Publications (3)0 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: The rate of development of resistance to diflubenzuron in a laboratory susceptible strain of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisd., the pattern of cross-resistance exhibited by the resistant strain to several insecticides and juvenile hormone analogues, as well as the synergistic action of piperonyl butoxide (PB) and S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (TBP) with insecticides or diflubenzuron on both strains, were investigated. Resistance to diflubenzuron increased slightly in the first eight selected generations and was enhanced by further selection until in generation 30, the selected strain attained the high level of resistance of 290.7-fold, compared with the parent strain. The resistant strain when challenged with either insecticides or juvenile hormone analogues at selected generations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) exhibited different levels of resistance to several insecticides representing organochlorine and organo-phosphorus compounds, carbamates and pyrethroids, but a clear case of negative correlation was indicated between resistance to diflubenzuron and juvenile hormone analogues. With regard to the synergistic action of PB and TBP on the toxicity of either diflubenzuron or insecticides against the fourth-instar larvae of the susceptible strain, methomyl showed slight levels of synergism when it was combined with them. With the exception of cypermethrin, which was not affected by the two synergists, lower levels of synergism were observed with the compounds endrin, diflubenzuron and fenvalerate when they were combined with the same synergists. These two synergists however, antagonised the toxic action of the organophosphorus compounds phosfolan and chlorpyrifos. Against the resistant strain, endrin was moderately synergised by TBP but only slightly by PB. Slight levels of synergism were observed when methomyl, phosfolan and diflubenzuron were combined with either synergist, but both antagonised chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate. Resistance to diflubenzuron and to the other tested chemicals in the resistant strain was scarcely affected by the two synergists.Pesticide Science 04/2006; 14(3):235 - 245.
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ABSTRACT: The ovicidal action of four insecticides and three insect growth regulators, on eggs of various ages of the susceptible (S) strain of Spodoptera littoralis, was investigated. The results revealed that diflubenzuron was the most toxic compound tested on 0-1-day-old eggs, followed by triprene and then methoprene; chlorpyrifos came next in its toxicity, followed by cypermethrin then fenvalerate; methomyl was the least effective. With the progress of embryonic development, 1-2-day-old eggs showed slight tolerance to the action of the pesticides and juvenoids, but apparently resisted the action of diflubenzuron. Eggs 2-3 days old showed increased tolerance to the insecticides and diflubenzuron and, to a lesser extent, to the action of the two juvenoids. A total of 21 insecticide or insect growth regulator-insecticide mixtures, based on their toxicity equivalents (LD25 + LD25), were applied jointly on 0-1-day-old eggs of the S strain. The mixtures which produced high synergism on this stage could be arranged, according to their decreasing order of potentiation, as follows: fenvalerate/diflubenzuron, cypermethrin/triprene, methomyl/methoprene, cypermethrin/methoprene, fenvalerate/ methoprene, cypermethrin/methomyl, cypermethrin/diflubenzuron, fenvalerate/triprene, diflubenzuron/methoprene and methomyl/triprene. The mixtures that produced synergistic effects on 0-1-day-old eggs were also tested against the 1-2 and 2-3-day-oldeggs of the S strain. Theresults indicated that themixtures fenvalerate/diflubenzuron, and cypermethrin with either triprene or diflubenzuron, when tested on 1-2-day-old eggs, produced levels of synergism nearly similar to those achieved on newly deposited eggs. On the other hand, the mixtures cypermethrin/methomyl, and fenvalerate with methoprene or triprene, showed comparatively lower levels of synergism. However, the synergistic action of the mixture cypermethrin/methoprene, previously detected on newly deposited eggs, became an additive effect on 1-2-day-old eggs. Only the mixtures fenvalerate/diflubenzuron, cypermethrin/triprene and fenvalerate/methoprene showed synergism on 2-3-day-old eggs. The mixtures which showed synergistic effects on 0-1-day-old eggs of the S strain were further tested on eggs of various ages of the diflubenzuron-resistant (Rd) strain. As regards 0-1-day-old eggs, only the combinations cypermethrin/triprene, methomyl/methoprene and fenvalerate/methoprene produced additive effects. The mixture cypermethrin/diflubenzuron was still synergistic against newly deposited eggs of the Rd strain, in a manner similar to that indicated with the S strain. Apparent levels of antagonism were shown to the other insecticide-juvenoid mixtures as well as to the diflubenzuron/methoprene combination. The combinations cypermethrin/methomyl and fenvalerate/diflubenzuron had some effect on the freshly deposited eggs of the Rd strain but produced lower levels of potentiation. With the increase in age of the eggs, the mixture cypermethrin/diflubenzuron showed a lower level of synergism on the 1-2 day-old eggs than was observed in younger eggs. The additive effects, previously detected with some of the mixtures on newly deposited eggs became an antagonistic effect for the 1-2-day-old eggs. The eggs at this stage were more able to resist thejoint action of the other mixtures tested. Moreover, with further increase in the age of the eggs, the combination cypermethrin/diflubenzuron produced a lower level of potentiation on 2-3 day-old eggs, followed by fenvalerate/diflubenzuron at an even lower level, while the other mixtures showed various levels of antagonism.Pesticide Science 04/2006; 14(3):253 - 260.
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ABSTRACT: The joint action of insecticides, or of mixtures of insect growth regulators and insecticides, on the susceptible (S) strain and diflubenzuron-resistant (Rd) strain of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. was investigated. The joint action of the insecticides and/or insect growth regulator mixtures was determined by mixing them in proportion to their activity equivalents at the LD25 or ED25 levels. A total of 15 mixtures of two synthetic pyrethroids, two organophosphorus, one carbamate and one organochlorine insecticides, were applied to the fourth-instar larvae of the S and Rd strains. The insecticide mixtures cypermethrin/methomyl and cypermethrin/endrin exhibited high and moderate levels of synergism on the S strain, respectively. However the mixtures chlorpyrifos/methomyl, phosfolan/methomyl, and phosfolan/endrin produced antagonism, while the other mixtures showed varying levels of additive effects. The response of the fourth-instar larvae of the S strain, to the joint action of diflubenzuron/juvenoid, diflubenzuron/insecticide, or insecticide/juvenoid mixtures, revealed that diflubenzuron produced high levels of synergism when combined with methoprene and progressively less with fenvalerate, methomyl and cypermethrin. On the other hand, the mixture diflubenzuron/triprene was antagonistic. Fenvalerate with the two juvenoids produced synergism while methomyl showed an additive effect with methoprene. However, the mixtures cypermethrin/methoprene, cypermethrin/triprene and methomyl/triprene produced antagonism. The mixtures that produced potentiation on the fourth-instar larvae of the S strain lost their high potency when tested against the Rd strain. The results also indicated that insecticide/juvenoid mixtures, when applied on 2-day-old pupae of the S strain, were synergistic, except in the case of cypermethrin/methoprene and methomyl/triprene mixtures, for which additive effects were observed. When the mixtures that had synergistic effects on the S strain were tested on the Rd strain, the results revealed that their synergistic effects were apparently reduced. This was attributed to the fact that the generalised levels of tolerance in the Rd strain towards various compounds may have influenced the several defence mechanisms to act against the synergistic action of the chemical mixtures.Pesticide Science 04/2006; 14(3):246 - 252.