Xuesong Li

Beijing Medical University, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (43)139.22 Total impact

  • Journal of Endourology 09/2015; DOI:10.1089/end.2015.0603 · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Oncology letters 08/2015; DOI:10.3892/ol.2015.3653 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sorafenib has been recommended as first- or second-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) by several guidelines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of sorafenib monotherapy in Chinese patients with mRCC and determine the prognostic clinicopathologic factors associated with survival in these patients.This is a single-arm retrospective study conducted in 2 tertiary medical centers; 140 mRCC patients were enrolled between January 2007 and June 2014. Sorafenib was administered at a dose of 400 mg twice daily, and continued until disease progression, at which point the dose was increased to 600 or 800 mg twice daily, or the onset of an intolerable adverse drug event (ADE) that required dose reduction or temporary suspension of treatment.The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety.The median follow-up time was 32 months. The median OS and PFS were 24 months (range, 3-88 months) and 16 months (range, 0-88 months), respectively. Patients with clear cell carcinoma had a greater OS (P = 0.001) whereas sarcomatoid differentiation (P = 0.045) and disease progression (P = 0.010) negatively impacted OS; time from kidney surgery or biopsy to initiation of sorafenib treatment was associated with PFS (P = 0.027). Efficacy analysis revealed that 3 (2.1%) patients achieved complete responses, 28 (20.0%) patients experienced partial responses, 88 (62.9%) patients had stable disease, and 21 (15.0%) patients developed progressive disease. Moreover, the ORR was 22.1%, and the DCR was 85.0%. Most ADEs were classified as grades 1 or 2 with only 14 (10.0%) patients experiencing a severe ADE (grade 3).Sorafenib monotherapy can achieve promising OS and PFS for Chinese patients with mRCC, especially in those with clear cell carcinoma, with manageable adverse events.
    Medicine 08/2015; 94(34):e1361. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000001361 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The coiled coil is a superhelical structural protein motif involved in a diverse array of biological functions, and the abnormal expression of the coiled-coil domain containing proteins has a direct link with the phenotype of tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the critical role of Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 34 (CCDC34) in bladder carcinogenesis, which has never been reported to date. Here, we found CCDC34 expression was elevated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. The knockdown of CCDC34 via lentivirus-mediated siRNA significantly suppressed bladder cancer cells proliferation and migration, and induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and increased apoptosis in vitro. In addition, CCDC34 knockdown suppressed bladder tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, CCDC34 silencing decreased the phosphorylation of MEK, ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and Akt, and the expressions of c-Raf and c-Jun, indicating MAPK and AKT pathways (ERK/MAPK, p38/MAPK, JNK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt) might be involved in CCDC34 regulation of bladder cancer cell proliferation and migration. Our findings revealed for the first time a potential oncogenic role for CCDC34 in bladder carcinoma pathogenesis and it may serve as a biomarker or even a therapeutic target for bladder cancer.
    Oncotarget 07/2015; 6(28). DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.4624 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the natural history of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with delayed treatment and to immunohistochemically analyze the correlation between some biomarkers and the growth rate of RCC. We reviewed our institutional databases to identify renal tumors which were confirmed to be RCC by delayed surgical treatment after at least 12 months of active surveillance (AS). Growth rate was defined as the average growth rate of the maximal diameter on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The clinicopathological characteristics and immunohistochemical biomarkers (Ki-67, p53, bcl-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor) were analyzed the correlation with the growth rate of RCC. We identified 45 RCCs from 45 patients. The mean patient age was 54 years (range, 26-78 years). The mean tumor size increased from 2.39 cm (range, 0.10-6.70 cm) at presentation to 4.54 cm (range, 1.40-11.80 cm) after a mean time of 45.4 months (range, 12-155 months) of AS. The mean growth rate was 0.79 cm/y (range, 0.10-4.74 cm), and 36 (80.0%) tumors presented a growth rate ≤ 1.00 cm/y. Clear cell RCC had a trend of growing faster than other histological subtypes. Pathological grade was significantly correlated with the growth rate of RCC (p = 0.043). High positive ratio of Ki-67 (r = 0.351, p = 0.018) and being p53 positive (p = 0.019) were significantly correlated to the fast growth rate of RCC. In general, RCCs under AS are slow growing with a wide variation of growth rate, with a portion of RCCs presenting rapid growth kinetics. RCC with rapid growth during AS is characterized by a high histological grade, high positive ratio of Ki-67, and being p53 positive. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jfma.2015.05.003 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A controllable Am–Be neutron source was designed based on a hamburger structure including two Be pallets and a composite polymeric membrane carrying 241Am. The composite polymeric membrane was made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVDF polymeric membrane was used as the base film to load the mixed Am(NO3)3-PVA solution, which was coated on the PVDF polymeric membrane. The thickness of two layers was both about 5 μm. The correlative calculations were performed using the Geant4 code. A piece of composite membrane loading 241Am of 2.13 × 106 Bq was placed in the middle of two Be pallets just like a hamburger. Neutrons were produced continuously until the composite membrane was separated from Be pallets. The neutron yield of the controllable hamburger neutron source was measured as 54 n/(106α), which was 15.6 % lower than the calculation value.
    Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 06/2015; 304(3). DOI:10.1007/s10967-014-3921-4 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background To analyze the expression of karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and to investigate whether the KPNA2 expression provides additional prognostic information following radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Methods A tissue microarray (TMA) containing samples from 176 patients with UTUC who underwent RNU at our institute was analyzed for KPNA2 expression using immunohistochemistry. KPNA2 expression in normal urothelial cell line and urothelial carcinoma cell lines was evaluated by western blot analysis. Using RNA interference in vitro, the effects of KPNA2 inhibition on cellular viability, migration and apoptosis were determined. Results KPNA2 expression was significantly upregulated in the UTUC samples compared with the adjacent normal urothelial tissues. High KPNA2 immunoreactivity was identified as a predictor of bladder recurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.017, 95% CI 1.13-3.61, p = 0.018), poor disease-free survival (DFS, HR: 2.754, 95% CI 1.68-4.51, p = 0.001) and poor overall survival (OS, HR: 4.480, 95% CI 1.84-10.89, p = 0.001) for patients with UTUC after RNU. Furthermore, high KPNA2 immunoreactivity was independent of the conventional predictive factors in a multivariate analysis. Additional in vitro experiments revealed that KPNA2 expression was higher in urothelial carcinoma cell lines than in normal urothelial cell line. KPNA2 inhibition with a specific siRNA decreased cell viability and migration and increased apoptosis in urothelial carcinoma cell lines. Conclusions KPNA2 is a novel independent prognostic marker for bladder recurrence, DFS and OS of UTUC patients who have undergone RNU. Moreover, these data suggest that KPNA2 may be a promising therapeutic target for UTUC.
    BMC Cancer 05/2015; 15(4). DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1369-8 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted this study to identify gene promoter methylation status and clinical predictors for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. Using methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction, we examined ten genes promoter methylation status in 687 UTUC patients. A methylated promoter of three genes to predict higher tumor stage (T3 and T4), five genes to predict higher tumor grade (G3) and one gene to predict pN+ were certified in this study. Nine factors were significantly associated with poor cancer-specific survival. Six factors were considered as predictors to develop bladder recurrence after surgery. Methylation occurs commonly in UTUCs, may affect carcinogenic mechanisms, and is a well predictive factor for cancer-specific survival and bladder recurrence in UTUCs.
    Epigenomics 04/2015; DOI:10.2217/epi.15.34 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    Liqun Zhou · Zhongqiang Guo · Xuesong Li
    The Journal of Urology 04/2015; 193(4):e712. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2015.02.2107 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    Gengyan Xiong · Jin Liu · Dong Fang · Xuesong Li · Liqun Zhou
    European Urology Supplements 04/2015; 193(4):e11. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2015.02.126 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noble gas 41Ar was measured with a 4πβ–4πγ coincidence system, in which gamma- and beta-rays were respectively detected with a well-type NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillator (PS) detector. The activity of 41Ar was determined from an efficiency extrapolation method, in which the beta detector efficiency was varied by electronic discrimination using the software developed under Visual basic. In addition, high resolution gamma spectroscopy with HPGe detector was also used for activity determination of 41Ar, and the result was satisfactory in agreement with that obtain by the efficiency extrapolation method. This work demonstrated that the activity of 41Ar can be accurately measured by efficiency extrapolation method.
    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 03/2015; 97. DOI:10.1016/j.apradiso.2014.12.007 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a modified suture technique for transperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty (TPLDP) that can be consistently replicated. Between June 2010 and April 2014, 21 men and 7 women with primary pelviureteric junction obstruction underwent our modified TPLDP suture technique performed by the same surgeon. In our method, the dismembering should be performed after performing half of anastomosis to achieve the maintenance of correct orientation and the prevention of torsion of anastomosis. We defined the success criteria as complete clinical resolution of flank pain for the patients with flank pain and complete radiologic resolution for the asymptomatic patients. The mean overall operative time for our technique was 137.3 minutes. The mean operative time for procedures on the left side was longer than on the right side (P = .02). The mean suture time was 37.2 minutes. The mean estimated blood loss was 29.4 mL, and the crossing vessel was found in 7 of 28 patients (25.0%). No open conversion was required. The mean follow-up time was 21.0 months. Only 1 patient still had frequent and intolerable flank pain after surgery whose treatment was unsuccessful. The rest of the patients got complete clinical or radiologic resolution. The success rate was 27 of 28 (96.4%). Our modified TPLDP suture technique is feasible and seems to be safe and to allow high success rate for the treatment of pelviureteric junction obstruction. Sizable sample and further analysis about technique will be completed in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Urology 01/2015; 85(1):263-7. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2014.09.031 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Aberrant methylation of genes is one of the most common epigenetic modifications involved in the development of urothelial carcinoma. However, it is unknown the predictive role of methylation to contralateral new upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). We retrospectively investigated the predictive role of DNA methylation and other clinicopathological factors in the contralateral upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in a large single-center cohort of patients.Methods In a retrospective design, methylation of 10 genes was analyzed on tumor specimens belonging to 664 consecutive patients treated by RNU for primary UTUC. Median follow-up was 48 mo (range: 3¿144 mo). Gene methylation was accessed by methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction, and we calculated the methylation index (MI), a reflection of the extent of methylation. The log-rank test and Cox regression were used to identify the predictor of contralateral UTUC recurrence.ResultsThirty (4.5%) patients developed a subsequent contralateral UTUC after a median follow-up time of 27.5 (range: 2¿139) months. Promoter methylation for at least one gene promoter locus was present in 88.9% of UTUC. Fewer methylation and lower MI (P¿=¿0.001) were seen in the tumors with contralateral UTUC recurrence than the tumors without contralateral recurrence. High MI (P¿=¿0.007) was significantly correlated with poor cancer-specific survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that unmethylated RASSF1A (P¿=¿0.039), lack of bladder recurrence prior to contralateral UTUC (P¿=¿0.009), history of renal transplantation (P¿<¿0.001), and preoperative renal insufficiency (P¿=¿0.002) are independent risk factors for contralateral UTUC recurrence after RNU.Conclusions Our data suggest a potential role of DNA methylation in predicting contralateral UTUC recurrence after RNU. Such information could help identify patients at high risk of new contralateral UTUC recurrence after RNU who need close surveillance during follow up.
    Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR 01/2015; 34(1):5. DOI:10.1186/s13046-015-0120-2 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To explore the characteristics, predictive risk factors, and prognostic effect of concomitant non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Methods We evaluated 727 consecutive UTUC patients treated with radical resection between 2000 and 2012 in a high-volume center of China. Preoperative cystoscopy was performed in all patients. Patients with previous or concomitant total cystectomy were excluded. Results Overall, 73 patients (10.0 %) had NMIBC. Concomitant NMIBC was associated with previous bladder cancer (p = 0.003), tumor located in ureter (p = 0.008), multifocality (p
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2015; 22(8). DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-4302-5 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: . To evaluate the prognostic outcomes and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with venous tumor thrombus in China. Materials and Methods . We reviewed the clinical information of 169 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy. Overall and cancer-specific survival rates were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the potential prognostic factors. Results . The median survival time was 63 months. The five-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rate were 53.6% and 54.4% for all patients. For all patients, significant survival difference was only observed between early (below hepatic vein) and advanced (above hepatic vein) tumor thrombus. However, significant differences existed between both RV/IVC and early/advanced tumor thrombus groups in N0M0 patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher tumor thrombus level ( p = 0.016 , RR = 1.58 ), N ( p = 0.013 , RR = 2.60 ), and M ( p < 0.001 , RR = 4.14 ) stages and adrenal gland invasion ( p = 0.001 , RR = 4.91 ) were the most significant negative prognostic predictors. Conclusions . In this study, we reported most cases of RCC patients with venous extension in China. We proved that patients with RCC and venous tumor thrombus may have relative promising long-term survival rate, especially those with early tumor thrombus.
    01/2015; 2015(4):1-8. DOI:10.1155/2015/163423
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND High Mobility Group N (HMGN) proteins are a family of chromatin structural proteins that specifically bind to nucleosome core particles. HMGN5 is a novel and characteristic member of the HMGN protein family. We have previously found that HMGN5 is upregulated in prostate cancer and its downregulation had been demonstrated to induce apoptosis and G2-M cell cycle arrest.METHODS The radiosensitization effect of HMGN5 knockdown on PC3 and DU145 cells was assessed using clonogenic assay, flow cytometry, and comet assay. The DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair kinetics of HMGN5 knockdown and control cells after radiation exposure was evaluated using immunocytofluorescence. The mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were estimated using Dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123) probes. Expression of mitochondrial antioxidant MnSOD was measured by real-time PCR and Western blot. The expression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as well as cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP were also measured using Western blot.RESULTSHMGN5 knockdown cells exhibit decreased clonogenic survival and increased apoptosis rate in response to 2–8 Gy ionizing radiation (IR). Loss of HMGN5 does not affect the DSB repair kinetics after radiation exposure. HMGN5 knockdown cells demonstrated increased mitochondrial ROS level and suppressed induction of MnSOD upon radiation compared with control cells upon radiation. Further, MnSOD knockdown resulted in inhibited cell viability as well as increased mitochondrial ROS level and apoptosis upon radiation in PC3 and DU145 cells. Finally, HMGN5 knockdown cells showed significantly decreased levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as well as increased cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP compared with control cells after radiation.CONCLUSIONSHMGN5 knockdown sensitizes prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation, and the radiosensitization effect may be partially mediated through suppressed induction of MnSOD and enhanced activation of apoptosis pathway in response to IR. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 01/2015; 75(1). DOI:10.1002/pros.22888 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among men. Early diagnosis and treatment are successful against prostate cancer, yet the clinical treatment of advanced prostate cancer remains a challenge. Gemcitabine is used to treat a broad spectrum of solid tumors; however, the clinical response of prostate cancer patients to gemcitabine is limited. In the present study, we showed that HMGN5, a nucleosome binding protein that can unfold chromatin by binding to histone (H1), is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and plays an oncogenic role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and development by activating the MAPK signaling pathway. We also found that sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to gemcitabine was positively correlated with HMGN5 expression. Knockdown of HMGN5 expression reduced the sensitivity of PC-3 cells to gemcitabine, and ectopic HMGN5 expression in DU145 cells enhanced the sensitivity to gemcitabine. Gemcitabine decreased HMGN5 expression, consequently leading to inactivation of the MAPK signaling pathway and cleavage of the PARP protein. Finally, we showed that PC-3 cells acquire gemcitabine resistance by gradual loss of HMGN5 expression. The present study suggests that HMGN5 is a potential biomarker for treating prostate cancer, and patients with a high level HMGN5 will benefit from gemcitabine treatment.
    Oncology Reports 12/2014; 33(3). DOI:10.3892/or.2014.3696 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 1 (KCNJ1), as an ATP-dependent potassium channel, plays an essential role in potassium balance. KCNJ1 variation is associated with multiple diseases, such as antenatal Bartter syndrome and diabetes. However, the role of KCNJ1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is still unknown. Here, we studied the expression and function of KCNJ1 in ccRCC. The expression of KCNJ1 was evaluated in ccRCC tissues and cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry analysis. The relationship between KCNJ1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. p3xFLAG-CMV-14 vector containing KCNJ1 was constructed and used for transfecting ccRCC cell lines 786-O and Caki-2. The effects of KCNJ1 on cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis were detected in ccRCC cell lines using cell proliferation assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. We found that KCNJ1 was low-expressed in ccRCC tissues samples and cell lines, and its expression level was significantly associated with tumor pathology grade (P = 0.002) and clinical stage (P = 0.023). Furthermore, the KCNJ1 expression was a prognostic factor of ccRCC patient's survival (P = 0.033). The re-expression of KCNJ1 in 786-O and Caki-2 significantly inhibited cancer cell growth and invasion and promoted cancer cell apoptosis. Moreover, knockdown of KCNJ1 in HK-2 cells promoted cell proliferation. Collectively, these data highlight that KCNJ1, low-expressed in ccRCC and associated with poor prognosis, plays an important role in ccRCC cell growth and metastasis.
    Tumor Biology 10/2014; 36(2). DOI:10.1007/s13277-014-2746-7 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To investigate the incidence and treatment strategies for bilateral upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and to compare the characteristic and oncologic outcomes of bilateral UTUC with those of unilateral tumors. Methods and materials The study included 892 consecutive patients with UTUC. Bilateral UTUC was defined as synchronous bilateral carcinoma on preoperative imaging before confirmation by pathology or positive urine cytology result plus direct visualization. Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) or nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) or both were carried out. Results A total of 39 patients (4.37%) suffered from bilateral disease. Discordant histological grade of bilateral tumor was found in 39.3% cases. Bilateral tumors were associated with female sex (P<0.001), preoperative renal insufficiency (P<0.001), previous or concomitant bladder tumors (P = 0.013), lower tumor stages (P = 0.020), papillary architecture (P = 0.001), and smaller-sized tumors (P = 0.020). Patients with worse renal function (P<0.001) or large-sized tumors (P = 0.039) tended to be treated with bilateral RNU. Most patients (67.6%) were treated with unilateral RNU plus unilateral NSS, with NSS being performed on tumors that only extended to the ureter (P = 0.003) and had a smaller size (P = 0.005). The median follow-up duration was 56 months. The 5-year cancer-specific survival and bladder recurrence-free survival rates were 81.2% and 64.5%, respectively, similar to those of unilateral tumors. Male sex (hazard ratio = 11.535) and higher tumor stage (hazard ratio = 3.386) were independent worse prognostic factors. Conclusions The prevalence of bilateral UTUC is rare. Female patients, patients with renal insufficiency, and those with bladder tumor tended to suffer from bilateral disease and were less likely to present with worse pathological outcomes in the Chinese population. The tumor characteristics and renal function were informative in treatment selection. The oncologic outcomes were similar to those in unilateral UTUC, and male sex and a higher tumor stage were poor prognostic factors for these patients.
    Urologic Oncology 09/2014; 33(2). DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2014.07.001 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are endogenous small noncoding RNAs that are functionally involved in numerous critical cellular processes including tumorigenesis. Data mining using a microRNA array database suggested that let-7d microRNA may be associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) malignant progression. Here, we performed further analyses to determine whether let-7d is functionally linked to RCC malignancy. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the level of mature let-7d in RCC clinical specimens and its correlation with clinicopathological data. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted to characterize the stroma of RCC. Let-7d overexpressing RCC cell lines combined with mouse models bearing cell-derived xenografts and patient-derived xenografts were used to assess the functional role of let-7d in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of let-7d in clinical RCC samples was associated with advanced tumor grade and T stage and increased vascular invasion. An inverse relationship between let-7d expression and macrophage infiltration was found in clinical RCC samples. Functional studies indicated that ectopic expression of let-7d significantly inhibited RCC cell proliferation, migration, and peripheral blood monocyte (PBMC) recruitment in vitro, as well as tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor macrophage infiltration in vivo. In silico analysis and subsequent experimental validation confirmed collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1) and C-C subfamily chemokine member CCL7 as direct let-7d target genes. The addition of COL3A1 and CCL7 counteracted the inhibitory effects of let-7d on RCC cell proliferation, migration, and PBMC recruitment. The inhibition of let-7d increased cell proliferation, migration, and PBMC recruitment by the enhanced expression of COL3A1 and CCL7 genes in vitro. The mRNA levels of COL3A1 and CCL7 were inversely correlated with let-7d level in RCC clinical specimens. These results suggest that let-7d may suppress RCC growth, metastasis, and tumor macrophage infiltration at least partially through targeting COL3A1 and CCL7.
    Molecular Cancer 09/2014; 13(1):206. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-13-206 · 4.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

64 Citations
139.22 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2015
    • Beijing Medical University
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2011–2015
    • Peking University
      • Institute of Urology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2013
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Government of the People's Republic of China
      Peping, Beijing, China