Mario A Ostrowski

St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (102)570.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A rare subset of IL-10-producing B cells, named regulatory B cells (Bregs), suppresses adaptive immune responses and inflammation in mice. In this study, we examined the role of IL-10-producing B cells in HIV-1 infection. Compared to uninfected controls, IL-10-producing B cell frequencies were elevated in both blood and sigmoid colon during the early and chronic phase of untreated HIV-1 infection. Ex vivo IL-10-producing B cell frequency in early HIV-1 infection directly correlated with viral load. IL-10-producing B cells from HIV-1 infected individuals were enriched in CD19(+)TIM-1(+) B cells and were enriched for specificity to trimeric HIV-1 envelope protein. Anti-retroviral therapy was associated with reduced IL-10-producing B cell frequencies. Treatment of B cells from healthy donors with microbial metabolites and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists could induce an IL-10 producing phenotype, suggesting that the elevated bacterial translocation characteristic of HIV-1 infection may promote IL-10-producing B cell development. Similar to regulatory B cells found in mice, IL-10-producing B cells from HIV-1-infected individuals suppressed HIV-1-specific T cell responses in vitro, and this suppression is IL-10-dependent. Also, ex vivo IL-10-producing B cell frequency inversely correlated with contemporaneous ex vivo HIV-1-specific T cell responses. Our findings show that IL-10-producing B cells are induced early in HIV-1 infection, can be HIV-1 specific, and are able to inhibit effective anti-HIV-1 T cell responses. HIV-1 may dysregulate B cells toward Bregs as an immune evasion strategy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89236. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD8(+) CTLs are adept at killing virally infected cells and cancer cells and releasing cytokines (e.g., IFN-γ) to aid this response. However, during cancer and chronic viral infections, such as with HIV, this CTL response is progressively impaired due to a process called T cell exhaustion. Previous work has shown that the glycoprotein T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) plays a functional role in establishing T cell exhaustion. Tim-3 is highly upregulated on virus and tumor Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells, and antagonizing Tim-3 helps restore function of CD8(+) T cells. However, very little is known of how Tim-3 signals in CTLs. In this study, we assessed the role of Tim-3 at the immunological synapse as well as its interaction with proximal TCR signaling molecules in primary human CD8(+) T cells. Tim-3 was found within CD8(+) T cell lipid rafts at the immunological synapse. Blocking Tim-3 resulted in a significantly greater number of stable synapses being formed between Tim-3(hi)CD8(+) T cells and target cells, suggesting that Tim-3 plays a functional role in synapse formation. Further, we confirmed that Tim-3 interacts with Lck, but not the phospho-active form of Lck. Finally, Tim-3 colocalizes with receptor phosphatases CD45 and CD148, an interaction that is enhanced in the presence of the Tim-3 ligand, galectin-9. Thus, Tim-3 interacts with multiple signaling molecules at the immunological synapse, and characterizing these interactions could aid in the development of therapeutics to restore Tim-3-mediated immune dysfunction.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 long-interspersed nuclear elements (L1s) are autonomous retrotransposable elements that retain the potential for activity in the human genome, but are suppressed by host-factors. Retrotransposition of L1s into chromosomal DNA can lead to genomic instability, while reverse transcription of L1 in the cytosol has the potential to activate innate immune sensors. We hypothesized that HIV-1 infection would compromise cellular control of L1 elements, resulting in the induction of retrotransposition events. Here, we show that HIV-1 infection enhances L1 retrotransposition in Jurkat cells in a Vif- and Vpr-dependent manner. In primary CD4(+) cells, HIV-1 infection results in the accumulation of L1 DNA, at least the majority of which is extra-chromosomal. These data expose an unrecognized interaction between HIV-1 and endogenous retrotransposable elements, which may have implications for the innate immune response to HIV-1 infection, as well as for HIV-1-induced genomic instability and cytopathicity.
    Journal of Virology 10/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV RNA viral load (VL) in vaginal secretions and semen is an independent predictor of HIV transmission. Blood VL is associated with semen VL, and local mucosal factors such as semen CMV reactivation may play an important role. Twenty-one HIV-CMV co-infected, antiretroviral-naïve men received 900mg of oral valganciclovir once daily for two weeks in an open-label study. Blood and semen were collected at baseline, after two weeks of valganciclovir, and two months after therapy completion. The primary endpoint was change in semen HIV levels at 2 weeks; secondary endpoints were change in semen HIV VL at 2 months and change in semen CMV levels. The HIV VL fell significantly at 2 weeks in semen (median 3.44 to 3.02 log10 copies/ml; p=0.02) and blood (median 3.61 to 3.10 log10 copies/ml; p<0.01), and returned to baseline after therapy completion (median 3.24 and 3.71 log10 copies/ml in semen and blood, respectively). Semen CMV levels also fell on treatment (median log10, 2.13 to 1.62; p<0.01), and continued to fall after therapy completion (median 0.91 log10 copies/ml at week 8; p<0.001 vs. baseline). The reduced semen CMV VL was associated with decreased semen T cell activation and enhanced CMV-specific T cell responses in blood; changes in the semen HIV VL were not associated with immune parameters. While valganciclovir therapy was associated with reduced HIV and semen CMV levels, these results suggest that the reduced HIV VL was a direct drug effect, rather than via a CMV antiviral effect or CMV-associated immune alterations.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 10/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucosal Th17 cells maintain the gut epithelial barrier and prevent invasion by luminal bacteria through a delicate balance of immunosuppressive and proinflammatory functions. HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 depletion, microbial translocation, and immune activation. Therefore, we assessed the function of blood and sigmoid Th17 cells during both early and chronic HIV infection, as well as the impact of short- and long-term antiretroviral therapy. Th17 cells were defined as IL-17a(+) CD4 T cells, and their functional capacity was assessed by the coproduction of the inflammatory cytokines IL-22, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, as well as the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. Gut Th17 cells had a much greater capacity to produce proinflammatory cytokines than did those from the blood, but this capacity was dramatically reduced from the earliest stages of HIV infection. Immunoregulatory skewing of mucosal Th17 cell function, characterized by an increased IL-10/TNF-α ratio, was uniquely seen during early HIV infection and was independently associated with reduced systemic immune activation. Antiretroviral therapy rapidly restored mucosal Th17 cell numbers; however, normalization of mucosal Th17 function, microbial translocation, and mucosal/systemic immune activation was much delayed. These findings emphasize that strategies to preserve or to more rapidly restore mucosal Th17 function may have important therapeutic benefit.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elite controllers suppress HIV viremia to below the limit of detection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, precise frequencies of CD4(+) T cells carrying replication-competent HIV and/or the dynamics of the infectious viral reservoirs in response to initiation and discontinuation of ART in elite controllers are unknown. We show that the size of the pool of CD4(+) T cells harboring infectious HIV diminished significantly following initiation of ART and rebounded to baseline upon cessation of therapy. Our data provide compelling evidence that persistent viral replication occurs in untreated elite controllers even in the absence of detectable plasma viremia.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: APOBEC3 proteins mediate potent anti-retroviral activity by hypermutating the retroviral genome during reverse transcription. To counteract APOBEC3 and gain a replicative advantage, lentiviruses such as HIV-1 and SIV have evolved the Vif protein, which targets APOBEC3 proteins for proteasomal degradation. However, the proteasome plays a critical role in the generation of T cell peptide epitopes. Whether Vif-mediated destruction of APOBEC3 proteins leads to the generation and presentation of APOBEC3-derived T cell epitopes on the surface of lentivirus-infected cells remains unknown. Here, using peptides derived from multiple Vif-sensitive APOBEC3 proteins, we identified APOBEC3-specific T cell responses in both HIV-1-infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. These results raise the possibility that these T cell responses may be part of the larger anti-retroviral immune response.
    Journal of Virology 03/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms among severe ocular infections is of grave concern. We describe the first reported case of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal endophthalmitis following ocular trauma, uniquely caused by Enterococcus gallinarum. The organism demonstrated intrinsic resistance to ceftazidime and vancomycin but responded favorably to a combination of intravitreal and intravenous ampicillin, plus intravitreal amikacin. When faced with a multidrug-resistant organism, the ophthalmologist must consider alternative antibiotic strategies.
    Journal of ophthalmic inflammation and infection. 03/2013; 3(1):42.
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    ABSTRACT: To develop new approaches to control HIV-1 replication, we examined the capacity of recently described small molecular modulators of RNA splicing for their effects on viral RNA metabolism. Of the drugs tested, digoxin was found to induce a dramatic inhibition of HIV-1 structural protein synthesis, a response due, in part, to reduced accumulation of the corresponding viral mRNAs. In addition, digoxin altered viral RNA splice site use, resulting in loss of the essential viral factor Rev. Digoxin induced changes in activity of the CLK family of SR protein kinases and modification of several SR proteins, including SRp20 and Tra2β, which could account for the effects observed. Consistent with this hypothesis, overexpression of SRp20 elicited changes in HIV-1 RNA processing similar to those observed with digoxin. Importantly, digoxin was also highly active against clinical strains of HIV-1 in vitro, validating this novel approach to treatment of this infection.
    PLoS Pathogens 03/2013; 9(3):e1003241. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An estimated 10--20 million individuals are infected with the retrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). While the majority of these individuals remain asymptomatic, 0.3-4% develop a neurodegenerative inflammatory disease, termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP results in the progressive demyelination of the central nervous system and is a differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The etiology of HAM/TSP is unclear, but evidence points to a role for CNS-inflitrating T-cells in pathogenesis. Recently, the HTLV-1-Tax protein has been shown to induce transcription of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families W, H and K. Intriguingly, numerous studies have implicated these same HERV families in MS, though this association remains controversial. RESULTS: Here, we explore the hypothesis that HTLV-1-infection results in the induction of HERV antigen expression and the elicitation of HERV-specific T-cells responses which, in turn, may be reactive against neurons and other tissues. PBMC from 15 HTLV-1-infected subjects, 5 of whom presented with HAM/TSP, were comprehensively screened for T-cell responses to overlapping peptides spanning HERV-K(HML-2) Gag and Env. In addition, we screened for responses to peptides derived from diverse HERV families, selected based on predicted binding to predicted optimal epitopes. We observed a lack of responses to each of these peptide sets. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, although the limited scope of our screening prevents us from conclusively disproving our hypothesis, the current study does not provide data supporting a role for HERV-specific T-cell responses in HTLV-1 associated immunopathology.
    Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine 01/2013; 12(1):3. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) can trigger an intense local inflammatory response at the site of infection, yet there is little specific immune response or development of immune memory. Gonococcal surface epitopes are known to undergo antigenic variation; however, this is unlikely to explain the weak immune response to infection since individuals can be re-infected by the same serotype. Previous studies have demonstrated that the colony opacity-associated (Opa) proteins on the N. gonorrhoeae surface can bind human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) on CD4(+) T cells to suppress T cell activation and proliferation. Interesting in this regard, N. gonorrhoeae infection is associated with impaired HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses and with transient increases in plasma viremia in HIV-1-infected patients, suggesting that N. gonorrhoeae may also subvert immune responses to co-pathogens. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that play a key role in the induction of an adaptive immune response, we investigated the effects of N. gonorrhoeae Opa proteins on human DC activation and function. While morphological changes reminiscent of DC maturation were evident upon N. gonorrhoeae infection, we observed a marked downregulation of DC maturation marker CD83 when the gonococci expressing CEACAM1-specific Opa(CEA), but not other Opa variants. Consistent with a gonococcal-induced defect in maturation, Opa(CEA) binding to CEACAM1 reduced the DCs' capacity to stimulate an allogeneic T cell proliferative response. Moreover, Opa(CEA)-expressing N. gonorrhoeae showed the potential to impair DC-dependent development of specific adaptive immunity, since infection with Opa(CEA)-positive gonococci suppressed the ability of DCs to stimulate HIV-1-specific memory CTL responses. These results reveal a novel mechanism to explain why infection of N. gonorrhoeae fails to trigger an effective specific immune response or develop immune memory, and may affect the potent synergy between gonorrhea and HIV-1 infection.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56705. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic diversity of HIV-1 represents a major challenge in vaccine development. In this study, we establish a rationale for eliminating HIV-1-infected cells by targeting cellular immune responses against stable human endogenous retroviral (HERV) antigens. HERV DNA sequences in the human genome represent the remnants of ancient infectious retroviruses. We show that the infection of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 resulted in transcription of the HML-2 lineage of HERV type K [HERV-K(HML-2)] and the expression of Gag and Env proteins. HERV-K(HML-2)-specific CD8+ T cells obtained from HIV-1-infected human subjects responded to HIV-1-infected cells in a Vif-dependent manner in vitro. Consistent with the proposed mode of action, a HERV-K(HML-2)-specific CD8+ T cell clone exhibited comprehensive elimination of cells infected with a panel of globally diverse HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV isolates in vitro. We identified a second T cell response that exhibited cross-reactivity between homologous HIV-1-Pol and HERV-K(HML-2)-Pol determinants, raising the possibility that homology between HIV-1 and HERVs plays a role in shaping, and perhaps enhancing, the T cell response to HIV-1. This justifies the consideration of HERV-K(HML-2)-specific and cross-reactive T cell responses in the natural control of HIV-1 infection and for exploring HERV-K(HML-2)-targeted HIV-1 vaccines and immunotherapeutics.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 11/2012; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 09/2012; 9(2). · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gradients of the sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are responsible for the egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes by activating the S1P1 receptor expressed on the surface of lymphocytes. Small molecule drugs that downregulate S1P receptors induce the sequestration of lymphocytes within lymph nodes, thus preventing lymphocytes from accessing sites of inflammation. In particular, FTY720, a pan-S1P receptor agonist, has been efficacious in the treatment of multiple sclerosis as well as its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by virtue of its ability to restrain lymphocytes within the lymph nodes, thus precluding their migration into the CNS. However, multiple leukocyte subsets express S1P receptors of varying types, and although it is beneficial to prevent transmigration of proinflammatory lymphocytes into the CNS, allowing access of regulatory leukocyte subsets to the CNS is desirable. In this study, we show that an S1P1-specific agonist (AUY954) is clinically efficacious in ameliorating pre-established EAE in SJL/J mice. Efficacy of AUY954 correlated with a reduction of lymphocytes in the CNS, but access of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to the CNS was unimpaired, and the presence of pDCs was found to be an important cofactor in mediating the clinical efficacy of AUY954. These results indicate that pDCs are important in quieting autoimmune responses during EAE, and that trafficking inhibitors that are permissive for pDC accumulation in the CNS may be of therapeutic value for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2012; 189(7):3700-6. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a cytokine with epithelial reparative and regenerative properties that is produced by Th22 cells and by other immune cell subsets. Therefore, we explored the hypothesis that disruption of the gut barrier during HIV infection involves dysregulation of these cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Sigmoid IL-22-producing T cell and Th22 cells were dramatically depleted during chronic HIV infection, epithelial integrity was compromised, and microbial translocation was increased. These alterations were reversed after long-term antiretroviral therapy. While all mucosal IL-22-producing T-cell subsets were also depleted very early during HIV infection, at these early stages IL-22 production by non-T-cell populations (including NKp44+ cells) was increased and gut epithelial integrity was maintained. Circulating Th22 cells expressed a higher level of the HIV co-receptor/binding molecules CCR5 and α4β7 than CD4+ T-cell subsets in HIV-uninfected participants, but this was not the case after HIV infection. Finally, recombinant IL-22 was protective against HIV and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced gut epithelial damage in a validated in vitro gut epithelial system. We conclude that reduced IL-22 production and Th22 depletion in the gut mucosa are important factors in HIV mucosal immunopathogenesis.
    Mucosal Immunology 08/2012; 5(6):670-80. · 7.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of endogenous retrotransposable elements, including long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) and human endogenous retrovirus, accompanies neoplastic transformation and infection with viruses such as HIV. The ability to engender immunity safely against such self-antigens would facilitate the development of novel vaccines and immunotherapies. In this article, we address the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination with these elements. We used immunohistochemical analysis and literature precedent to identify potential off-target tissues in humans and establish their translatability in preclinical species to guide safety assessments. Immunization of mice with murine L1 open reading frame 2 induced strong CD8 T cell responses without detectable tissue damage. Similarly, immunization of rhesus macaques with human LINE-1 open reading frame 2 (96% identity with macaque), as well as simian endogenous retrovirus-K Gag and Env, induced polyfunctional T cell responses to all Ags, and Ab responses to simian endogenous retrovirus-K Env. There were no adverse safety or pathological findings related to vaccination. These studies provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that immune responses can be induced safely against this class of self-antigens and pave the way for investigation of them as HIV- or tumor-associated targets.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2012; 189(3):1467-79. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • R Brad Jones, Colin Kovacs, Tae-Wook Chun, Mario A Ostrowski
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Whether or not HIV-1 continues to infect cells in individuals treated with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains controversial. Here, we determined whether the redistribution of the HIV-1 proviral burden with respect to antigen specificity of CD4(+) cells would provide evidence for ongoing infection cycles in vivo. HIV-1 preferentially infects antigen-stimulated CD4(+) T cells. In the setting of prolonged effective ART, we postulated that if infection cycles were occurring, influenza-specific CD4(+) T cells, activated by influenza vaccination, would preferentially accumulate proviral burden. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from HIV-1-infected subjects who had been treated with effective ART for >5 years, before and after influenza vaccination. CD4(+) T cells were sorted by antigen specificity and HIV-1 proviral burdens were determined. Levels of HIV-1 production upon in vitro antigenic stimulation were also measured. At baseline, influenza-specific CD4(+) T cells carried higher HIV-1 proviral loads than HIV-1-p55-specific CD4(+) T cells. Upon influenza vaccination we observed trends toward elevated levels of HIV-1 proviral DNA in influenza and HIV-1-p55-specific, but not tetanus toxoid or cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD4(+) T cells. Higher levels of HIV-1 virions were produced upon influenza stimulation in postvaccination as compared to baseline samples. While the trends toward increased proviral burdens in influenza-specific cells failed to reach statistical significance, our observation of disproportionately high levels of provirus in influenza-specific cells at baseline indicates that this may represent a real increase that is cumulative over multiple annual vaccinations. This has implications for the eradication of HIV-1 by adding to the evidence that the resting CD4(+) T cell viral reservoir is continually replenished in ART-treated subjects.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 06/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with documented vaccine-induced hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) seroconversion was evaluated retrospectively to determine factors associated with loss of protective levels of HBsAb. After a median follow-up of 43 months, 111 of the 152 participants (73%) maintained protective levels of HBsAb. HIV RNA suppression at vaccination was associated with persistence of protective levels of HBsAb (odds ratio, 3.83; P < .01). Booster doses were provided for those with loss of protective antibody levels, and hepatitis B virus-specific immune memory, as evaluated with T-cell proliferation assays, was poor despite the observation that boosters successfully reinduced protective levels of HBsAb.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 205(10):1534-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    Nancy S Y So, Mario A Ostrowski, Scott D Gray-Owen
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    ABSTRACT: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the cause of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea, elicits low levels of specific Ig that decline rapidly after the bacteria are cleared. Reinfection with the same serovar can occur, and prior gonococcal infection does not alter the Ig response upon subsequent exposure, suggesting that protective immunity is not induced. The mucosal Ig response apparent during gonorrhea does not correlate with that observed systemically, leading to a suggestion that it is locally generated. In considering whether N. gonorrhoeae directly influences B cells, we observed that gonococcal infection prolonged viability of primary human B cells in vitro and elicited robust activation and vigorous proliferative responses in the absence of T cells. Furthermore, we observed the specific expansion of IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells in response to gonococcal infection. These cells are innate in function, conferring protection against diverse microbes by producing low-affinity, broadly reactive IgM without inducing classical immunologic memory. Although gonococcal infection of B cells produced small amounts of gonococcal-specific IgM, IgM specific for irrelevant Ags were also produced, suggesting a broad, polyspecific Ig response. The gonococci were effectively bound and engulfed by B cells. TLR9-inhibitory CpGs blocked B cell responses, indicating that intracellular bacterial degradation allows for innate immune detection within the phagolysosome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bacterial pathogen having specific affinity for the human IgM memory B cells, driving their potent activation and polyclonal Ig response. This unfocused T-independent response explains the localized Ig response that occurs, despite an absence of immunologic memory elicited during gonorrhea.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(8):4008-22. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T cell Ig mucin domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of a subset of CD8(+) and Th1 CD4(+) T cells. Elevated expression of Tim-3 on virus-specific T cells during chronic viral infections, such as HIV-1, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, positively correlates with viral load. Tim-3(+) cytotoxic T cells are dysfunctional and are unable to secrete effector cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNF-α. In this study, we examined potential inducers of Tim-3 on primary human T cells. Direct HIV-1 infection of CD4(+) T cells, or LPS, found to be elevated in HIV-1 infection, did not induce Tim-3 on T cells. Tim-3 was induced by the common γ-chain (γc) cytokines IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 but not IL-4, in an Ag-independent manner and was upregulated on primary T cells in response to TCR/CD28 costimulation, as well as γc cytokine stimulation with successive divisions. γc cytokine-induced Tim-3 was found on naive, effector, and memory subsets of T cells. Tim-3(+) primary T cells were more prone to apoptosis, particularly upon treatment with galectin-9, a Tim-3 ligand, after cytokine withdrawal. The upregulation of Tim-3 could be blocked by the addition of a PI3K inhibitor, LY 294002. Thus, Tim-3 can be induced via TCR/CD28 costimulation and/or γc cytokines, likely through the PI3K pathway.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(8):3745-56. · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
570.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • St. Michael's Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Experimental Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 1996–2013
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      Maryland, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • University of Toronto
      • • Institute of Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Clinical Sciences
      • • Department of Immunology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2011
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Neurology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2010
    • Toronto Western Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006–2009
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Department of Medicine
      Honolulu, HI, United States