Sympathetic nerve activity is augmented by calcium-channel blocker treatment as a result of decreased blood pressure. Dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers are divided into three different types. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether treatment effects on hemodynamics, cardiac autonomic nerve activity and plasma norepinephrine levels differ among amlodipine (L type), efonidipine (L + T type) and cilnidipine (L + N type). We enrolled 14 hypertensive patients (seven males, seven females, 70 ± 6 years old) undergoing a monotherapy of amlodipine, efonidipine or cilnidipine into this prospective, open-labeled, randomized, crossover study. At baseline and every 6 months of the treatment period, we repeated the evaluation of hemodynamics, spectral analysis of heart rate variability and plasma norepinephrine levels. Blood pressure and pulse rate were comparable among the three treatments. The low-frequency (LF)/high-frequency (HF) power ratio, an index of cardiac sympathovagal balance, was significantly lower with efonidipine and cilnidipine than with amlodipine, while the HF/total power ratio, an index of cardiac vagal activity, revealed the opposite results. There was no significant correlation between the LF/HF ratio and plasma norepinephrine levels. Antihypertensive monotherapy with efonidipine or cilnidipine attenuates cardiac sympathetic nerve activity more effectively than amlodipine monotherapy.
Blood pressure 07/2012; 21(6). DOI:10.3109/08037051.2012.694200 · 1.61 Impact Factor