[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent Jumonji C domain (JmjC) family is the largest family of histone lysine demethylases. There is interest in developing small-molecule probes that modulate JmjC activity to investigate their biological roles. 5-Carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) is the most potent broad-spectrum inhibitor of 2OG oxygenases, including the JmjC demethylases, reported to date; however, it suffers from low cell permeability. Here, we describe structure-activity relationship studies leading to the discovery of an n-octyl ester form of IOX1 with improved cellular potency (EC50 value of 100 to 4 μM). These findings are supported by in vitro inhibition and selectivity studies, docking studies, activity versus toxicity analysis in cell cultures, and intracellular uptake measurements. The n-octyl ester was found to have improved cell permeability; it was found to inhibit some JmjC demethylases in its intact ester form and to be more selective than IOX1. The n-octyl ester of IOX1 should find utility as a starting point for the development of JmjC inhibitors and as a use as a cell-permeable tool compound for studies investigating the roles of 2OG oxygenases in epigenetic regulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serine- and metallo-β-lactamases present a threat to the clinical use of nearly all β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Efforts to develop metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) inhibitors require suitable screening platforms to allow the rapid determination of β-lactamase activity and efficient inhibition. Unfortunately, the platforms currently available are not ideal for this purpose. Further progress in MBL inhibitor identification requires inexpensive and widely applicable assays. Herein the identification of an inexpensive and stable chromogenic substrate suitable for use in assays of clinically relevant MBLs is described. (6R,7R)-3-((4-Nitrophenoxy)methyl)-8-oxo-7-(2-phenylacetamido)-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid 5,5-dioxide (CLS405) was synthesised in a three-step protocol. CLS405 was then characterised spectroscopically, and its stability and kinetic properties evaluated. With a Δλmax value of 100 nm between the parent and hydrolysis product, a higher analytical accuracy is possible with CLS405 than with commonly used chromogenic substrates. The use of CLS405 in assays was validated by MBL activity measurements and inhibitor screening that resulted in the identification of N-hydroxythiazoles as new inhibitor scaffolds for MBLs. Further evaluation of the identified N-hydroxythiazoles against a panel of clinically relevant MBLs showed that they possess inhibitory activities in the mid- to low-micromolar range. The findings of this study provide both a useful tool compound for further inhibitor identification, and novel scaffolds for the design of improved MBL inhibitors with potential as antibiotics against resistant strains of bacteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ah 2-Oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenases are therapeutic targets for human diseases. Using a representative 2OG oxygenase panel, we compare the inhibitory activities of 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) and 4-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (4C8HQ) with that of two other commonly used 2OG oxygenase inhibitors, N-oxalylglycine (NOG) and 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA). The results reveal that IOX1 has a broad spectrum of activity, as demonstrated by the inhibition of transcription factor hydroxylases, representatives of all 2OG dependent histone demethylase subfamilies, nucleic acid demethylases and g-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. Cellular assays show that, unlike NOG and 2,4-PDCA, IOX1 is active against both cytosolic and nuclear 2OG oxygenases without ester derivatisation. Unexpectedly, crystallographic studies on these oxygenases demonstrate that IOX1, but not 4C8HQ, can cause translocation of the active site metal, revealing a rare example of protein ligand-induced metal movement.
Chemical Science 06/2013; 4:3110-3117. · 8.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fat mass and obesity associated protein FTO is a potential target for anti-obesity medicines. FTO is a 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent N-methyl nucleic acid demethylase that acts on substrates including 3-methylthymidine, 3-methyluracil and 6-methyladenine. To identify FTO inhibitors we screened a set of 2OG analogues and related compounds using differential scanning fluorimetry and liquid chromatography based assays. The results revealed sets of both cyclic and acyclic 2OG analogues that are FTO inhibitors. Identified inhibitors include small molecules that have been used in clinical studies for the inhibition of other 2OG oxygenases. Crystallographic analyses reveal inhibition by 2OG co-substrate or primary substrate competitors as well as compounds that bind across both co-substrate and primary substrate binding sites. The results will aid the development of more potent and selective FTO inhibitors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2013; · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of small molecule based 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzenes for photo-mediated capture of human carbonic anhydrase II with visualisation by fluorescence is described.
Chemical Communications 01/2013; · 6.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and K(D) values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC).
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2012; 56(2):547–555. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The JmjC oxygenases catalyze the N-demethylation of N(ε)-methyl lysine residues in histones and are current therapeutic targets. A set of human 2-oxoglutarate analogues were screened using a unified assay platform for JmjC demethylases and related oxygenases. Results led to the finding that daminozide (N-(dimethylamino)succinamic acid, 160 Da), a plant growth regulator, selectively inhibits the KDM2/7 JmjC subfamily. Kinetic and crystallographic studies reveal that daminozide chelates the active site metal via its hydrazide carbonyl and dimethylamino groups.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2012; 55(14):6639-6643. · 5.48 Impact Factor