Shufa Du

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (39)181.02 Total impact

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    The Lancet 10/2015; 386:S65. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00646-7 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The processed food sector in low- and middle-income countries has grown rapidly. Little is understood about its effect on obesity. Using data from 14,976 participants aged two and older in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, this paper examines patterns of processed food consumption and their impacts on obesity while considering the endogeneity of those who purchase processed foods. A major assumption of our analysis of the impact of processed foods on overweight and obesity was that the consumption of processed foods is endogenous due to their accessibility and urbanicity levels. The results show that 74.5% of participants consumed processed foods, excluding edible oils and other condiments; 28.5% of participants' total daily energy intake (EI) was from processed foods. Children and teenagers in megacities had the highest proportion of EI (40.2%) from processed foods. People who lived in megacities or highly urbanized neighborhoods with higher incomes and educational achievement consumed more processed foods. When controlling for endogeneity, only the body mass index (BMI) and risk of being overweight of children ages two to eighteen are adversely associated with processed foods (+4.97 BMI units, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-8.28; odds ratio (OR) = 3.63, 95% CI: 1.45-9.13). Processed food purchases represent less than a third of current Chinese food purchases. However, processed food purchases are growing at the rate of 50% per year, and we must begin to understand the implications for the future.
    Food Policy 08/2015; 55:92-100. DOI:10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.07.001 · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • C Piernas · D Wang · S Du · B Zhang · Z Wang · C Su · B M Popkin ·
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    ABSTRACT: Coincident with economic development, China has experienced a marked transition from undernutrition to overweight/obesity over the last few decades. We aimed to explore the burden of under- and overnutrition and nutrient adequacy among 2-12-year-old Chinese children. We included anthropometry, dietary intake and biomarkers from 2-12-year-olds who participated in the 2009-2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (n=1191 in 2009; n=1648 in 2011). Dietary intakes were compared with the 2013 Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. In 2011, ~19% of 2-6-year-old children were underweight, 4% were stunted, 10% were overweight and 12% were obese. Among 7-12-year-old children, stunting was almost 0%, whereas ~21% were underweight, 13% were overweight and 6% were obese in 2011. Overweight and obesity were more prevalent among children from urban areas and higher income households. In particular, 2-6-year-old children from urban areas and higher income households experienced the highest increase in obesity from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.05). Children from urban areas and higher income households had overall higher intakes of total daily energy and most macro- and micronutrients (P<0.05). However, a significant proportion of children did not meet the recommendations for important micronutrients. Underweight and stunting currently coexist with overweight and obesity among Chinese children <12-year-old. We found critical disparities in the prevalence of under- and overweight/obesity, as well as in nutrient intakes and dietary adequacies between children from different incomes, revealing that the burden of childhood under- and overnutrition may constitute a public health concern in modern China.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 July 2015; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.106.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2015.106 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the acceptability and feasibility of using smartphone technology to assess beverage intake and evaluate whether the feasibility of smartphone use is greater among key sub-populations. An acceptability and feasibility study of recording the video dietary record, the acceptability of the ecological momentary assessment (EMA), wearing smartphones and whether the videos helped participants recall intake after a cross-over validation study. Rural and urban area in Shanghai, China. Healthy adults (n 110) aged 20-40 years old. Most participants reported that the phone was acceptable in most aspects, including that videos were easy to use (70 %), helped with recalls (77 %), EMA reminders helped them record intake (75 %) and apps were easy to understand (85 %). However, 49 % of the participants reported that they had trouble remembering to take videos of the beverages before consumption or 46 % felt embarrassed taking videos in front of others. Moreover, 72 % reported that the EMA reminders affected their consumption. When assessing overall acceptability of using smartphones, 72 % of the participants were favourable responders. There were no statistically significant differences in overall acceptability for overweight v. normal-weight participants or for rural v. urban residents. However, we did find that the overall acceptability was higher for males (81 %) than females (61 %, P=0·017). Our study did not find smartphone technology helped with dietary assessments in a Chinese population. However, simpler approaches, such as using photographs instead of videos, may be more feasible for enhancing 24 h dietary recalls.
    Public Health Nutrition 04/2015; -1:1-6. DOI:10.1017/S1368980015000907 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about whether large-scale environmental changes, such as those seen with urbanization, are differentially associated with SBP versus DBP, and whether those changes vary by birth cohort. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based cohort study of Chinese adults (n = 18 754 aged 18-70 years), seen a maximum of seven times from 1991 to 2009. We used hierarchical multivariable linear models to simultaneously estimate SBP and DBP as correlated outcomes over time, accounting for their physiologic, time-varying correlation. Main exposure variables were urbanicity, age, and birth cohort. Over 18 years of modernization, median SBP and DBP increased by 10 and 7 mmHg, respectively. Our hierarchical model results suggest greater temporal increases in SBP and particularly DBP at lower versus higher urbanicity. At the same chronological age, for a 10-year difference in birth cohort (i.e. born in 1980s versus 1970s), the adjusted mean DBP was approximately 3 mmHg higher for the later birth cohort (P < 0.001). Pulse pressure (calculated as model-predicted SBP minus DBP) was also higher at low versus high urbanicity. These results suggest increased susceptibility of DBP (and thus peripheral vascular resistance) to environmental change, particularly in younger Chinese adults. Because DBP more strongly predicts cardiovascular disease risk in younger adulthood, hypertension-related health burden in China may increase over time.
    Journal of Hypertension 02/2015; 33(5). DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000522 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic association of 4 candidate variants with blood pressure and test the modifying effects of environmental factors including age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). We used a linear mixed-effects model to test for variant main effects and variant interactions with age, sex, and BMI on systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in 7,319 Chinese adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). We attempted to replicate our significant interaction findings in 1,996 Chinese men from the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES). Two variants (rs11105378 near ATP2B1 and rs1458038 near FGF5) were significantly associated (P < 0.00625 = 0.05/8) with both SBP and DBP in CHNS. Variant rs1378942 near CSK was nominally associated with SBP (P = 0.01). The signal at rs1458038 exhibited a genotype-by-BMI interaction affecting blood pressure (P interaction = 0.0018 for SBP; P interaction = 0.049 for DBP), with the strongest variant effects in those with the highest BMI. In FAMHES, rs1458038 also showed stronger effects on SBP and DBP among men with the highest BMI. Our findings suggest high BMI increases the effect of the blood pressure-increasing allele at rs1458038 near FGF5, further highlighting the importance of obesity prevention in reducing hypertension risk. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    American Journal of Hypertension 01/2015; 28(8). DOI:10.1093/ajh/hpu263 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To identify dietary patterns that influence cardiometabolic risk among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in China. Methods: Data are from a cross-sectional study of T1D in China (n=99). Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-hour recalls. Reduced rank regression was used to identify dietary patterns from a set of 20 food groups that maximized the explained variation in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Results: Dietary pattern 1 was characterized by low intakes of wheat products and high-fat cakes, and high intakes of beans and pickled vegetables. Dietary pattern 2 was characterized by low intakes of high-fat cakes, nuts/seeds, fish/shellfish, and teas/coffee, and high intakes of rice and eggs. Participants in the highest tertile of dietary pattern 1 had significantly (p<0.05) higher HbA1c and LDL cholesterol compared to participants in the lowest tertile: mean difference in HbA1c was 1.0 percentage point (11 mmol/mol) and in LDL cholesterol was 0.36 mmol/L after adjustment for age and household income. Dietary pattern 2 was not associated with HbA1c or LDL cholesterol. Conclusions: We identified a dietary pattern that is significantly related to HbA1c and LDL cholesterol. These findings provide support for behavioral strategies to prevent complications in individuals with T1D in China.
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 12/2014; 29(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2014.12.014 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared with the written record-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared with the written record-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written record -assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared with the current written record-based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared with either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China's dynamic food and beverage landscape.
    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2014; 23(4). DOI:10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.10 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsTo describe the contribution of diabetes nutrition therapy to disease self-management among individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in China and to estimate the association of diabetes nutrition therapy with dietary intake.Methods The 3C Study was an epidemiological study of the coverage, cost and care of Type 1 diabetes in China. The data reported in the present study are from the 3C Nutrition Ancillary Study, a follow-up study conducted 1AUTHOR: Please insert text explaining what ‘1.6±0.2′ represents, e.g. ‘a mean (sd) of’ or ‘a mean (se) of’.6±0.2 years later. Diabetes nutrition therapy was assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-h recalls. The association of diabetes nutrition therapy with dietary intake was estimated using ancova.ResultsParticipants (n=100; 54% male) had a mean ± sd age of 41.7±16.3 years old and a mean ± sd diabetes duration of 11.8±9.7 years. Fewer than half of the participants reported that they had ‘ever’ met with a dietician. While 64% of participants were taught carbohydrate counting, only 12% ‘ever’ use this tool. Participants on insulin pumps and those testing ≥1 time/day reported greater dietary flexibility and higher fruit intakes compared with participants on other insulin regimens and testing less frequently. After adjustment for confounding by age and occupation, there were no consistent differences in dietary intake across subgroups of diabetes nutrition therapy.Conclusions In this sample of individuals with Type 1 diabetes in China there is little dietician involvement or carbohydrate counting. Increased frequency of nutrition education in conjunction with intensified self-monitoring of blood glucose is needed to improve care.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetic Medicine 11/2014; 32(3). DOI:10.1111/dme.12634 · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective China is undergoing dramatic Westernization, hence may be able to provide unique insights into the role of sociocultural factors in disease. The purpose of this exploratory study was two-fold: to describe the prevalence of screening-detected eating disorders and disordered eating in China at the first occasion of assessment in the large-scale China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and to explore the associations between dietary practices and disordered eating. Regarding the first objective, participants are provincially representative and in subsequent waves will be followed longitudinally.MethodCHNS participants were recruited using multistage, cluster random sampling, beginning in 1989. In this study, participants comprised 259 female adolescents (12–17 years) and 979 women (18–35 years) who participated in the CHNS 2009 survey, which is the first CHNS survey to assess disordered eating. Dietary practice-disordered eating associations were investigated with logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, and urbanization.ResultsOf the participants, 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8, 8.2) of adults and 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 12.0) of adolescents had a screening-detected eating disorder. Dietary practices had non-significant associations with disordered eating at the general population level, except for protein consumption among women. There was evidence that skipping meals and a high-fat diet may confer risk.DiscussionScreening-detected eating disorders in China are lower in prevalence than in developed countries. Dietary practices had fairly limited associations with disordered eating at the general population level; protein consumption, skipping meals, and a high-fat diet are candidate dietary practice exposures for disordered eating. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
    European Eating Disorders Review 11/2014; 23(1). DOI:10.1002/erv.2334 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective China has historically reported a low prevalence of eating disorders. However, the rapid social and economic development of this country as well as Western ideals widely disseminated by television and the Internet have led to distinct patterns of behavioral choices that could affect eating disorder risk. Thus, the current study explored the relation between disordered eating and media use.Method Participants were females from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (N = 1,053). Descriptive statistics were obtained and logistic regression models, stratified by age (adolescents ages 12–17 years and adults ages 18–35 years), were used to evaluate the association of media use with disordered eating.ResultsIn adolescents, 46.8% had access to the Internet and those with access averaged one hour per day each of Internet and television use. In adults, 41.4% had access to the Internet, and those with access averaged 1 h per day of Internet use and 2 h per day of television use. Internet access was significantly associated with a subjective belief of fatness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.6, 4.9) and worry over losing control over eating (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.3, 9.8) only in adults.DiscussionThese findings help characterize the overall pattern of media use and report of eating disorder symptoms in a large sample of female Chinese adolescents and adults. That Internet access in adults was significantly associated with disordered eating cognitions might suggest that media access negatively influences these domains; however, more granular investigations are warranted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014)
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 10/2014; 48(6). DOI:10.1002/eat.22359 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenced by pathogen exposure and obesity, inflammation provides a critical biological pathway linking changing environments to the development of cardiometabolic disease. This study tests the relative contribution of obesogenic and pathogenic factors to moderate and acute CRP elevations in Chinese children, adolescents and adults. Data come from 8795 participants in the China Health and Nutrition Study. Age-stratified multinomial logistic models were used to test the association between illness history, pathogenic exposures, adiposity, health behaviors and moderate (1-10 mg/L in children and 3-10 mg/L in adults) and acute (>10mg/L) CRP elevations, controlling for age, sex and clustering by household. Backward model selection was used to assess which pathogenic and obesogenic predictors remained independently associated with moderate and acute CRP levels when accounting for simultaneous exposures. Overweight was the only significant independent risk factor for moderate inflammation in children (RRR 2.10, 95%CI 1.13-3.89). History of infectious (RRR 1.28, 95%CI 1.08-1.52) and non-communicable (RRR 1.37, 95%CI 1.12-1.69) disease, overweight (RRR 1.66, 95%CI 1.45-1.89) and high waist circumference (RRR 1.63, 95%CI 1.42-1.87) were independently associated with a greater likelihood of moderate inflammation in adults while history of infectious disease (RRR 1.87, 95%CI 1.35-2.56) and overweight (RRR 1.40, 95%CI 1.04-1.88) were independently associated with acute inflammation. Environmental pathogenicity was associated with a reduced likelihood of moderate inflammation, but a greater likelihood of acute inflammation in adults. These results highlight the importance of both obesogenic and pathogenic factors in shaping inflammation risk in societies undergoing nutritional and epidemiological transitions. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 01/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22462 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China. We analyzed the patterns and trends of dietary sodium intake, potassium intake, and the Na/K ratio and their relations with incident hypertension in China. The China Health and Nutrition Survey cohort includes 16,869 adults aged 20-60 y from 1991 to 2009. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and condiment and food weights provided detailed dietary data. Multinomial logistic regression models determined trends and patterns of sodium and potassium intake and the Na/K ratio. Models for survival-time data estimated the hazard of incident hypertension. Sodium intake is decreasing but remains double the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Most sodium comes from added condiments. Adults in the central provinces have the highest sodium intake and the most rapid increase in hypertension. Potassium intake has increased slightly but is below half of the recommended amount. The Na/K ratio is significantly higher than the recommended amounts. Recent measurements of high sodium intake, low potassium intake, and high Na/K ratio have strong independent dose-response associations with incident hypertension. Reducing sodium in processed foods, the major public health strategy in Western countries, may be less effective in China, where salt intake remains high. Replacing sodium with potassium in salt to control and prevent hypertension in China should be considered along with other public health and clinical prevention options.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2013; 99(2). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.059121 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent US work identified "metabolically healthy overweight" and "metabolically at risk normal weight" individuals. Less is known for modernizing countries with recent increased obesity. Fasting blood samples, anthropometry and blood pressure from 8,233 adults aged 18-98 in the 2009 nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey, were used to determine prevalence of overweight (Asian cut point, BMI ≥23 kg/m(2) ) and five risk factors (prediabetes/diabetes (hemoglobin A1c ≥5.7%) inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥3 mg/l), prehypertension/hypertension (Systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure≥130/85 mm Hg), high triglycerides (≥150 mg/dl), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<40 (men)/ <50 mg/dl (women)). Sex-stratified, logistic, and multinomial logistic regression models estimated concurrent obesity and cardiometabolic risk, with and without abdominal obesity, adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, urbanicity, and income. Irrespective of urbanicity, 78.3% of the sample had ≥1 elevated cardiometabolic risk factor (normal weight: 33.2% had ≥1 elevated risk factor; overweight: 5.7% had none). At the age of 18-30 years, 47.4% had no elevated risk factors, which dropped to 6% by the age 70, largely due to age-related increase in hypertension risk (18-30 years: 11%; >70 years: 73%). Abdominal obesity was highly predictive of metabolic risk, irrespective of overweight (e.g., "metabolically at risk overweight" relative to "metabolically healthy normal weight" (men: relative risk ratio (RRR) = 39.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 23.47, 65.00; women: RRR = 22.26; 95% CI: 17.49, 28.33)). A large proportion of Chinese adults have metabolic abnormalities. High hypertension risk with age, underlies the low prevalence of metabolically healthy overweight. Screening for cardiometabolic-related outcomes dependent upon overweight will likely miss a large portion of the Chinese at risk population.
    Obesity 03/2013; 21(1):E166-74. DOI:10.1002/oby.20409 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although it is clear that there are short-term effects of sodium intake on blood pressure, little is known about the most relevant timing of sodium exposure for the onset of hypertension. This question can be addressed only in cohorts with repeated measures of sodium intake. Methods: Using up to seven measures of dietary sodium intake and blood pressure between 1991 and 2009, we compared the association of baseline, mean, and most recent sodium intake with incident hypertension, in 6578 adults enrolled in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (age 18 to 65 years and free of hypertension at baseline). We used survival methods that account for the interval-censored nature of this study and inverse-probability weights to generate adjusted survival curves and time-specific cumulative risk differences; hazard ratios were also estimated. Results: Baseline sodium intake was not associated with incident hypertension. For the mean and most recent measures, the probability of hypertension-free survival was the lowest among those with the highest sodium intake compared with all other intake groups across the entire follow-up. In addition, the most recent sodium intake had a positive dose-response association with incident hypertension (risk difference at 11 years of follow-up = 0.04 [95% confidence interval = 0.00 to 0.08], 0.06 [0.02 to 0.11], 0.18 [0.12 to 0.24], and 0.20 [0.12 to 0.27] for the second to fifth sodium-intake groups compared with the lowest group, respectively). Conclusion: We found that, among the various time frames, the most recent exposure to sodium was most strongly associated with incident hypertension.
    Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 03/2013; 24(3). DOI:10.1097/EDE.0b013e318289e047 · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    S Yan · J Li · S Li · B Zhang · S Du · P Gordon-Larsen · L Adair · B Popkin ·
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    ABSTRACT: China faces a major increase in cardiovascular disease, yet there is limited population-based data on risk factors, particularly in children. Fasting blood samples, anthropometry and blood pressure were collected on 9,244 children and adults aged ≥7 years in late 2009 as part of the national China Health and Nutrition Survey. Prevalent overweight, elevated blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk factors: glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are presented. We found that 11% of Chinese children and 30% of Chinese adults are overweight. Rates of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and inflammation are high and increased with age and were associated with urbanization. Approximately 42% of children have at least one of the following: pre-diabetes or diabetes, hypertension, high TC, LDL-C, TG, and CRP and low HDL-C, as do 70% men and 60% women aged 18-40 years and >90% of men and women ≥60 years. In sum, the HbA1c findings suggest that as many as 27.7 million Chinese children and 334 million Chinese adults may be pre-diabetic or diabetic. The high prevalence in less urban areas and across all income levels suggests that cardiometabolic risk is pervasive across rural and urban China.
    Obesity Reviews 06/2012; 13(9):810-21. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01016.x · 8.00 Impact Factor
  • K. He · S. Du · P. Xun · B. Popkin · S. Sharma · H. Wang · F. Zhai ·

    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2011; 94(3):960-961. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.111.020818 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesized that monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer, is positively associated with weight gain, which influences energy balance through the disruption of the hypothalamic signaling cascade of leptin action. The objective was to examine the longitudinal association between MSG consumption and incidence of overweight. Data were collected from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), a prospective open-cohort, ongoing nationwide health and nutrition survey, consisting of 10,095 apparently healthy Chinese adults aged 18-65 y at entry from 1991 to 2006. Diet, including MSG and other condiments, was assessed with a weighed food inventory in combination with three 24-h recalls. Incident overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) ≥ 25 or ≥23 based on World Health Organization recommendations for Asian populations. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate change in BMI, and Cox regression models with gamma shared frailty were used to determine the incidence of overweight. The mean follow-up was 5.5 y. The cumulative mean (±SD) MSG intake of 2.2 ± 1.6 g/d was positively associated with BMI after adjustment for potential confounders and cluster effects at different levels (individual, household, and community). The adjusted hazard ratio of overweight was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.75; P for trend < 0.01) for participants in the highest quintile of MSG intake compared with those in the lowest quintile after adjustment for age, physical activity, total energy intake, and other major lifestyle factors. MSG consumption was positively, longitudinally associated with overweight development among apparently healthy Chinese adults. Additional studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to establish causal inference.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/2011; 93(6):1328-36. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.110.008870 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Television (TV) use has been linked with poor eating behaviors and obesity in young people. This study examines the association between TV watching and paying attention to TV commercials with buying and requesting snacks seen on commercials, and eating snacks while watching TV among youth in China. Data from 1,552 participants (ages 6-17.99) in the 2004 China Health and Nutrition Survey were analyzed cross-sectionally. The 2004 China Health and Nutrition Survey was conducted in nine Chinese provinces. Most respondents (92.2%) reported watching TV; on average children (6-11.99 years old) and adolescents (12-17.99 years old) watched TV for 9-10 hours per week. Nearly half (42.9%) of all the respondents said they "sometimes" or "often" paid attention to TV commercials. Respondents who reported paying attention to commercials had higher odds of requesting snacks (odds ratio [OR] = 3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.55-4.60) and buying snacks (OR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.17-3.43) seen on TV, and eating snacks while watching TV (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.23-2.07) than those who did not pay attention. However, frequency of watching TV was not significantly related to snacking. Attention to TV commercials for snack foods may be one of the factors affecting the increase in obesity among children and adolescents in China.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 04/2010; 46(4):339-45. DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.08.002 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: China's overweight and obesity problems are increasing at an alarming rate, particularly among youth, due apparently to excessive caloric intake, low physical activity, and sedentary lifestyles. Increasing television (TV) viewing may also be a contributing factor. This study examines the relationship between TV watching, physical activity and snacking behaviors among Chinese children and adolescents between 2000 and 2006. Responses from 4,643 total participants aged 6 through 18 in three waves (2000, 2004, and 2006) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were analyzed cross-sectionally to evaluate trends of weekly TV watching time, number of and duration of physical activities per week, and snacking behaviors. Results showed that TV watching among youth increased from six hours per week in 2000 to nearly 11 hours in 2006. The average number of weekly physical activities also increased, but the duration of activity did not increase. Weekly TV watching time was negatively related to the number of physical activities engaged in by youth. This negative relationship is more pronounced over time. The instance of youth requests to their parents for snacks seen on TV also increased slightly between 2004 and 2006. These cross-sectional trends indicate that TV watching may be one of the factors in the growing problem of obesity among children and adolescents in China, as it is associated with changes in physical activity and snacking across a large number of Chinese youth.
    137st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2009; 11/2009

Publication Stats

1k Citations
181.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2000-2015
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Carolina Population Center
      • • Department of Nutrition
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2009
    • China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2003-2007
    • Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2003-2004
    • Chinese Center For Disease Control And Prevention
      • Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China