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Publications (2)10.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports on the thermodynamic and kinetic evaluation of a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography broad-spectrum Pirkle-type chiral stationary phase (CSP) for enantioselective applications (eUHPLC). The well-known Whelk-O1 selector was covalently immobilized onto 1.7-μm high-surface-area, porous spherical silica particles to produce a totally synthetic, covalently bonded CSP that was packed into 150mm, 100mm, 75mm and 50mm columns, either 4.6 or 3.0mm ID. A 100mm×4.6mm ID column was fully characterized from a kinetic and thermodynamic point of view, using as reference a conventional HPLC Whelk-O1 column, 250mm×4.6mm ID, based on 5-μm porous silica particles. On the eUHPLC column, van Deemter plots generated H(min) values of 3.53μm for 1,3-dinitrobenzene, at an interstitial mobile phase linear velocity (μ(inter)) of 5.07mm/s, and H(min) of 4.26 and 4.17μm for the two enantiomers of acenaphthenol, at μ(inter) of 4.85mm/s and 4.24mm/s, respectively. Resolution of 21 enantiomeric pairs including alcohols, epoxides, sulfoxides, phosphine oxides, benzodiazepines and 2-aryloxyproprionic esters used as herbicides, were obtained with significant advantages in terms of efficiency and analysis time. Speed gain factors were calculated for the different column geometries (150mm, 100mm, 75mm and 50mm, either 4.6 or 3.0mm ID), with respect to the standard HPLC column (250mm×4.6mm ID), and were as high as 13, in the case of the 50-mm-long column, affording sub-minute separations of enantiomers with excellent resolution factors. In particular, trans-stilbene oxide was resolved in only 10s, while a 50mm×3.0mm ID column was used as a compromise between reduced mobile phase consumption (less than 1mL per analysis) and smaller extra-column band-broadening effect. Given the relatively low viscosity in NP mode, and the excellent permeability of these eUHPLC columns, with backpressure values under 600bar for a wide range of flow rates, the use of standard HPLC hardware is possible. In this case, however, a significant loss in resolution is observed, compared to the UHPLC instrumentation, if no modifications are introduced in the HPLC apparatus to reduce extra-column variance. The excellent efficiency and selectivity, conjugated with the very high-throughput and the ultra-fast analysis time, prove the potentials of the eUHPLC Whelk-O1 columns in the development of enantioselective UHPLC methods.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2012; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new chiral stationary phase for ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) applications was prepared by covalent attachment of the Whelk-O1 selector to spherical, high-surface-area 1.7-μm porous silica particles. Columns of varying dimensions (lengths of 50, 75, 100, and 150 mm and internal diameters of 3.0 or 4.6 mm) were packed and characterized in terms of permeability, efficiency, retention, and enantioselectivity, using both organic and water-rich mobile phases. A conventional HPLC Whelk-O1 column based on 5.0-μm porous silica particles and packed in a 250 mm × 4.6 mm column was used as a reference. Van Deemter curves, generated with low-molecular-weight solutes on a 100 mm × 4.6 mm column packed with the 1.7-μm particles, showed H(min) (μm) and μ(opt) (mm/s) values of 4.10 and 5.22 under normal-phase and 3.74 and 4.34 under reversed-phase elution conditions. The flat C term of the van Deemter curves observed with the 1.7-μm particles allowed the use of higher-than-optimal flow rates without significant efficiency loss. Kinetic plots constructed from van Deemter data confirmed the ability of the column packed with the 1.7-μm particles to afford subminute separations with good efficiency and its superior performances in the high-speed regime, compared to the column packed with 5.0-μm particles. Resolutions in the time scale of seconds were obtained using a 50-mm-long column in the normal phase or polar organic mode. The intrinsic kinetic performances of 1.7-μm silica particles are retained in the Whelk-O1 chiral stationary phase, clearly demonstrating the potentials of enantioselective UHPLC in terms of high speed, throughput, and resolution.
    Analytical Chemistry 06/2012; 84(15):6805-13. · 5.83 Impact Factor