[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extra-nodal sites may be involved in around 40% of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The general principles for target volume delineation in this setting are presented, together with specific examples. In general, the entire organ affected should be encompassed in the clinical target volume with an expansion of at least 10 mm, increased in some instances to account for patterns of potential lymphatic flow. Adjacent lymph nodes may be treated using standard techniques for nodal irradiation. Doses for extra-nodal lymphoma follow the same principles as nodal lymphoma, delivering 30 Gy in 15 fractions for Hodgkin and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 24 Gy in 12 fractions for indolent lymphomas, with the exception of certain palliative situations, mycosis fungoides, central nervous system lymphoma and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Modern treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) has transformed its prognosis but causes late effects, including premature menopause. Cohort studies of premature menopause risks after treatment have been relatively small, and knowledge about these risks is limited.
Nonsurgical menopause risk was analyzed in 2127 women treated for HL in England and Wales at ages younger than 36 years from 1960 through 2004 and followed to 2003 through 2012. Risks were estimated using Cox regression, modified Poisson regression, and competing risks. All statistical tests were two-sided.
During follow-up, 605 patients underwent nonsurgical menopause before age 40 years. Risk of premature menopause increased more than 20-fold after ovarian radiotherapy, alkylating chemotherapy other than dacarbazine, or BEAM (bis-chloroethylnitrosourea [BCNU], etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation, but was not statistically significantly raised after adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD). Menopause generally occurred sooner after ovarian radiotherapy (62.5% within five years of ≥5 Gy treatment) and BEAM (50.9% within five years) than after alkylating chemotherapy (24.2% within five years of ≥6 cycles), and after treatment at older than at younger ages. Cumulative risk of menopause by age 40 years was 81.3% after greater than or equal to 5Gy ovarian radiotherapy, 75.3% after BEAM, 49.1% after greater than or equal to 6 cycles alkylating chemotherapy, 1.4% after ABVD, and 3.0% after solely supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy. Tables of individualized risk information for patients by future period, treatment type, dose and age are provided.
Patients treated with HL need to plan intended pregnancies using personalized information on their risk of menopause by different future time points.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 08/2014; 106(9). DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju207 · 12.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report an international, multicenter phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of fractionated (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan ((90)Y-IT) as initial therapy of follicular lymphoma (FL).
A total of 74 patients, with a median age of 61 years (range, 28 to 80 years), were recruited requiring initial therapy by Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes Folliculaires (GELF)/British National Lymphoma Investigation (BNLI) criteria. Among them, 78% had stage III-IV disease, 32% intermediate, and 44% high-risk (according to FL International Prognostic Index). Treatment consisted of two doses of (90)Y-IT (11.1 MBq/kg) administered 8 to 12 weeks apart. Patients with more than 20% lymphoma infiltration of bone marrow (BM) received one infusion per week for 4 consecutive weeks of rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) and proceeded to fractionated radioimmunotherapy (RIT) only if a repeat BM biopsy demonstrated clearing of lymphoma to less than 20% involvement. The primary end point was end of treatment response of the intention-to-treat population. Secondary objectives were safety and progression-free survival (PFS).
Initial overall response rate (ORR) was 94.4% (68 of 72 patients) with combined complete response (CR/CRu) of 58.3% (42 of 72 patients). Nine patients subsequently improved response making an ORR of 95.8% (69 of 72 patients) and CR/CRu of 69.4% (50 of 72 patients). At a median follow-up of 3.1 years (range, 0.2 to 5.2 years) estimated 3-year PFS is 58%, treatment-free survival 66%, and overall survival 95%. Median PFS is 40.2 months. Thirty patients have experienced disease progression and 24 have required further treatment. The treatment was well tolerated with few (2.8%) grade 3 or 4 infectious episodes or adverse events and manageable hematologic toxicity.
Fractionated RIT using (90)Y-IT is an effective initial treatment for advanced-stage FL in patients with higher tumor burden requiring treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate breast cancer risk after supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy administered to young women with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in a much larger cohort than previously to provide data for patient follow-up and screening individualized according to treatment type, age, and time point during follow-up.
Breast cancer risk was assessed in 5,002 women in England and Wales treated for HL with supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy at age < 36 years from 1956 to 2003, who underwent follow-up with 97% completeness until December 31, 2008.
Breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ developed in 373 patients, with a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 5.0 (95% CI, 4.5 to 5.5). SIRs were greatest for those treated at age 14 years (47.2; 95% CI, 28.0 to 79.8) and continued to remain high for at least 40 years. The maximum absolute excess risk was at attained ages 50 to 59 years. Alkylating chemotherapy or pelvic radiotherapy diminished the risk, but only for women treated at age ≥ 20 years, not for those treated when younger. Cumulative risks were tabulated in detail; for 40-year follow-up, the risk for patients receiving ≥ 40 Gy mantle radiotherapy at young ages was 48%.
This article provides individualized risk estimates based on large numbers for patients with HL undergoing follow-up after radiotherapy at young ages. Follow-up of such women needs to continue for 40 years or longer and may require more-intensive screening regimens than those in national general population programs. Special consideration is needed of potential measures to reduce breast cancer risk for girls treated with supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy at pubertal ages.