism. Thus, the abnormality of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation appeared to be a cause of the IFN antagonism by SeV C. Regarding viral RNA synthesis inhibition, all mutants but the mutant with replacements at positions 114 and 115 greatly reduced the inhibitory activity, indicating that anti-RNA synthesis by the C protein is governed by amino acids scattered across its C-terminal half. Thus, amino acid sequence requirements differ greatly between IFN antagonism and RNA synthesis inhibition. In addition, we confirmed that another SeV accessory protein, V, does not antagonize IFN.
    Journal of Virology 08/2004; 78(14):7443-54. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

83 Citations
36.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2012
    • Hokkaido University
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan