Xuesong Li

Beijing Medical University, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (23)68.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 1 (KCNJ1), as an ATP-dependent potassium channel, plays an essential role in potassium balance. KCNJ1 variation is associated with multiple diseases, such as antenatal Bartter syndrome and diabetes. However, the role of KCNJ1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is still unknown. Here, we studied the expression and function of KCNJ1 in ccRCC. The expression of KCNJ1 was evaluated in ccRCC tissues and cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry analysis. The relationship between KCNJ1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. p3xFLAG-CMV-14 vector containing KCNJ1 was constructed and used for transfecting ccRCC cell lines 786-O and Caki-2. The effects of KCNJ1 on cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis were detected in ccRCC cell lines using cell proliferation assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. We found that KCNJ1 was low-expressed in ccRCC tissues samples and cell lines, and its expression level was significantly associated with tumor pathology grade (P = 0.002) and clinical stage (P = 0.023). Furthermore, the KCNJ1 expression was a prognostic factor of ccRCC patient's survival (P = 0.033). The re-expression of KCNJ1 in 786-O and Caki-2 significantly inhibited cancer cell growth and invasion and promoted cancer cell apoptosis. Moreover, knockdown of KCNJ1 in HK-2 cells promoted cell proliferation. Collectively, these data highlight that KCNJ1, low-expressed in ccRCC and associated with poor prognosis, plays an important role in ccRCC cell growth and metastasis.
    Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND High Mobility Group N (HMGN) proteins are a family of chromatin structural proteins that specifically bind to nucleosome core particles. HMGN5 is a novel and characteristic member of the HMGN protein family. We have previously found that HMGN5 is upregulated in prostate cancer and its downregulation had been demonstrated to induce apoptosis and G2-M cell cycle arrest.METHODS The radiosensitization effect of HMGN5 knockdown on PC3 and DU145 cells was assessed using clonogenic assay, flow cytometry, and comet assay. The DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair kinetics of HMGN5 knockdown and control cells after radiation exposure was evaluated using immunocytofluorescence. The mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were estimated using Dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123) probes. Expression of mitochondrial antioxidant MnSOD was measured by real-time PCR and Western blot. The expression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as well as cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP were also measured using Western blot.RESULTSHMGN5 knockdown cells exhibit decreased clonogenic survival and increased apoptosis rate in response to 2–8 Gy ionizing radiation (IR). Loss of HMGN5 does not affect the DSB repair kinetics after radiation exposure. HMGN5 knockdown cells demonstrated increased mitochondrial ROS level and suppressed induction of MnSOD upon radiation compared with control cells upon radiation. Further, MnSOD knockdown resulted in inhibited cell viability as well as increased mitochondrial ROS level and apoptosis upon radiation in PC3 and DU145 cells. Finally, HMGN5 knockdown cells showed significantly decreased levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as well as increased cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP compared with control cells after radiation.CONCLUSIONSHMGN5 knockdown sensitizes prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation, and the radiosensitization effect may be partially mediated through suppressed induction of MnSOD and enhanced activation of apoptosis pathway in response to IR. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 10/2014; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To investigate the incidence and treatment strategies for bilateral upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and to compare the characteristic and oncologic outcomes of bilateral UTUC with those of unilateral tumors. Methods and materials The study included 892 consecutive patients with UTUC. Bilateral UTUC was defined as synchronous bilateral carcinoma on preoperative imaging before confirmation by pathology or positive urine cytology result plus direct visualization. Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) or nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) or both were carried out. Results A total of 39 patients (4.37%) suffered from bilateral disease. Discordant histological grade of bilateral tumor was found in 39.3% cases. Bilateral tumors were associated with female sex (P<0.001), preoperative renal insufficiency (P<0.001), previous or concomitant bladder tumors (P = 0.013), lower tumor stages (P = 0.020), papillary architecture (P = 0.001), and smaller-sized tumors (P = 0.020). Patients with worse renal function (P<0.001) or large-sized tumors (P = 0.039) tended to be treated with bilateral RNU. Most patients (67.6%) were treated with unilateral RNU plus unilateral NSS, with NSS being performed on tumors that only extended to the ureter (P = 0.003) and had a smaller size (P = 0.005). The median follow-up duration was 56 months. The 5-year cancer-specific survival and bladder recurrence-free survival rates were 81.2% and 64.5%, respectively, similar to those of unilateral tumors. Male sex (hazard ratio = 11.535) and higher tumor stage (hazard ratio = 3.386) were independent worse prognostic factors. Conclusions The prevalence of bilateral UTUC is rare. Female patients, patients with renal insufficiency, and those with bladder tumor tended to suffer from bilateral disease and were less likely to present with worse pathological outcomes in the Chinese population. The tumor characteristics and renal function were informative in treatment selection. The oncologic outcomes were similar to those in unilateral UTUC, and male sex and a higher tumor stage were poor prognostic factors for these patients.
    Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are endogenous small noncoding RNAs that are functionally involved in numerous critical cellular processes including tumorigenesis. Data mining using a microRNA array database suggested that let-7d microRNA may be associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) malignant progression. Here, we performed further analyses to determine whether let-7d is functionally linked to RCC malignancy.
    Molecular cancer. 09/2014; 13(1):206.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of resiniferatoxin in the treatment of patients with lifelong premature ejaculation.
    International Journal of Urology 06/2014; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 61-year-old male patient presented with intermittent gross hematuria. A right renal mass with infrahepatic vena caval tumor thrombus was found using magnetic resonance imaging. We undertook a novel combined retroperitoneal and transperitoneal pure laparoscopic nephrectomy with vena caval thrombectomy for this patient. The patient recovered well after surgery and discharged on day 6. A clear cell renal cell carcinoma with venous extension was confirmed by pathologic assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a novel hybrid surgical strategy.
    Urology 05/2014; 83(5):e9-e10. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of targeted therapy has proved a milestone in the history of metastatic renal cell carcinoma treatment, and several guidelines now recommend sunitinib as first- or second-line treatment. But little is known about its efficacy in Asian patients. The aim of this article was to evaluate the efficacy of sunitinib monotherapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated at two Chinese centers. One hundred and forty-one patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma were included in the study. Of them, 119 patients received single-agent sunitinib as first-line therapy and the remaining 22 patients received it as second-line therapy. One hundred and twenty patients received sunitinib in a dosage of 50 mg orally once daily on a 4-2 schedule (4 weeks on treatment, 2 weeks off), while 21 patients received 37.5 mg/day continuously until either disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. The overall response rate, survival outcomes, and safety were evaluated. Over a median follow-up time of 23 months (16 cycles; range 2-45 months), complete responses, partial responses, and stable disease lasting two cycles or longer were achieved in 2.8%, 24.1%, and 60.3% of patients respectively (objective response rate 26.9%; overall benefit 87.2%). The median progression-free survival was 14.2 months (range 3-39 months). During the study, 53 patients died and the median survival time was 13.5 months (range 7-25 months). Dose modification or treatment interruption due to adverse events was required in 36.9% of the patients. The most common adverse events were hand-foot syndrome (71.4%), thrombocytopenia (68.8%), hypertension (47.1%), and fatigue (46.3%). Sunitinib had a favorable efficacy/tolerability profile in Chinese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
    Chinese medical journal 04/2014; 127(8):1450-3. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxic stress and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play important roles in a wide range of tumors. We demonstrate that SPOP, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase component, is a direct transcriptional target of HIFs in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Furthermore, hypoxia results in cytoplasmic accumulation of SPOP, which is sufficient to induce tumorigenesis. This tumorigenic activity occurs through the ubiquitination and degradation of multiple regulators of cellular proliferation and apoptosis, including the tumor suppressor PTEN, ERK phosphatases, the proapoptotic molecule Daxx, and the Hedgehog pathway transcription factor Gli2. Knockdown of SPOP specifically kills ccRCC cells, indicating that it may be a promising therapeutic target. Collectively, our results indicate that SPOP serves as a regulatory hub to promote ccRCC tumorigenesis.
    Cancer cell 03/2014; · 25.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the transperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy procedures with extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy procedures to assess for differences in outcomes and complications. A retrospective review 190 patients who had received laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer from June 2002 to January 2013. The results were compared between 116 transperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy procedures and 74 extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy procedures. The cohorts were similar in terms of mean patient age, height, weight, body mass index, Gleason score from biopsy, and clinical stage. Patients receiced extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy had shorter operation time (146 minutes vs. 224 minutes, Z = -7.220, P = 0.000), less postoperative drainage time (3 days vs. 7 days, Z = -7.115, P = 0.000) and shorter postoperative length of hospital stay (5 days vs. 10 days, Z = -7.250, P = 0.000) than patients receiced transperitoneal procedures. However, the Gleason score, pathological stage, positive margin rate, intraoperative and early postoperative complications has no differences between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The patients who received extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy had shorter operative time and revovered faster recovery and the effect of surgery was similar.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 02/2014; 52(2):135-8.
  • Chinese medical journal 02/2014; 127(4):782-3. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the risk factors and treatment outcomes of contralateral new upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after nephroureterectomy in a large single-center cohort of UTUC patients. A retrospective analysis of the clinicopathological data of 509 consecutive patients treated by nephroureterectomy from 2000 to 2010 at a high-volume center in China was conducted. Thirty-five patients (6.9 %) were found to develop contralateral UTUC. Gross hematuria was a common symptom, and aristolochic acid (AA) containing Chinese herbs was identified as an underlying cause. In multivariate analysis, renal transplant recipients (HR = 16.507) and preoperative renal insufficiency (HR = 2.523) were independent risk factors. No correlation was found in the clinical and pathological characteristics of primary and subsequent contralateral UTUC. A second round of nephroureterectomy should be performed on renal transplant patients, whereas patients who are older, exhibit relatively better renal function, and have tumors that are single, located in the ureter and small size could be treated with nephron-sparing surgery. No survival difference was detected between the two treatment groups, and developing contralateral UTUC was not associated with worse survival. Contralateral UTUC is comparatively rare, and gross hematuria is a common symptom. Renal transplant history and renal insufficiency are independent risk factors, and prophylactic contralateral nephroureterectomy is considered for uremic UTUC patients with proper renal replacement treatment or renal transplant recipients. These features are likely related to the mechanisms of multifocality of UTUC, and the potential correlation with AA remains to be elucidated. Tumor characteristics and renal function are informative for the decisions concerning surgical options for contralateral UTUC.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 01/2014; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To report the decline of renal function after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients and to develop a nomogram to predict ineligibility for cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 606 consecutive Chinese UTUC patients treated by RNU from 2000 to 2010. We chose an eGFR of 60 and 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) as cut-offs for full-dose and reduced-dose AC eligibility. Results. Median eGFR for all patients before and after surgery was 64 and 49 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients ineligible to receive full-dose and reduced-dose AC changed from 42% to 74% and from 20% to 38.1%. Older age (OR = 1.007), preoperative eGFR (OR = 0.993), absence of hydronephrosis (OR = 0.801), smaller tumor size (OR = 0.962), and tumor without multifocality (OR = 0.876) were predictive for ineligibility for full-dose AC. Preoperative eGFR (OR = 0.991), absence of hydronephrosis (OR = 0.881), tumor located in renal pelvis (OR = 1.164), and smaller tumor size (OR = 0.969) could predict ineligibility for reduced-dose AC. The c-index of the two models was 0.757 and 0.836. Postoperative renal function was not associated with worse survival. Conclusions. Older age, lower preoperative eGFR, smaller tumor size, tumor located in renal pelvis, and absence of hydronephrosis or multifocality were predictors of postoperative renal insufficiency.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:529186. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate variation in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) in men following prostate brachytherapy. From January 2004 to November 2009, 524 consecutive patients underwent prostate brachytherapy either alone or in combination with external beam radiation therapy for T1c-T3b prostate cancer. The IPSS was assessed preimplant and at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after treatment. Clinical and treatment-related factors were assessed for correlations with the IPSS increase. The mean preimplant IPSS was 7.4, with the greatest mean score of 16.0 at 1 month. At 6 months, the mean total IPSS had decreased to 11.5, but it was still statistically significantly greater than that at baseline (<0.001). At 12 months, the IPSS was decreased to 8.6, slightly greater than baseline (p = 0.001). The IPSS of 45.4 % (69/152) patients gradually returned to preimplant levels and that of 71.1 % (108/152) patients returned to within 3 points of the baseline at 24 months. At 24, 36, and 48 months after seed implantation, the IPSS was 8.6, 7.7, and 8.2, respectively, and none of these values differed statistically significantly from baseline (p > 0.05). Sixteen patients (3.1 %) showed AUR, and 11 patients required catheterization. On univariate and multivariate analyses, the IPSS increase was best predicted by lower preimplant IPSS. In our series, IPSS after prostate brachytherapy peaked at 1 month and gradually returned to approximately baseline at 24 months. The IPSS increase was best predicted by lower preimplant IPSS.
    World Journal of Urology 10/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a novel technique using extracorporeal tailoring and an inverted ureteral nipple to perform laparoscopic transperitoneal ureteral reimplantation for adult obstructed megaureter and our initial experience with 10 patients. Ten patients (mean age 39.2 years [range, 21-62]) with adult obstructed megaureter underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation by a 3- or 4-port technique. In each case, the affected ureter was freed and delivered out of the peritoneal cavity through the ipsilateral 12-mm port. The lower end of the ureter was tailored by approximately 6 cm, and the tip was folded back onto itself and secured with absorbable sutures to form a nipple. A double-J stent was placed, the entire assembly was carefully replaced into the abdomen, and the ureter was reimplanted into the posterolateral wall of the bladder. Surgery was successful in all the 10 patients without the need for open conversion. At a mean follow-up of 17 months, all patients were asymptomatic, and hydronephrosis was relieved in 9 cases. Laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation with extracorporeal tailoring and direct nipple ureteroneocystostomy is an easy, safe, and effective procedure for adult obstructed megaureter.
    Urology 09/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: There is relatively little literature on prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to surgery in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). We evaluated the prevalence and clinical associated factors of baseline CKD in patients with UTUC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were 785 patients with a pathologic diagnosis of UTUC from January 2002 to December 2011 who were analyzed in this study. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by re-expressed Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulas for the Chinese population. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) for CKD stage 3 or higher in UTUCs after data differences were tested. RESULTS: The prevalence of CKD in UTUCs presenting at our hospital was 58.6% and 70.8% in the group age 70 years and older. Older age [per year increased; OR = 1.050; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.034-1.067], lower tumor stage (T stage; per stage increased; OR = 0.666; 95% CI: 0.544-0.816), higher tumor grade (per grade increased; OR = 1.392; 95% CI: 1.004-1.930) and the main tumor locating in the pelvis (ureter as reference; OR = 0.648; 95% CI: 0.475-0.885) were independently associated with decreased kidney function in the multivariate logistic regression. The use of serum creatinine (Scr) only to evaluate the renal function would ignore a large proportion of patients suffering from CKD stage 3 in UTUCs, especially in those older than 70 years (39.3% vs. 54.1%, p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a high prevalence (58.6%) of CKD in patients with UTUC, particularly in the group older than 70 years (70.8%). Older age, lower T stage, higher tumor grade, and the main tumor locating in pelvis (ureter as reference) were independently associated with CKD in UTUCs.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 05/2013; · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell adhesion molecules (CADMs) comprise a protein family whose functions include maintenance of cell polarity and tumor suppression. In this report, we show that the CADM2 gene is repressed in human clear renal cell carcinoma by DNA promoter hypermethylation and/or loss of heterozygosity. Moreover, the loss of CADM2 expression is associated with a higher tumor pathology stage (p<0.05). The re-expression of CADM2 in the renal cancer cell line 786-O significantly suppressed tumor cell growth in vitro and in mouse xenografts by a G1 phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis. Lentivirus-mediated CADM2 expression also significantly suppressed cancer cell anchorage-independent growth and invasion. Furthermore, the inhibition of endogenous CADM2 expression using siRNAs induced a tumorigenic phenotype in polarized non-tumorigenic MDCK cells. Thus, we conclude that CADM2 functions as a novel tumor suppressor and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for human renal cell carcinoma.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kaempferol (Kae), a natural flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Previous studies have identified Kae as a possible cancer preventive and therapeutic agent. We found Kae to exhibit potent antiproliferation and anti-migration effects in human bladder cancer EJ cells. Kaempferol robustly induced apoptosis in EJ cells in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by increased cleavage of caspase-3. Furthermore, we found Kae-induced apoptosis in EJ cells to be associated with phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on the chromosome 10 (PTEN)/PI3K/Akt pathway. Kae significantly increased PTEN and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Kae-induced apoptosis was partially attenuated in PTEN-knockdown cells. Our findings indicate that Kae could be an alternative medicine for bladder cancer, based on a PTEN activation mechanism.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(11):21215-21226. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare the transperitoneal and the retroperitoneal approach in the laparoscopic management of pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction, and to find out which approach is preferable during the learning curve period at two different urologic centers. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 50 consecutive laparoscopic pyeloplasties performed by two urologists from different urologic centers during their learning curve period in laparoscopy. Each surgeon used a different approach: transperitoneal (group A) or retroperitoneal (group B). Timing for patient positioning, access to the operating field, ureter and PUJ isolation, PUJ suturing, total time of the surgery procedure and blood loss were recorded to compare the transperitoneal with the retroperitoneal approach. Intraoperative complications and perioperative morbidity were also reported. Results: 22 procedures were performed using the transperitoneal method (group A) and 28 using the retroperitoneal method (group B). Significant differences between groups A and B were observed in terms of time for access to the operating field (mean 25 and 15 min, respectively, p < 0.05), time for suturing the PUJ (mean 57 and 103 min, respectively, p < 0.001), and total operative time (mean 127 and 201 min, respectively, p < 0.002). No statistical differences were observed for any other parameters. Average follow-up was 10 and 11 months for groups A and B; no statistical differences were observed. Conclusions: We suggest that young urologists during the learning curve for laparoscopy should perform laparoscopic pyeloplasty using a transperitoneal route. In expert hands, both transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches are feasible, and the choice depends on personal preference.
    Urologia Internationalis 11/2012; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of penile cancer varies by ethnicity, and is not well described among Chinese patients. We performed a retrospective study to assess the prognostic factors in Chinese patients with penile invasive Squamous cell carcinoma (iSCC). We reviewed the medical records of 83 consecutive patients treated at our institution. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the prognostic factors predicting for cancer specific survival (CSS). Univariate and multivariate logistical regression analysis were used to analyze the predictive factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM). A total of 55 patients were followed. Thirteen patients (23.6%) died from the disease during follow up. By univariate analysis, older age (≥49yr, p=0.048), radical resection (compared with local/partial resection, p=0.040), high histological grade (p=0.037) and lymph node metastasis (p<0.001) were each associated with poor prognosis. By multivariate analysis, chronological age (p=0.011) and lymph node metastasis (p=0.002) were independent prognostic factors. High histological grade (p=0.003) was an independent predictive factor for lymph node metastasis. In our series, chronological age and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors for CSS. The histological grade, not the tumor stage, was still an influential predictive factor of LNM of in Chinese patients with penile iSCC.
    Journal of Andrology 06/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Study Type - Prognosis (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? We had known from former studies of RCC that the risks of high grade tumours increased with tumour size and probability of localized tumour decreased with tumour size increasing. Our study had provided large and detailed data about pathologic features of RCC. We also examined the exactly changing of probabilities of different subtypes with diameter increasing and evaluated the effects of hemorrhage, necrosis and cystic degeneration on pathologic subtypes. OBJECTIVE: •  To investigate the correlation between tumour size and histopathological characteristics of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: •  A total of 1867 patients who underwent surgical operation between January 2002 and March 2010 due to RCC were included. According to 1997 WHO recommendation about Fuhrman nuclear grading of RCC which criteria we used, tumours were stratified by the largest pathologic diameter into 5 groups, the discrepancy of tumour grade between different groups and whether tumour size could predict histological subtype were analyzed. RESULTS: •  The largest diameter (mean ±sd) of G1, G2, and G3 tumours were 3.27 ± 1.46 cm,4.87 ± 2.23 cm, and 7.39 ± 3.11 cm, respectively. The percentage of extracapsular extension tumours in 2 cm or less, 2.1 and 4.0 cm, 4.1 to 7 cm, 7.1 to 10 cm, and more than 10 cm group were 0.5%, 4.3%, 19.8%, 57.9%, and 91.9%, respectively. The distribution of G1 tumours shows a decreasing trend with the diameter becoming larger, while the G3 tumours shows an opposite trend (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis predicted that the odds of papillary, chromophobe, and other types vs clear cell decreased with increase in tumour size. If the tumour was complicated with hemorrhage or necrosis, the chance of being chromophobe was higher, while the probability of being papillary and chromophobe decreased when a tumour with cystic degeneration. CONCLUSION: •  There was a significant correlation between tumour size and tumour grade and stage; Larger tumours were prone to have higher grade and stage, and the probability of being clear cell carcinoma grew higher as the tumour size increased.
    BJU International 04/2012; · 3.05 Impact Factor