Chang-Gu Hyun

Jeju National University, Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea

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Publications (54)64.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 07/2014; 4(7):529-37.
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    ABSTRACT: Though many essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have several medicinal functions, the chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils of Citrus flowers have not been well described. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory potential of essential oils from C. unshiu flower (CEO) to support its purported beneficial health effects. The chemical constituents of the CEO, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), included y-terpinene (24.7%), 2-beta-pinene (16.6%), 1-methyl-2-isopropylbenzene (11.5%), L-limonene (5.7%), beta3-ocimene (5.6%), and alpha-pinene (4.7%). The effects of the CEO on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. The results indicate that the CEO is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, CEO was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6. Based on these results, CEO may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate with human health benefits.
    Natural product communications 05/2014; 9(5):727-30. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of acanthoic acid (ACAN), isolated from Acanthopanax koreanum, on melanogenesis and its related enzymes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2 in B16 melanoma cells. We found that ACAN significantly attenuates melanin synthesis and reduces the activity of intracellular tyrosinase, the rate-limiting melanogenic enzyme. Western blot analysis showed that ACAN also decreases tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 protein expression. In addition, ACAN significantly decreased the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key regulator of melanogenesis. These results indicate that ACAN effectively inhibits melanin biosynthesis through down-regulation of MITF and thus could be useful as a new skin-whitening agent.
    Natural product communications 10/2013; 8(10):1359-62. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 08/2013; 3(8):617-22.
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    ABSTRACT: The marine environment is a unique source of bioactive natural products, of which Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt is an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. S. muticum is a traditional Korean food stuff and has pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory effects. However, the active ingredients from S. muticum have not been characterized. Bioguided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of S. muticum, collected from Jeju island, led to the isolation of a norisoprenoid. Its structure was determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms of action of this compound were examined using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through ELISA assays and Western blot analysis. Apo-9[prime]-fucoxanthinone, belonging to the norisoprenoid family were identified. Apo-9[prime]-fucoxanthinone effectively suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. This compound also exerted their anti-inflammatory actions by down-regulating of NF-kappaB activation via suppression of IkappaB-alpha in macrophages. This is the first report describing effective anti-inflammatory activity for apo-9[prime]-fucoxanthnone isolated from S. muticum. Apo-9[prime]-fucoxanthinone may be a good candidate for delaying the progression of human inflammatory diseases and warrants further studies.
    DARU-JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF PHARMACY 07/2013; 21(1):62. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to identify the anti-melanogenesis constituents from a seaweed Dictyota coriacea (Holmes). Three known compounds, viz. 1,9-dihydroxycrenulide (1), epiloliolide (2) and D-mannitol (3), were isolated from the ethanol extract. The melanin synthesis inhibition activities were evaluated using B16F10 melanoma cells for the isolates. Compared with the positive control, arbutin, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited more potency, showing 27.8 and 22.6% inhibition activities at a substrate concentration of 30 microg/mL. Our studies also indicate that these compounds are not cytotoxic. Hence, they might prove to be useful therapeutic agents for treating hyperpigmentation and effective components of whitening cosmetics.
    Natural product communications 04/2013; 8(4):427-8. · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Pharmacology 02/2013; 9(2):157-163. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During our ongoing screening program designed to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of natural compounds, we isolated sargachromenol from Sargassum micracanthum. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sargachromenol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and the underlying mechanisms. Sargachromenol significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly inhibited the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Further analyses showed that sargachromenol decreased the cytoplasmic loss of inhibitor κ B α (I κ B α ) protein. These results suggest that sargachromenol may exert its anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the activation of the NF- κ B signaling pathway. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that sargachromenol isolated from S. micracanthum has an effective anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, sargachromenol might be useful for cosmetic, food, or medical applications requiring anti-inflammatory properties.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2013; 2013:712303. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strain PB92(T) of Pedobacter agri, which belongs to the family Sphingobacteriaceae, was isolated from soil in the Republic of Korea. The draft genome of strain PB92(T) contains 5,141,552 bp, with a G+C content of 38.0%. This is the third genome sequencing project of the type strains among the Pedobacter species.
    Journal of bacteriology 07/2012; 194(14):3738. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity for the constituents isolated from Neolitsea aciculata. The stems of N. aciculata was extracted with aqueous ethanol and subjected to chromatographic separation, which led to the isolation of 11 compounds: methyl linoleate (1), catechin (2), epicatechin (3), afzelin-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), 2',3'-di-(p-coumaroyl)afzelin (5), 2'-p-coumaroylafzelin (6), feruloyl tyramine (7), β-sitosterol (8), daucosterol (9), oleic acid (10), and trilaurin (11). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies as well as by comparison with the data available in the literature. Among these isolates, compounds 5 and 6 were identified as potent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors with IC(50) values of 0.067 and 0.080 mM, respectively. The inhibition kinetics, analysed by Lineweaver-Burk plots, indicated that compounds 5 and 6 are competitive tyrosinase inhibitors when using l-tyrosine as a substrate. Notably, compounds 1-11 were isolated for the first time from this plant. These results provide evidence that this plant might be a potential source of anti-melanogenesis agents.
    Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 04/2012; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of Distylium racemosum branches and their inhibitory activities on tyrosinase, elastase and free radicals evaluated. The isolated compounds were identified as dibenzofurans (1-4), abscisic acid (5), 6'-O-galloylsalidroside (6), catechin derivatives (7-11), gallic acid derivatives (12-14), tyrosol (15), flavonoids (16-18), lupeol (19) and 1,2,3,6-tetragalloylglucose (20). For study of tyrosinase inhibition activities, when compared with arbutin (IC(50) 48.8 μg/mL), four compounds (8, 11, 13, 17) showed higher activities, with IC(50) values of 4.8, 30.2, 40.5 and 37.7 μg/mL, respectively. For the elastase inhibition test, dibenzofuran 1 showed greater activity than the positive control, oleanolic acid (IC(50) 9.7 μg/mL), with an IC(50) of 7.7 μg/mL. In the studies on DPPH radical scavenging activities, five compounds (11, 12, 13, 14, 15) showed higher activities than ascorbic acid (IC(50) 5.0 μg/mL), with IC(50) values of 4.6, 3.9, 2.9, 3.8 and 4.7 μg/mL, respectively.
    Phytotherapy Research 10/2011; 25(10):1451-6. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the chemical composition of Neolitsea aciculata essential oil (NAE) and its biological activities. NAE was obtained by hydro-distillation of N. aciculata leaves collected in Jeju Island and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometer detector. 1-Dodecen-3-yne (12.5%), calarene (11.5%) and elemol (9.5%) were identified as the major components of NAE. The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of NAE against skin pathogens were examined to determine the protective properties against acne vulgaris. NAE exhibited moderate to strong antibacterial activity against drug-susceptible and -resistant Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which are known as acne-causing bacteria. In addition, NAE reduced the P. acnes-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in THP-1 cells, highlighting its anti-inflammatory effects. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of NAE also revealed moderate antioxidant properties (IC50, 21.3 microL/mL). Overall, NAE is an attractive candidate as an ingredient in skin care products.
    Natural product communications 08/2011; 6(8):1193-8. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3-O-p-Coumaroyl-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-O-β-D-gulcopyranosylpropanol (ESQ10) is a naturally occurring phenylpropanoid derivative isolated from Sasa quelpaertensis (Gramineae). In the present study, we discovered that ESQ10 inhibits nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. ESQ10 attenuated LPS-induced synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in parallel and inhibited LPS-induced interleukin-6 production, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the macrophages. The mechanism of the antiinflammatory action of ESQ10, i.e., suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, has been documented. However, ESQ10 could not influence LPS-mediated IκB-α degradation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-Jun amino-terminal kinase phosphorylation at concentrations of up to 373 µM. To test the potential application of ESQ10 as a topical material, we also conducted a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on human HaCaT keratinocytes as well as human dermal fibroblast cells. In this assay, ESQ10 did not induce cytotoxicity. Taken together, the results suggest that ESQ10 may be considered an antiinflammatory candidate for treating inflammatory and skin diseases.
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI 01/2011; 131(6):961-7. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrodistilled essential oil from Neolitsea sericea leaves (NSE) have been investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of NSE were analysed by GC-MS and found to include sericenine (32.3%), sabinene (21.0%), trans-beta-ocimene (13.3%), beta-caryophyllene (4.8%), and 4-terpineol (4.2%). The effects of NSE on nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. Pro-inflammatory cytokine and mediator tests indicated that NSE has excellent dose-dependent inhibitory activities. To further examine the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression by NSE, we examined the effect of NSE on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). NSE inhibited NF-kappaB activation by LPS, and this was associated with the abrogation of IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and subsequent decreases in nuclear p50 and p65 protein levels. Further, the phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK was suppressed by NSE in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that NSE exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and MAPK phosphorylation, and, therefore, may be useful for treatment of inflammatory diseases.
    Natural product communications 08/2010; 5(8):1311-6. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seaweed has been used in traditional cosmetics and as a herbal medicine in treatments for cough, boils, goiters, stomach ailments, and urinary diseases, and for reducing the incidence of tumors, ulcers, and headaches. Despite the fact that seaweeds are frequently used in the practice of human health, little is known about the role of seaweed in the context of inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of Jeju endemic seaweed on a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) under the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ethyl acetate extracts obtained from 14 different kinds of Jeju seaweeds were screened for inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators. Our results revealed that extracts from five seaweeds, Laurencia okamurae, Grateloupia elliptica, Sargassum thunbergii, Gloiopeltis furcata, and Hizikia fusiformis, were potent inhibitors of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Based on these results, the anti-inflammatory effects and low cell toxicity of these seaweed extracts suggest potential therapeutic applications in the regulation of the inflammatory response.
    Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 05/2010; 11(5):315-22. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have biological activities. Citrus peel, called 'Jin-Pi', is used in traditional medicine for digestion, severe cold, and fever. However, the antibacterial activities against skin pathogens and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oils of Citrus sunki (JinGyul) and Fortunella japonica var. margarita (GumGyul) have not yet been described. Therefore, in this study, the essential oils of the citrus species C. sunki (CSE) and F. japonica var. margarita (FJE), both native to the island of Jeju, Korea, were examined for their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities against skin pathogens. Four human skin pathogenic microorganisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis CCARM 3709, Propionibacterium acnes CCARM 0081, Malassezia furfur KCCM 12679, and Candida albicans KCCM 11282, were studied. CSE and FJE exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains that were tested. Interestingly, CSE and FJE even showed antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis CCARM 3710, S. epidermidis CCARM 3711, P. acnes CCARM9009, and P. acnes CCARM9010 strains. In addition, CSE and FJE reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that they have anti-inflammatory effects. We also analysed the chemical composition of the oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified several major components, including dl-limonene (68.18%) and beta-myrcene (4.36%) for CSE, and dl-limonene (61.58%) and carvone (6.36%) for FJE. Taken together, these findings indicate that CSE and FJE have great potential to be used in human skin health applications.
    Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 03/2010; 57(1):15-27. · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanogenesis is a well-known physiological response of human skin that may occur because of exposure to ultraviolet light, for genetic reasons, or due to other causes. In our efforts to find new skin lightening agents, palmitoleic acid was investigated for its ability to inhibit melanogenesis. In this study, palmitoleic acid's effect on melanin formation was assessed. Results indicated that palmitoleic acid was shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. To clarify the target of palmitoleic acid action in melanogenesis, we performed Western blotting for tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), which are key melanogenic enzymes. Palmitoleic acid inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. However, it did not inhibit TRP-1 expression. In order to assess its usefulness in future cosmetic product applications, the cytotoxic effects of the palmitoleic acid were also determined by colourimetric MTT assays using human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Palmitoleic acid exhibited no cytotoxicity at 500 muM in a human cell line. Therefore, this study suggests that palmitoleic acid is a candidate anti-melanogenic agent, and it might be effective in hyperpigmentation disorders.
    Journal of oleo science 01/2010; 59(6):315-9. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Acanthopanax koreanum fruit is a popular fruit in Jeju Island, but the byproducts of the alcoholic beverage prepared using this fruit are major agricultural wastes. The fermentability of this waste causes many economic and environmental problems. Therefore, we investigated the suitability of using A. koreanum fruit waste (AFW) as a source of antiinflammatory agents. AFWs were extracted with 80% EtOH. The ethanolic extract was then successively partitioned with hexane, CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc, BuOH, and water. The results indicate that the CH(2)Cl(2) fraction (100 microg/mL) of AFW inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in RAW 264.7 cells by 79.6% and 39.7%, respectively. These inhibitory effects of the CH(2)Cl(2) fraction of AFWs were accompanied by decreases in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA in a dose-dependent pattern. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction of AFWs also prevented degradation of IkappaB-alpha in a dose-dependent manner. Ursolic acid was identified as major compound present in AFW, and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore using pure ursolic acid as standard and by HPLC, AFW and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts was found to contain 1.58 mg/g and 1.75 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, we tested the potential application of AFW extracts as a cosmetic material by performing human skin primary irritation tests. In these tests, AFW extracts did not induce any adverse reactions. Based on these results, we suggest that AFW extracts be considered possible anti-inflammatory candidates for topical application.
    BioMed Research International 01/2010; 2010:715739. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    Weon-Jong Yoon, Nam Ho Lee, Chang-Gu Hyun
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    ABSTRACT: The monoterpene D-limonene and its metabolites have been shown to exert chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects against different tumours in animal models and clinical trials. However, it is unknown whether these compounds modulate the inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The present study was therefore designed to elucidate the pharmacological and biological effects of D-limonene on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators in macrophages. The results indicate that D-limonene is an effective inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO and prostaglandin E(2) production in RAW 264.7 cells. These inhibitory effects of D-limonene included dose-dependent decreases in the expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. To evaluate the inhibitory effects of D-limonene on other cytokines, we also measured TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 levels in the cell supernatants of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In these assays, D-limonene decreased the expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. To assess the suitability of D-limonene for cosmetic applications, we also performed 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays on HaCaT keratinocytes. D-limonene did not display any cytotoxicity in these assays. From these results, we suggest that D-limonene may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate.
    Journal of oleo science 01/2010; 59(8):415-21. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs) with different molecular weights (COS-A, 10 kDa < MW < 20 kDa; We examined the effects of chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs) with different molecular weights (COS-A, 10 kDa < MW < 20 kDa; COS-C, 1 kDa < MW < 3 kDa) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide and on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in RAW264.7 macrophages. COS-A COS-C, 1 kDa < MW < 3 kDa) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide and on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in RAW264.7 macrophages. COS-A (0.4%) and COS-C (0.2%) significantly inhibited PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages without cytotoxicity. The effect (0.4%) and COS-C (0.2%) significantly inhibited PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages without cytotoxicity. The effect of COS-A and COS-C on COX-2 expression in activated macrophages was also investigated by immunoblotting. The inhibition of of COS-A and COS-C on COX-2 expression in activated macrophages was also investigated by immunoblotting. The inhibition of PGE2 by COS-A and COS-C can be attributed to the blocking of COX-2 protein expression. COS-A (0.4%) and COS-C (0.2%) also markedly PGE2 by COS-A and COS-C can be attributed to the blocking of COX-2 protein expression. COS-A (0.4%) and COS-C (0.2%) also markedly inhibited the LPS-induced NO production of RAW 264.7 cells by 50.2% and 44.1%, respectively. The inhibition of NO by COSs inhibited the LPS-induced NO production of RAW 264.7 cells by 50.2% and 44.1%, respectively. The inhibition of NO by COSs was consistent with decreases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. To test the inhibitory effects was consistent with decreases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. To test the inhibitory effects of COS-A and COS-C on other cytokines, we also performed ELISA assays for IL-1β in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, of COS-A and COS-C on other cytokines, we also performed ELISA assays for IL-1β in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, but only a dose-dependent decrease in the IL-1β production exerted by COS-A was observed. In order to test for irritation but only a dose-dependent decrease in the IL-1β production exerted by COS-A was observed. In order to test for irritation and the potential sensitization of COS-A and COS-C for use as cosmetic materials, human skin primary irritation tests were and the potential sensitization of COS-A and COS-C for use as cosmetic materials, human skin primary irritation tests were performed on 32 volunteers; no adverse reactions of COSs usage were observed. Based on these results, we suggest that COS-A performed on 32 volunteers; no adverse reactions of COSs usage were observed. Based on these results, we suggest that COS-A and COS-C be considered possible anti-inflammatory candidates for topical application. and COS-C be considered possible anti-inflammatory candidates for topical application.
    Central European Journal of Biology 01/2010; 5(1):95-102. · 0.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

381 Citations
64.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Jeju National University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
  • 2008–2010
    • Cheju Halla University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Biodiversity Research Institute
      Gorham, Maine, United States
  • 2003–2006
    • Myongji University
      • Division of Biosciences and Bioinformatics
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea