[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study concerned the occurrence of fecal bacteria with plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in rooks (Corvus frugilegus, medium-sized corvid birds) wintering in continental Europe during winter 2010/2011. Samples of fresh rook feces were taken by cotton swabs at nine roosting places in eight European countries. Samples were transported to one laboratory and placed in buffered peptone water (BPW). The samples from BPW were enriched and subcultivated onto MacConkey agar (MCA) supplemented with ciprofloxacin (0.06 mg/L) to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria. DNA was isolated from smears of bacterial colonies growing on MCA and tested by PCR for PMQR genes aac(6')-Ib, qepA, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and oqxAB. All the PCR products were further analyzed by sequencing. Ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria were isolated from 37% (392 positive/1,073 examined) of samples. Frequencies of samples with ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates ranged significantly from 3% to 92% in different countries. The qnrS1 gene was found in 154 samples and qnrS2 in 2 samples. The gene aac(6')-Ib-cr was found in 16 samples. Thirteen samples were positive for qnrB genes in variants qnrB6 (one sample), qnrB18 (one), qnrB19 (one), qnrB29 (one), and qnrB49 (new variant) (one). Both the qnrD and oqxAB genes were detected in six samples. The genes qnrA, qnrC, and qepA were not found. Wintering omnivorous rooks in Europe were commonly colonized by bacteria supposedly Enterobacteriaceae with PMQR genes. Rooks may disseminate these epidemiologically important bacteria over long distances and pose a risk for environmental contamination.