[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins are validated cancer targets composed of six related proteins. From a drug discovery perspective, these are challenging targets that exert their cellular functions through protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Although several isoform-selective inhibitors have been developed using structure-based design or high-throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic chemical libraries, no large-scale screen of natural product collections has been reported. A competitive displacement fluorescence polarization (FP) screen of nearly 150,000 natural product extracts was conducted against all six antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins using fluorochrome-conjugated peptide ligands that mimic functionally relevant PPIs. The screens were conducted in 1536-well format and displayed satisfactory overall HTS statistics, with Z'-factor values ranging from 0.72 to 0.83 and a hit confirmation rate between 16% and 64%. Confirmed active extracts were orthogonally tested in a luminescent assay for caspase-3/7 activation in tumor cells. Active extracts were resupplied, and effort toward the isolation of pure active components was initiated through iterative bioassay-guided fractionation. Several previously described altertoxins were isolated from a microbial source, and the pure compounds demonstrate activity in both Bcl-2 FP and caspase cellular assays. The studies demonstrate the feasibility of ultra-high-throughput screening using natural product sources and highlight some of the challenges associated with this approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten new diarylheptanoids (2, 3, 4, 5a-d, 6, 7, and 8) have been isolated from an extract of Ottelia alismoides. The structures of these previously unknown metabolites were determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis. A previously unknown, hydroxylated analog of the known otteliones A and B (1a and 1b)--namely, 3a-hydroxyottelione (13)--was also isolated. The 1H NMR analysis of the Mosher esters of alcohols derived from otteliones A and B (S-17/R-17 and S-20/R-20) are also reported.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported on the anti-tumor activities of two designed calixarene-based topomimetics (PTX008 and PTX009) of the amphipathic, angiostatic peptide Anginex. Here, we chemically modified the hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces of PTX008 and PTX009, and discovered new calixarene compounds that are more potent, cytotoxic anti-tumor agents. One of them, PTX013, is particularly effective at inhibiting the growth of several human cancer cell lines, as well as drug resistant cancer cells. Mechanistically, PTX013 induces cell cycle arrest in sub-G1 and G0/G1 phases of e.g. SQ20B cells, a radio-resistant human head and neck carcinoma model. In the syngeneic B16F10 melanoma tumor mouse model, PTX013 (0.5 mg/Kg) inhibits tumor growth by about 50-fold better than parent PTX008. A preliminary pharmacodynamics study strongly suggests that PTX013 exhibits good in vivo exposure and a relatively long half-life. Overall, this research contributes to the discovery of novel therapeutics as potentially useful agents against cancer in the clinic.
Investigational New Drugs 02/2013; 31(5). DOI:10.1007/s10637-013-9932-0 · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phomopsichalasin was isolated and assigned structure 1 over 15 years ago. Analysis of its proton NMR data led us to hypothesize that not all aspects of the relative configuration of this structure were correct. We have used both empirical and computational methods to propose an alternative structure. Diaporthichalasin was reported several years ago, and its structure was assigned as 7, a diastereomer of structure 1, and confirmed by a single-crystal X-ray study. We have shown that diaporthichalasin and phomopsichalasin are identical; that is, both have structure 7. Additional aspects of NMR interpretation that provide guidance for avoiding some of the pitfalls that can lead to incorrect structure assignments are discussed. These recommendations/reminders include (i) the use of complementary solvents for acquiring NMR data that break accidental chemical shift degeneracy, (ii) the importance of assigning coupling constants as extensively as possible, and (iii) exercising caution when interpreting correlations in 2D spectra where overlapping resonances are involved.