[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most substrate for esterification has the inherent problem of low miscibility which requires addition of solvents into the reaction media. In this contribution, we would like to present an alternative and feasible option for an efficient solvent-free synthesis of menthyl butyrate using a novel thermostable crude T1 lipase. We investigated the effects of incubation time,temperature, enzyme loading and substrate molar ratio and determined the optimum conditions. The high conversion of menthyl butyrate catalyzed by crude T1 lipase in a solvent-free system is greatly affected by temperature and time of the reaction media. The highest yield of menthyl butyrate was 99.3% under optimized conditions of 60 C, incubation time of 13.15 h, 2.53 mg, 0.43% (w/w) enzyme to substrate ratio and at molar ratio of butyric anhydride/menthol 2.7:1. Hence, the investigation revealed that the thermostable crude T1 lipase successfully catalyzed the high-yield production of menthyl
butyrate in a solvent-free system. The finding suggests that the crude T1 lipase was a promising alternative to overcome shortcomings associated with solvent-assisted enzymatic reactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonionic surfactants such as the Brij® series are important in the preparation of transdermal drug nanodelivery products using nanoemulsions because of their low toxicity and low irritancy. Here, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was used to examine the physical behavior of the model deterministic system by using sampling procedures. Metropolis MC simulations were run on three mixtures of two different nonionic surfactants, Brij92 and Brij96, with different compositions in aqueous solution. The system was simulated in the canonical ensemble with constant temperature, volume and number of molecules. Hence, the acceptance ratio for single atom moves of the mixed surfactants increased as the concentration of surfactants increased from 0.494 to 0.591. The lowest total energy for the mixed surfactant systems was -99,039 kcal mol(-1) due to the interaction between all molecules in the system simulated. The physicochemical properties of models such as the radius of gyration and radial distribution function, were also determined. These observations indicate that the behavior and physicochemical of mixed surfactant and PKOEs nanoemulsion systems were described adequately during the simulation.
Journal of Molecular Modeling 11/2014; 20(11):2512. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metal ions are one of the essential elements which are extensively involved in many cellular activities. With rapid advancements in genome sequencing techniques, bioinformatics approaches have provided a promising way to extract functional information of a protein directly from its primary structure. Recent findings have suggested that the metal content of an organism can be predicted from its complete genome sequences. Characterizing the biological metal usage of cold-adapted organism may help to outline a comprehensive understanding of the metal-partnerships between the psychrophile and its adjacent environment. The focus of this study is targeted towards the analysis of the metal composition of a psychrophilic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 isolated from sea ice of Antarctica. Since the cellular metal content of an organism is usually reflected in the expressed metal-binding proteins, the putative metal-binding sequences from G. antarctica PI12 were identified in respect to their sequence homologies, domain compositions, protein families and cellular distribution. Most of the analyses revealed that the proteome was enriched with zinc, and the content of metal decreased in the order of Zn > Fe > Mg > Mn, Ca > Cu. Upon comparison, it was found that the metal compositions among yeasts were almost identical. These observations suggested that G. antarctica PI12 could have inherited a conserved trend of metal usage similar to modern eukaryotes, despite its geographically isolated habitat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report, molecular dynamics simulations were applied in order to investigate the effect of Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL) anions toward the structure and dynamic properties of lipases. Two lipases were studied; Candida antarctica lipase B and Candida rugosa lipase were solvated by five RTILs that contained the same cation, with increasing hydration levels. Several properties were investigated: structural deviations and flexibility of the protein conformation, the behaviour of RTILs at the protein surface, and the interactions between RTILs and water molecules in the systems. Both lipases' conformations showed an increased structural stability in RTILs when compared to an aqueous solution. The lowest structural deviation was observed around 15 to 20 percent of water content (w/w protein). The RTIL with chloride anion was shown to be the exception however: inducing the least structural stability at low water percentages. The flexibility of both lipases was clearly affected when transferred from aqueous into RTILs. The flexible regions found for both lipases in water were significantly more rigid in RTILs. Around the protein surface, the behaviour of RTIL anions and the water molecules was similar to other conventional organic solvents. The water retention ability for all RTIL anions was consistent for both lipases accept for the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, which showed distinctive behaviour toward different protein surface properties. The effect of water content was more profound compared to the difference between the RTILs anions studied. However, it was found that the structural and dynamic properties of the lipases were affected by the behaviour of anions toward the hydration layer of the enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptides as a kind of important chiral scaffold are broadly identified for their obvious advantages, diverse structures and accessibility. Based on promiscuous aldo-keto-reductase enzymes, several mimetic peptides were designed which were synthesized and tested as multifunctional organocatalysts in direct asymmetric aldol reactions. The corresponding aldol products were produced with high yields (up to 97%) and excellent diastereoselectivities (up to 99/1) and enantioselectivities (>98%) under mild reaction selectivity and enantioselectivity. The secondary structures of peptide catalysts provide an understanding of their mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enzymatic synthesis of N-trans-feruloyltyramine amide was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid and tyramine hydrochloride in a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction using Lipozyme TL IM. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on five-level, four-variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to evaluate the interaction of synthesis, reaction time (24–96 h), temperature (30°–50°C), amount of enzyme (50–500 mg, 12.5–125.0 IUN), and substrate molar ratio (cinnamic acid:tyramine HCl) 1:1–8:1 mmol on the percentage yield of N-trans-feruloyltyramine amide. The optimum conditions derived via RSM were: reaction time 52 h, temperature 43°C, amount of enzyme 260 mg (65.0 IUN), and substrate molar ratio (cinnamic acid:tyramine HCl) 6.2:1. The actual experimental yield was 96.3% under optimum conditions, which compared well to the maximum predicted value of 97.2%.
Chemical Engineering Communications 06/2014; 201(12). · 0.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipases are known for their versatility in addition to their ability to digest fat. They can be used for the formulation of detergents, as food ingredients and as biocatalysts in many industrial processes. Because conventional enzymes are frangible at high temperatures, the replacement of conventional chemical routes with biochemical processes that utilize thermostable lipases is vital in the industrial setting. Recent theoretical studies on enzymes have provided numerous fundamental insights into the structures, folding mechanisms and stabilities of these proteins. The studies corroborate the experimental results and provide additional information regarding the structures that were determined experimentally. In this paper, we review the computational studies that have described how temperature affects the structure and dynamics of thermoenzymes, including the thermoalkalophilic L1 lipase derived from Bacillus stearothermophilus. We will also discuss the potential of using pressure for the analysis of the stability of thermoenzymes because high pressure is also important for the processing and preservation of foods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, three forms of a novel octapeptide have been evaluated as asymmetric catalysts for the Michael reaction. Low quantity catalyst loading, ecofriendly solvents, and reusability of organocatalyst successfully applied to attain excellent yields and moderate enantioselectivities in the Michael reaction.[Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Synthetic Communications® for the following free supplemental resources: Full experimental and spectral details.]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptides mimicked from active site of promiscuous aldo-ketoreductase were synthesized and tested as asymmetry catalysts in the Michael adduct reaction of aldehydes or ketones with nitroolefins to furnish the corresponding γ-nitroaldehydes, γ-nitroketones with up to 93 % yield, 99:1 dr and 71 % ee at room temperature and on eco-friendly solvents. Aspartic acid residue as second amino acid produced greater enantioselectivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we focused on a simple enzymatic epoxidation of alkenes using lipase and phenylacetic acid. The immobilised Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435 was used to catalyse the formation of peroxy acid instantly from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phenylacetic acid. The peroxy phenylacetic acid generated was then utilised directly for in situ oxidation of alkenes. A variety of alkenes were oxidised with this system, resulting in 75-99% yield of the respective epoxides. On the other hand, the phenylacetic acid was recovered from the reaction media and reused for more epoxidation. Interestingly, the waste phenylacetic acid had the ability to be reused for epoxidation of the 1-nonene to 1-nonene oxide, giving an excellent yield of 90%.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:756418. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty acid esters are long-chain esters, produced from the reaction of fatty acids and alcohols. They possess potential applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations due to their excellent wetting behaviour at interfaces and a non-greasy feeling when applied on the skin surfaces. This preliminary work was carried out to construct pseudo-ternary phase diagrams for oleyl laurate, oleyl stearate and oleyl oleate with surfactants and piroxicam. Then, the preparation and optimization study via 'One-At-A-Time Approach' were carried out to determine the optimum amount of oil, surfactants and stabilizer using low-energy emulsification method. The results revealed that multi-phase region dominated the three pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. A composition was chosen from each multi-phase region for preparing the nanoemulsions systems containing piroxicam by incorporating a hydrocolloid stabilizer. The results showed that the optimum amount (w/w) of oil for oleyl laurate nanoemulsions was 30 and 20 g (w/w) for oleyl stearate nanoemulsions and oleyl oleate nanoemulsions. For each nanoemulsions system, the amount of mixed surfactants and stabilizer needed for the emulsification to take place was found to be 10 and 0.5 g (w/w), respectively. The emulsification process via high-energy emulsification method successfully produced nano-sized range particles. The nanoemulsions systems passed the centrifugation test and freeze-thaw cycle with no phase failures, and stable for 3 months at various storage temperatures (3°C, 25°C and 45°C). The results proved that the prepared nanoemulsions system cannot be formed spontaneously, and thus, energy input was required to produce nano-sized range particles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, the estimation capabilities of the response surface methodology and artificial neural network, in an enzymatic reaction
catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase (Novozym 435), were investigated. The experiments were conducted based on a five-level, fourvariable
central composite rotatable design. The yield of ester in the enzymatic reaction was considered as a function of four independent
variables, namely reaction time, reaction temperature, enzyme amount and substrate molar ratio. After predicting the model using response
surface methodology and artificial neural network, two methodologies were then compared for their modeling. The results showed that
the artificial neural network model is much more accurate in prediction as compared to the response surface methodology.
Asian Journal of Chemistry 01/2013; 25(1):301-305. · 0.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Palm oil-based esters (POEs) are unsaturated and non-ionic esters with a great potential to act as chemical penetration enhancers and drug carriers for transdermal drug nano-delivery. A ratio of palmitate ester and nonionic Tween80 with and without diclofenac acid was chosen from an experimentally determined phase diagram. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for selected compositions over a period of 15 ns. Both micelles showed a prolate-like shape, while adding the drug produced a more compact micellar structure. Our results proposed that the drug could behave as a co-surfactant in our simulated model.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(8):9572-83. · 2.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, an efficient epoxidation of 1-nonene is described. In a simple epoxidation system, commercially available Novozym 435, an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were utilized to facilitate the in situ oxidation of phenylacetic acid to the corresponding peroxy acid which then reacted with 1-nonene to give 1-nonene oxide with high yield and selectivity. The aliphatic terminal alkene was epoxidised efficiently in chloroform to give an excellent yield (97%-99%) under the optimum reaction conditions, including temperature (35 °C), initial H(2)O(2) concentration (30%), H(2)O(2) amount (4.4 mmol), H(2)O(2) addition rate (one step), acid amount (8.8 mmol), and stirring speed (250 rpm). Interestingly, the enzyme was stable under the single-step addition of H(2)O(2) with a catalytic activity of 190.0 Ug-1. The entire epoxidation process was carried out within 12 h using a conventional water bath shaker.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(10):13140-9. · 2.34 Impact Factor