[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the Kauffmann-White scheme, 39 pairs of serovars in Salmonella serogroup C2 differ only by the minor antigen O:6(1). We characterized strains from 10 serovars representing five Salmonella serogroup C2 pairs. All strains demonstrated variable expression of O:6(1). These results indicate that these pairs are not distinct serovars.
Journal of clinical microbiology 09/2012; · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States. Although salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, severe infections typically require antimicrobial treatment, and ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC), is commonly used in both adults and children. Surveillance conducted by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) has shown a recent increase in ESC resistance among Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from food animals at slaughter, retail meat, and humans. ESC resistance among Salmonella in the United States is usually mediated by a plasmid-encoded bla(CMY) β-lactamase. In 2009, we identified 47 ESC-resistant bla(CMY)-positive Heidelberg isolates from humans (n=18), food animals at slaughter (n=16), and retail meats (n=13) associated with a spike in the prevalence of this serovar. Almost 90% (26/29) of the animal and meat isolates were isolated from chicken carcasses or retail chicken meat. We screened NARMS isolates for the presence of bla(CMY), determined whether the gene was plasmid-encoded, examined pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns to assess the genetic diversities of the isolates, and categorized the bla(CMY) plasmids by plasmid incompatibility groups and plasmid multi-locus sequence typing (pMLST). All 47 bla(CMY) genes were found to be plasmid encoded. Incompatibility/replicon typing demonstrated that 41 were IncI1 plasmids, 40 of which only conferred bla(CMY)-associated resistance. Six were IncA/C plasmids that carried additional resistance genes. pMLST of the IncI1-bla(CMY) plasmids showed that 27 (65.8%) were sequence type (ST) 12, the most common ST among bla(CMY)-IncI1 plasmids from Heidelberg isolated from humans. Ten plasmids had a new ST profile, ST66, a type very similar to ST12. This work showed that the 2009 increase in ESC resistance among Salmonella Heidelberg was caused mainly by the dissemination of bla(CMY) on IncI1 and IncA/C plasmids in a variety of genetic backgrounds, and is likely not the result of clonal expansion.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 07/2012; 9(7):638-45. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica causes an estimated 1 million cases of domestically acquired foodborne illness in humans annually in the United States; Enteritidis (SE) is the most common serotype. Public health authorities, regulatory agencies, food producers, and food processors need accurate information about rates and changes in SE infection to implement and evaluate evidence-based control policies and practices.
We analyzed the incidence of human SE infection during 1996-2009 in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), an active, population-based surveillance system for laboratory-confirmed infections. We compared FoodNet incidence with passively collected data from complementary surveillance systems and with rates of SE isolation from processed chickens and egg products; shell eggs are not routinely tested. We also compared molecular subtyping patterns of SE isolated from humans and chickens.
Since the period 1996-1999, the incidence of human SE infection in FoodNet has increased by 44%. This change is mirrored in passive national surveillance data. The greatest relative increases were in young children, older adults, and FoodNet sites in the southern United States. The proportion of patients with SE infection who reported recent international travel has decreased in recent years, whereas the proportion of chickens from which SE was isolated has increased. Similar molecular subtypes of SE are commonly isolated from humans and chickens.
Most SE infections in the United States are acquired from domestic sources, and the problem is growing. Chicken and eggs are likely major sources of SE. Continued close attention to surveillance data is needed to monitor the impact of recent regulatory control measures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a prototype tool designed to enable computationally efficient visualization of data and its spatio-temporal analysis by food safety and public health investigators. Its utility is evaluated in the following contexts: (1) Investigation of relationships between cases of Salmonella related human illness and Salmonella positives in meat and poultry products at USDA regulated establishments; (2) Identification and detection of patterns in food safety data which may impact public health.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2003 the United States Department of Agriculture established USDA VetNet. It was modeled after PulseNet USA, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. The objectives of USDA VetNet are: to use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to subtype zoonotic pathogens submitted to the animal arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS); examine VetNet and PulseNet PFGE patterns; and use the data for surveillance and investigation of suspected foodborne illness outbreaks. Whereas PulseNet subtypes 7 foodborne disease-causing bacteria- Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Yersinia pestis, and Vibrio cholerae-VetNet at present subtypes nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes and Campylobacter from animals, including diagnostic specimens, healthy farm animals, and carcasses of food-producing animals at slaughter. By the end of 2005, VetNet had two functioning databases: the NARMS Salmonella and the NARMS Campylobacter databases. The Salmonella database contained 6763 Salmonella isolates and 2514 unique XbaI patterns, while the Campylobacter database contained 58 Campylobacter isolates and 53 unique SmaI patterns. Both databases contain the PFGE tagged image file format (TIFF) images, demographic information, and the antimicrobial resistance profiles assigned by NARMS. In the future, veterinary diagnostic laboratories will be invited to participate in VetNet. The establishment of USDA VetNet enhances the mission of the agriculture and public health communities in the surveillance and investigation of foodborne illness outbreaks.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 02/2007; 4(2):241-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor