Anders Johansen

Lund University, Lund, Skåne, Sweden

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Publications (54)233.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Chondrules are millimeter-sized spherules that dominate primitive meteorites (chondrites) originating from the asteroid belt. The incorporation of chondrules into asteroidal bodies must be an important step in planet formation, but the mechanism is not understood. We show that the main growth of asteroids can result from gas-drag-assisted accretion of chondrules. The largest planetesimals of a population with a characteristic radius of 100 km undergo run-away accretion of chondrules within ~3 Myr, forming planetary embryos up to Mars sizes along with smaller asteroids whose size distribution matches that of main belt asteroids. The aerodynamical accretion leads to size-sorting of chondrules consistent with chondrites. Accretion of mm-sized chondrules and ice particles drives the growth of planetesimals beyond the ice line as well, but the growth time increases above the disk life time outside of 25 AU. The contribution of direct planetesimal accretion to the growth of both asteroids and Kuiper belt objects is minor. In contrast, planetesimal accretion and chondrule accretion play more equal roles for the formation of Moon-sized embryos in the terrestrial planet formation region. These embryos are isolated from each other and accrete planetesimals only at a low rate. However, the continued accretion of chondrules destabilizes the oligarchic configuration and leads to the formation of Mars-sized embryos and terrestrial planets by a combination of direct chondrule accretion and giant impacts.
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    ABSTRACT: Hot Jupiters are giant planets on orbits a few hundredths of an AU. They do not share their system with low-mass close-in planets, despite these latter being exceedingly common. Two migration channels for hot Jupiters have been proposed: through a protoplanetary gas disc or by tidal circularisation of highly-eccentric planets. We show that highly-eccentric giant planets that will become hot Jupiters clear out any low-mass inner planets in the system, explaining the observed lack of such companions to hot Jupiters. A less common outcome of the interaction is that the giant planet is ejected by the inner planets. Furthermore, the interaction can implant giant planets on moderately-high eccentricities at semimajor axes $<1$ AU, a region otherwise hard to populate. Our work supports the hypothesis that most hot Jupiters reached their current orbits following a phase of high eccentricity, possibly excited by other planetary or stellar companions.
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    Daniel Carrera, Anders Johansen, Melvyn B. Davies
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    ABSTRACT: The size distribution of asteroids and Kuiper belt objects in the solar system is difficult to reconcile with a bottom-up formation scenario due to the observed scarcity of objects smaller than $\sim$100 km in size. Instead, planetesimals appear to form top-down, with large 100-1000 km bodies forming from the rapid gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small solid particles. In this paper we investigate the conditions under which solid particles can form dense clumps in a protoplanetary disk. We use a hydrodynamic code to model the interaction between solid particles and the gas inside a shearing box inside the disk, considering particle sizes from sub-millimeter-sized chondrules to meter-sized rocks. We find that particles down to millimeter sizes can form dense particle clouds through the run-away convergence of radial drift known as the streaming instability. We make a map of the range of conditions (strength of turbulence, particle mass-loading, disk mass, and distance to the star) which are prone to producing dense particle clumps. Finally, we estimate the distribution of collision speeds between mm-sized particles. We calculate the rate of sticking collisions and obtain a robust upper limit on the particle growth timescale of ~$10^5$ years. This means that mm-sized chondrule aggregates can grow on a timescale much smaller than the disk accretion timescale (~$10^6 - 10^7$ years). Our results suggest a pathway from the mm-sized grains found in primitive meteorites to fully formed asteroids. We speculate that asteroids may form from a positive feedback loop, where coagulation produces chondrule aggregates, that experience particle clumping, while in turn particle clumping reduces collision speeds and enhances coagulation. Future simulations should model coagulation and the streaming instability together to explore this feedback loop further.
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of planets with gaseous envelopes takes place in protoplanetary accretion discs on time-scales of several millions of years. Small dust particles stick to each other to form pebbles, pebbles concentrate in the turbulent flow to form planetesimals and planetary embryos and grow to planets, which undergo substantial radial migration. All these processes are influenced by the underlying structure of the protoplanetary disc, specifically the profiles of temperature, gas scale height and density. The commonly used disc structure of the Minimum Mass Solar Nebular (MMSN) is a simple power law in all these quantities. However, protoplanetary disc models with both viscous and stellar heating show several bumps and dips in temperature, scale height and density caused by transitions in opacity, which are missing in the MMSN model. These play an important role in the formation of planets, as they can act as sweet spots for the formation of planetesimals via the streaming instability and affect the direction and magnitude of type-I-migration. We present 2D simulations of accretion discs that feature radiative cooling, viscous and stellar heating, and are linked to the observed evolutionary stages of protoplanetary discs and their host stars. These models allow us to identify preferred planetesimal and planet formation regions in the protoplanetary disc as a function of the disc's metallicity, accretion rate and lifetime. We derive simple fitting formulae that feature all structural characteristics of protoplanetary discs during the evolution of several Myr. These fits are straightforward to apply for modelling any growth stage of planets where detailed knowledge of the underlying disc structure is required.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2014; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424964 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of chondrules is one of the oldest unsolved mysteries in meteoritics and planet formation. Recently an old idea has been revived: the idea that chondrules form as a result of collisions between planetesimals in which the ejected molten material forms small droplets that solidify to become chondrules. Pre-melting of the planetesimals by radioactive decay of 26Al would help produce sprays of melt even at relatively low impact velocity. In this paper we study the radiative cooling of a ballistically expanding spherical cloud of chondrule droplets ejected from the impact site. We present results from numerical radiative transfer models as well as analytic approximate solutions. We find that the temperature after the start of the expansion of the cloud remains constant for a time t cool and then drops with time t approximately as T T 0[(3/5)t/t cool + 2/5]–5/3 for t > t cool. The time at which this temperature drop starts t cool depends via an analytical formula on the mass of the cloud, the expansion velocity, and the size of the chondrule. During the early isothermal expansion phase the density is still so high that we expect the vapor of volatile elements to saturate so that no large volatile losses are expected.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 794(1):91. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/91 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Solar System giant planets come in two flavours: 'gas giants' (Jupiter and Saturn) with massive gas envelopes and 'ice giants' (Uranus and Neptune) with much thinner envelopes around their cores. It is poorly understood how these two classes of planets formed. High solid accretion rates, necessary to form the cores of giant planets within the life-time of protoplanetary discs, heat the envelope and prevent rapid gas contraction onto the core, unless accretion is halted. We find that, in fact, accretion of pebbles (~ cm-sized particles) is self-limiting: when a core becomes massive enough it carves a gap in the pebble disc. This halt in pebble accretion subsequently triggers the rapid collapse of the super-critical gas envelope. As opposed to gas giants, ice giants do not reach this threshold mass and can only bind low-mass envelopes that are highly enriched by water vapour from sublimated icy pebbles. This offers an explanation for the compositional difference between gas giants and ice giants in the Solar System. Furthermore, as opposed to planetesimal-driven accretion scenarios, our model allows core formation and envelope attraction within disc life-times, provided that solids in protoplanetary discs are predominantly in pebbles. Our results imply that the outer regions of planetary systems, where the mass required to halt pebble accretion is large, are dominated by ice giants and that gas-giant exoplanets in wide orbits are enriched by more than 50 Earth masses of solids.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; 572. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423814 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    Michiel Lambrechts, Anders Johansen
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of planetary cores must proceed rapidly in order for the giant planets to accrete their gaseous envelopes before the dissipation of the protoplanetary gas disc (<3 Myr). In orbits beyond 10 AU, direct accumulation of planetesimals by the cores is too slow. Fragments of planetesimals could be accreted faster, but planetesimals are likely too large for fragmentation to be efficient, and resonant trapping poses a further hurdle. Here we instead investigate the accretion of small pebbles (mm-cm sizes) that are the natural outcome of an equilibrium between the growth and radial drift of particles. We construct a simplified analytical model of dust coagulation and pebble drift in the outer disc, between 5 AU and 100 AU, which gives the temporal evolution of the solid surface density and the dominant particle size. These two key quantities determine how core growth proceeds at various orbital distances. We find that pebble surface densities are sufficiently high to achieve the inside-out formation of planetary cores within the disc lifetime. The overall efficiency by which dust gets converted to planets can be high, close to 50 % for planetary architectures similar to the Solar System. Growth by pebble accretion in the outer disc is sufficiently fast to overcome catastrophic Type I migration of the cores. These results require protoplanetary discs with large radial extent (~100 AU) and assume a low number of initial seed embryos. Our findings imply that protoplanetary discs with low disc masses, as expected around low-mass stars (<1 M_sun), or with sub-solar dust-to-gas ratios, do not easily form gas-giant planets (M > 100 M_E), but preferentially form Neptune-mass planets or smaller (< 10 M_E). This is consistent with exoplanet surveys which show that gas giants are relatively uncommon around stars of low mass or low metallicity.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; 572. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424343 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    Karl Wahlberg Jansson, Anders Johansen
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    ABSTRACT: The first stage of planet formation is the accumulation of dust and ice grains into mm-cm-sized pebbles. These pebbles can clump together through the streaming instability and form gravitationally bound pebble 'clouds'. Pebbles inside such a cloud will undergo mutual collisions, dissipating energy into heat. As the cloud loses energy, it gradually contracts towards solid density. We model this process and investigate two important properties of the collapse: (i) the timescale of the collapse and (ii) the temporal evolution of the pebble size distribution. Our numerical model of the pebble cloud is zero-dimensional and treats collisions with a statistical method. We find that planetesimals with radii larger than 100 km collapse on the free-fall timescale of about 25 years. Lower-mass clouds have longer pebble collision timescales and collapse much more slowly, with collapse times of a few hundred years for 10-km-scale planetesimals and a few thousand years for 1-km-scale planetesimals. The mass of the pebble cloud also determines the interior structure of the resulting planetesimal. The pebble collision speeds in low-mass clouds are below the threshold for fragmentation, forming pebble-pile planetesimals consisting of the primordial pebbles from the protoplanetary disk. Planetesimals above 100 km in radius, on the other hand, consist of mixtures of dust (pebble fragments) and pebbles which have undergone substantial collisions with dust and other pebbles. The Rosetta mission to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and the New Horizons mission to Pluto will both provide valuable information about the structure of planetesimals in the Solar System. Our model predicts that 67P is a pebble-pile planetesimal consisting of primordial pebbles from the Solar Nebula, while the pebbles in the cloud which contracted to form Pluto must have been ground down substantially during the collapse.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; 570. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424369 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    Chao-Chin Yang, Anders Johansen
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    ABSTRACT: The streaming instability is a promising mechanism to overcome the barriers in direct dust growth and lead to the formation of planetesimals. Most previous studies of the streaming instability, however, were focused on a local region of a protoplanetary disk with a limited simulation domain such that only one filamentary concentration of solids has been observed. The characteristic separation between filaments is therefore not known. To address this, we conduct the largest-scale simulations of the streaming instability to date, with computational domains up to 1.6 gas scale heights both horizontally and vertically. The large dynamical range allows the effect of vertical gas stratification to become prominent. We observe more frequent merging and splitting of filaments in simulation boxes of high vertical extent. We find multiple filamentary concentrations of solids with an average separation of about 0.2 local gas scale heights, much higher than the most unstable wavelength from linear stability analysis. This measures the characteristic separation of planetesimal forming events driven by the streaming instability and thus the initial feeding zone of planetesimals.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 792(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/792/2/86 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Chao-Chin Yang, Anders Johansen
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    ABSTRACT: In current theory of planet formation, streaming instability is one of the most promising mechanisms to overcome the meter-barrier in the course of core accretion. Almost all previous works, however, were focused on a local region of protoplanetary disks with a limited size of about 0.2 gas scale heights. Only one radial filamentary particle concentration was seen in these studies. To address this, we conduct the largest-scale simulations of this kind to date, up to 0.8 gas scale heights both horizontally and vertically. We demonstrate that streaming instability remains robust on large scale and multiple radial particle concentrations exist in large enough boxes. This result may be important in characterising the feeding zone of planetesimal formation.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 06/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1743921313008284
  • Karsten Dittrich, Hubert Klahr, Anders Johansen
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    ABSTRACT: Recent simulations show long -lived sub- and super-Keplerian flows in protoplanetary disks. These so-called zonal flows are found in local as well as global simulations of magneto-rotationally unstable disks. We investigate the strength and life-time of the resulting long-lived gas over- and under-densities as well as particle concentrations function of the azimuthal and radial size of the local shearing box. Changes in the azimuthal extent do not affect the zonal flow features. However, strength and life-time of zonal flows increase with increasing radial box sizes. Our simulations show indications, and support earlier results, that zonal flows have a natural length scale of approximately 5 pressure scale heights. For the first time, the reaction of dust particles in boxes with zonal flows are studied. We show that particles of some centimeters in size reach a hundred-fold higher density than initially, without any self-gravitating forces acting on the point masses. We further investigate collision velocities of dust grains in a turbulent medium.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 03/2014; 8(S293). DOI:10.1017/S1743921313012921
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulation of dust and ice particles into planetesimals is an important step in the planet formation process. Planetesimals are the seeds of both terrestrial planets and the solid cores of gas and ice giants forming by core accretion. Left-over planetesimals in the form of asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects and comets provide a unique record of the physical conditions in the solar nebula. Debris from planetesimal collisions around other stars signposts that the planetesimal formation process, and hence planet formation, is ubiquitous in the Galaxy. The planetesimal formation stage extends from micrometer-sized dust and ice to bodies which can undergo run-away accretion. The latter ranges in size from 1 km to 1000 km, dependent on the planetesimal eccentricity excited by turbulent gas density fluctuations. Particles face many barriers during this growth, arising mainly from inefficient sticking, fragmentation and radial drift. Two promising growth pathways are mass transfer, where small aggregates transfer up to 50% of their mass in high-speed collisions with much larger targets, and fluffy growth, where aggregate cross sections and sticking probabilities are enhanced by a low internal density. A wide range of particle sizes, from mm to 10 m, concentrate in the turbulent gas flow. Overdense filaments fragment gravitationally into bound particle clumps, with most mass entering planetesimals of contracted radii from 100 to 500 km, depending on local disc properties. We propose a hybrid model for planetesimal formation where particle growth starts unaided by self-gravity but later proceeds inside gravitationally collapsing pebble clumps to form planetesimals with a wide range of sizes.
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    ABSTRACT: In the core accretion scenario a giant planet forms by the accretion of a gaseous envelope onto a solid core. The accumulation of solid material needs to be completed before dissipation of the protoplanetary disc within approximately 3 Myr. Forming these cores with planetesimal collisions within the available time is challenging at wide orbital distances beyond 10 AU. However, recently we found that core growth by the accretion of pebbles, particles of approximately cm sizes, is sufficiently rapid to explain the in situ formation of wide orbit giant planets. In this talk, we show how fast pebble accretion and the associated high luminosity influences the composition of giant planets. We find that gas giants naturally form in regions behind the ice line, while at even wider orbital distances we naturally form planets with an ice giant composition.
  • Katrin Ros, A. Johansen
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    ABSTRACT: Particle growth to pebble-sizes is an important first step towards the formation of planets, but dust coagulation models and experiments show that growth by collisions of rocky particles becomes inefficient at millimeter-sizes. However, close to ice lines growth can proceed both by condensation and via collisions involving sticky ice particles. We have developed a dynamical model of condensation and sublimation at the water ice line and find rapid growth from millimeters to several centimeters on a time scale of 10 000 years in turbulent protoplanetary discs. Small ice grains are coupled to the gas via drag forces and move in a turbulent diffusion, modelled as a random walk. Some of these particles diffuse either inwards or upwards from the outer, cold midplane region and sublimate. The resulting vapour recondenses onto already existing particles, leading to growing pebbles that decouple from the turbulent eddies and sediment towards the cold midplane. We model condensation and sublimation in a Monte Carlo scheme, and ignore collisions. We find resulting particles that are large enough to grow further into planetesimals and planets through dynamical instabilities, such as the streaming instability, and through pebble accretion.
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    Katrin Ros, Anders Johansen
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    ABSTRACT: We show that condensation is an efficient particle growth mechanism, leading to growth beyond decimeter-sized pebbles close to an ice line in protoplanetary discs. As coagulation of dust particles is frustrated by bouncing and fragmentation, condensation could be a complementary, or even dominant, growth mode in the early stages of planet formation. Ice particles diffuse across the ice line and sublimate, and vapour diffusing back across the ice line recondenses onto already existing particles, causing them to grow. We develop a numerical model of the dynamical behaviour of ice particles close to the water ice line, approximately 3 AU from the host star. Particles move with the turbulent gas, modelled as a random walk. They also sediment towards the midplane and drift radially towards the central star. Condensation and sublimation are calculated using a Monte Carlo approach. Our results indicate that, with a turbulent alpha-value of 0.01, growth from millimeter to at least decimeter-sized pebbles is possible on a time scale of 1000 years. We find that particle growth is dominated by ice and vapour transport across the radial ice line, with growth due to transport across the atmospheric ice line being negligible. Ice particles mix outwards by turbulent diffusion, leading to net growth across the entire cold region. The resulting particles are large enough to be sensitive to concentration by streaming instabilities, and in pressure bumps and vortices, which can cause further growth into planetesimals. In our model, particles are considered to be homogeneous ice particles. Taking into account the more realistic composition of ice condensed onto rocky ice nuclei might affect the growth time scales, by release of refractory ice nuclei after sublimation. We also ignore sticking and fragmentation in particle collisions. These effects will be the subject of future investigations.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; 552. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201220536 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    Karsten Dittrich, Hubert Klahr, Anders Johansen
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    ABSTRACT: Recent numerical simulations have shown long-lived axisymmetric sub- and super-Keplerian flows in protoplanetary disks. These zonal flows are found in local as well as global simulations of disks unstable to the magnetorotational instability. This paper covers our study of the strength and lifetime of zonal flows and the resulting long-lived gas over- and underdensities as functions of the azimuthal and radial size of the local shearing box. We further investigate dust particle concentrations without feedback on the gas and without self-gravity. Strength and lifetime of zonal flows increase with the radial extent of the simulation box, but decrease with the azimuthal box size. Our simulations support earlier results that zonal flows have a natural radial length scale of 5-7 gas pressure scale heights. This is the first study that combines three-dimensional MHD simulations of zonal flows and dust particles feeling the gas pressure. The pressure bumps trap particles with $\textrm{St} = 1$ very efficiently. We show that $\textrm{St} = 0.1$ particles (of some centimeters in size if at $5\textrm{AU}$ in an MMSN) reach a hundred-fold higher density than initially. This opens the path for particles of $\textrm{St} = 0.1$ and dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 or for particles of $\textrm{St} \geq 0.5$ and dust-to-gas ratio $10^{-4}$ to still reach densities that potentially trigger the streaming instability and thus gravoturbulent formation of planetesimals.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 763(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/763/2/117 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In February 2011, the Kepler mission announced its discovery of 1,235 planet candidates, of which more than half have radii smaller than that of Neptune: RP<4R{earth}, where R{earth} plus is the Earth radius. We used reconnaissance spectra obtained by the Kepler Follow-up Observing Program (FOP) to derive metallicities for several hundred of the brighter planet candidates, and used the results to explore the relationship between planet size and host-star metallicity. (1 data file).
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    ABSTRACT: The planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission provide a rich sample to constrain the architectures and relative inclinations of planetary systems within approximately 0.5 AU of their host stars. We use the triple-transit systems from the Kepler 16-months data as templates for physical triple-planet systems and perform synthetic transit observations. We find that all the Kepler triple-transit and double-transit systems can be produced from the triple-planet templates, given a low mutual inclination of around five degrees. Our analysis shows that the Kepler data contains a population of planets larger than four Earth radii in single-transit systems that can not arise from the triple-planet templates. We explore the hypothesis that high-mass counterparts of the triple-transit systems underwent dynamical instability to produce a population of massive double-planet systems of moderately high mutual inclination. We perform N-body simulations of mass-boosted triple-planet systems and observe how the systems heat up and lose planets, most frequently by planet-planet collisions, yielding transits in agreement with the large planets in the Kepler single-transit systems. The resulting population of massive double-planet systems can nevertheless not explain the additional excess of low-mass planets among the observed single-transit systems and the lack of gas-giant planets in double-transit and triple-transit systems. Planetary instability of systems of triple gas-giant planets can be behind part of the dichotomy between systems hosting one or more small planets and those hosting a single giant planet. The main part of the dichotomy, however, is more likely to have arisen already during planet formation when the formation, migration or scattering of a massive planet, triggered above a threshold metallicity, suppressed the formation of other planets in sub-AU orbits.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2012; 758(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/758/1/39 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The abundance of heavy elements (metallicity) in the photospheres of stars similar to the Sun provides a 'fossil' record of the chemical composition of the initial protoplanetary disk. Metal-rich stars are much more likely to harbour gas giant planets, supporting the model that planets form by accumulation of dust and ice particles. Recent ground-based surveys suggest that this correlation is weakened for Neptunian-sized planets. However, how the relationship between size and metallicity extends into the regime of terrestrial-sized exoplanets is unknown. Here we report spectroscopic metallicities of the host stars of 226 small exoplanet candidates discovered by NASA's Kepler mission, including objects that are comparable in size to the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. We find that planets with radii less than four Earth radii form around host stars with a wide range of metallicities (but on average a metallicity close to that of the Sun), whereas large planets preferentially form around stars with higher metallicities. This observation suggests that terrestrial planets may be widespread in the disk of the Galaxy, with no special requirement of enhanced metallicity for their formation.
    Nature 06/2012; 486(7403):375-7. DOI:10.1038/nature11121 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    Michiel Lambrechts, Anders Johansen
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    ABSTRACT: The observed lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary discs place strong constraints on gas and ice giant formation in the core accretion scenario. The approximately 10-Earth-mass solid core responsible for the attraction of the gaseous envelope has to form before gas dissipation in the protoplanetary disc is completed within 1-10 million years. Building up the core by collisions between km-sized planetesimals fails to meet this time-scale constraint, especially at wide stellar separations. Nonetheless, gas-giant planets are detected by direct imaging at wide orbital distances. In this paper, we numerically study the growth of cores by the accretion of cm-sized pebbles loosely coupled to the gas. We measure the accretion rate onto seed masses ranging from a large planetesimal to a fully grown 10-Earth-mass core and test different particle sizes. The numerical results are in good agreement with our analytic expressions, indicating the existence of two accretion regimes, one set by the azimuthal and radial particle drift for the lower seed masses and the other, for higher masses, by the velocity at the edge of the Hill sphere. In the former, the optimally accreted particle size increases with core mass, while in the latter the optimal size is centimeters, independent of core mass. We discuss the implications for rapid core growth of gas-giant and ice-giant cores. We conclude that pebble accretion can resolve the long-standing core accretion time-scale conflict. This requires a near-unity dust-to-gas ratio in the midplane, particle growth to mm and cm and the formation of massive planetesimals or low radial pressure support. The core growth time-scale is shortened by a factor 30-1,000 at 5 AU and by a factor 100-10,000 at 50 AU, compared to the gravitationally focused accretion of, respectively, low-scale-height planetesimal fragments or standard km-sized planetesimals.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2012; 544. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201219127 · 4.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
233.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • Lund University
      • Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2008–2011
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • American Museum of Natural History
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany