Diego F Niño

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (5)9.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a major healthcare problem and a leading cause of death worldwide. There is no dependable diagnosis, and treatment for this condition remains mainly supportive. The etiology of sepsis is related to an overwhelming inflammatory response. In this regard, the antimicrobial protein lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been associated with several inflammatory conditions, but its contribution to polymicrobial sepsis is unclear. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and Lcn2 mRNA levels and protein expression were measured in liver and lung tissues. We observed that Lcn2 expression was robustly induced in liver and lung of C57BL/6 J (B6) mice, and remained elevated during the stage of innate immune dysfunction observed in sepsis. This response was different in A/J mice, suggesting a contribution of the genetic background, probably due to differences in IL-10 expression between these two mouse strains. Indeed, IL-10 was found to regulate Lcn2 expression in both primary and J774A.1 macrophages. Thus, Lcn2 expression is highly regulated during CLP-induced sepsis, suggesting that this antimicrobial protein could have a role as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis.
    Innate immunity. 09/2014;
  • Diego F Niño, David M Cauvi, Antonio De Maio
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    ABSTRACT: Itraconazole (ICZ) is commonly used for the treatment of fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. In addition, ICZ has been recently found to have anti-angiogenic effects and is currently being tested as a new chemotherapeutic agent in several cancer clinical trials. We have previously shown that ICZ impaired complex N-linked glycosylation processing, leading to the accumulation of high-mannose glycoproteins on the surface of macrophages. This investigation was directed at determining the effects of ICZ on phagocytosis as a major function of macrophages. We found a significant decrease in the phagocytosis of opsonized bacterial particles in ICZ-treated murine macrophages in comparison with non-treated macrophages. Furthermore, the impairment of phagocytosis was associated with a decrease in cell surface expression of Fcγ receptors (FcγR) as well as alteration of their glycosylation pattern. Concomitantly, a reduction in all three isoforms of the FcγR family (i.e., Fcgr1, Fcgr2 and Fcgr3) mRNA levels was observed after incubation with ICZ. The effect of ICZ on phagocytosis and FcγR expression was reversed by addition of LDL. These studies indicate that ICZ treatment certainly has a dramatic effect on macrophage function, which could result in a potential impairment of the immune system's ability to respond to pathogens and may lead to elevated incidence of infections.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 03/2014; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scavenger receptor A (Sra), also known as macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (Msr1), is a surface glycoprotein preferentially present in macrophages that plays a primary role in innate immunity. Previous studies have shown that Sra is a modifier gene for the response to bacterial LPS in mice at the level of IL-10 production, in particular. In the present study, we found that Sra(-/-) mice are more resistant to septic shock induced by cecal ligation and puncture than wild-type C57BL/6 J (B6) mice. In addition, Sra(-/-) mice displayed initial elevated high density lipoprotein (HDL) circulating levels. Naïve peritoneal macrophages (PMϕs) were isolated from Sra(-/-) mice to understand the possible protective mechanism. Incubation of these cells with LPS was found to modulate TLR4 signaling, leading to a reduction in IL-10 and IL-6 mRNA levels, but not TNF-α expression, at low concentrations of LPS in comparison with PMϕs isolated from B6 mice. No differences were found in LPS binding between PMϕs derived from Sra(-/-) or B6 mice. The lack of Sra binding to LPS was confirmed after transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with the Sra gene. The contribution of Sra to the outcome of sepsis may be a combination of changes in TLR4 signaling pathway and elevated levels of HDL in circulation, but also LPS toxicity.
    Innate Immunity 07/2012; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a major health problem in the United States that affects more than three-quarters of a million people every year. Previous studies have shown that scavenger receptor A (Sra), also known as macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (Msr1), is a modifier of interleukin 10 (IL-10) expression after injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, we investigated the response to sepsis in Sra knock out mice. C57BL/6J (B6) (n = 88) and Sra (-/-) mice (n = 88) were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) using 18G or 16G needles, sham operation, or non-operated controls. At the end, mice were autopsied for the determination of abnormalities after the procedure. Cytokine gene expression was examined in lung and liver samples by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and circulating cholesterol levels were also measured. Sra (-/-) mice displayed an enlargement of the gallbladder after CLP that was not detected in sham or non-operated mice or in B6 mice (wild-type) after CLP. The enlarged gallbladder resembles a condition of acute acalculous cholecystitis observed in humans. Sra (-/-) mice presented high cholesterol levels in circulation as opposed to wild type B6 mice. Moreover, Sra (-/-) mice exhibited a reduction in IL-10 mRNA levels in lungs compared to wild-type B6 mice after CLP. The development of acute acalculous cholecystitis may be the combination of pre-existing conditions, such as hypercholesterolemia associated with a defect in Sra (Msr1) and a robust inflammation induced by sepsis.
    Journal of Surgical Research 01/2011; 174(2):344-51. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the effect that Atropine, a competitive antagonist for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), has on the response to LPS. Eight-week-old, male, B6 mice. Mice were treated with Atropine prior to, or after LPS challenge. Survival was monitored and analyzed via Kaplan-Meier analysis using the log-rank test. The effects of atropine on the inflammatory response (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10) were monitored at various time intervals following LPS injection in mice that were treated and not treated with atropine. Atropine administration prior to LPS induction of the inflammatory response resulted in reduced TNF-alpha and elevated IL-10 plasma levels without affecting the production of IL-6. This reduction in TNF-alpha levels was independent of the increase in IL-10 production. Atropine pretreatment improved the rate of survival from endotoxic shock in mice. The improved survival of mice after endotoxic shock could still be observed when atropine was administered several hours after LPS injection. The administration of atropine after injury may have a beneficial clinical effect.
    Inflammation Research 04/2008; 57(3):111-7. · 1.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11 Citations
9.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, MD, United States