[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs circulating in the blood, stabilized by complexation with proteins and/or additionally by encapsulation in lipid vesicles, are currently being evaluated as biomarkers. The consequences of their differential association with lipids/vesicles for their stability and use as biomarkers are largely unexplored and are subject of the present study.
The levels of a set of selected microRNAs were determined by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR after extraction from sera or vesicle- and non-vesicle fractions prepared from sera. The stability of these microRNAs after incubation with RNase A or RNase inhibitor, an inhibitor of RNase A family enzymes was studied.
The levels of microRNA-1 and microRNA-122, but not those of microRNA-16, microRNA-21 and microRNA-142-3p, declined significantly during a 5-h incubation of the sera. RNase inhibitor prevented the loss of microRNAs in serum as well as the degradation of microRNA-122, a microRNA not expressed in blood cells, in whole blood. Stabilization of microRNA-122 was also achieved by hemolysis. Prolonged incubation of the sera led to enrichment of vesicle-associated relative to non-vesicle-associated microRNAs. Vesicle-associated microRNAs were more resistant to RNase A treatment than the respective microRNAs not associated with vesicles.
Serum microRNAs showed differential stability upon prolonged incubation. RNase inhibitor might be useful to robustly preserve the pattern of cell-free circulating microRNAs. In the case of microRNAs not expressed in blood cells this can also be achieved by hemolysis. Vesicle-associated microRNAs appeared to be more stable than those not associated with vesicles, which might be useful to disclose additional biomarker properties of miRNAs.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e75184. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly promising preclinical data obtained in cultured cells and in nude mice bearing xenografts contrast with the rather modest clinical efficacy of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) inhibitors. In the present study, we investigated if Plk1 might be a suitable target in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and if a genetically engineered mouse tumor model that well reflects the tumor cell and micro-environmental features of naturally occurring cancers might be suitable to study anti-Plk1 therapy. Analysis of Plk1 expression in human HCC samples confirmed that HCC express much higher Plk1 levels than the adjacent normal liver tissue. Inhibition of Plk1 by an adenovirus encoding for a short hairpin RNA against Plk1 or by the small-molecule inhibitor BI 2536 reduced the viability of HCC cell lines and inhibited HCC xenograft progression in nude mice. Treatment of transforming growth factor (TGF) α/c-myc bitransgenic mice with BI 2536 during hepatocarcinogenesis reduced the number of dysplastic foci and of Ki-67-positive cells within the foci, indicating diminished tumorigenesis. In contrast, BI 2536 had no significant effect on HCC progression in the transgenic mouse HCC model as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging. Measurement of BI 2536 by mass spectrometry revealed considerably lower BI 2536 levels in HCC compared with the adjacent normal liver tissue. In conclusion, low intratumoral levels are a novel mechanism of resistance to the Plk1 inhibitor BI 2536. Plk1 inhibitors achieving sufficient intratumoral levels are highly promising in HCC treatment.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 05/2012; 14(5):410-9. · 5.48 Impact Factor