It gives important information in selecting the appropriate treatment for urolithiasis to confirm the component of urinary calculus. Presently component analysis of the urinary calculus is generally performed by infrared spectroscopy which is employed by companies providing laboratory testing services in Japan. The infrared spectroscopy determines the molecular components from the absorption spectra in consequence of atomic vibrations. It has the drawback that an accurate crystal structure cannot be analyzed compared with the X-ray diffraction method which analyzes the crystal constituent based on the diffraction of X-rays on crystal lattice. The components of the urinary calculus including carbonate are carbonate apatite and calcium carbonate such as calcite. Although the latter is reported to be very rare component in human urinary calculus, the results by infrared spectroscopy often show that calcium carbonate is included in calculus. The infrared spectroscopy can confirm the existence of carbonate but cannot determine whether carbonate is originated from carbonate apatite or calcium carbonate. Thus, it is not clear whether calcium carbonate is included in human urinary calculus component in Japan. In this study, we examined human urinary calculus including carbonate by use of X-ray structural analysis in order to elucidate the origin of carbonate in human urinary calculus.
We examined 17 human calculi which were reported to contain calcium carbonate by infrared spectroscopy performed in the clinical laboratory. Fifteen calculi were obtained from urinary tract, and two were from gall bladder. The stones were analyzed by X-ray powder method after crushed finely.
The reports from the clinical laboratory showed that all urinary culculi consisted of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate, while the gallstones consisted of calcium carbonate. But the components of all urinary calculi were revealed to be carbonate apatite by X-ray diffraction. The components of gallstones were shown to be calcium carbonate (one calcite and the other aragonite) not only by infrared spectroscopy but by X-ray diffraction.
It was shown that component analysis of the calculus could be more accurately performed by adding X-ray diffraction method to infrared spectroscopy. It was shown that calcium carbonate existed in a gallstone. As for the carbonate in human urinary calculi, present study showed that it was not calcium carbonate origin but carbonate apatite origin.
Nippon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology 10/2008; 99(6):681-7.
Controversy exists on how to diagnose the vanishing testis and the degree of investigation required. In this series, we reviewed anatomical and histological findings in vanishing testes and investigated the effectiveness of diagnostic laparoscopy and imaging studies.
Between 1974 and March 1999, 107 boys with nonpalpable testis underwent surgery. Of the total, 52 had spermatic vessels, vas deferens, and/or nubbin, and as a result the diagnosis of vanishing testis was made.
The affected side of vanishing testis was left 41, right 9 and bilateral 2.35 nubbins were found and the lengths of 24 nubbins were 5 mm or less. Histological examinations were performed in 43 cases including 27 nubbins. From that total, 31 had vas deferens and 11 had epididymis. Only two nubbins had seminiferous tubules but they included no germ cells. The two nubbins were greater than 5 mm long. Laparoscopic surgery was undertaken in 12 separate cases of the vanishing testis and as a result hypoplastic spermatic vessels were present in 7 of the 12 cases.
The incidence of viable testicular tissue in vanishing testes was 4.7% in our series and it ranges from 0-16% in other series. We submit that one can diagnose the inguinal vanishing testis with preoperative imaging and laparoscopy, and that the nubbin seldom contains testicular tissue. Our results do not support the necessity to remove nubbins.
Nippon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology 07/2000; 91(6):537-41. DOI:10.5980/jpnjurol1989.91.537
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the serum anti-p53 antibodies (Abs) status and the p53 protein status in the sera and tumors as well as clinical or pathological parameters in bladder cancer patients retrospectively.
Serum samples from 100 patients with bladder cancer were assayed for anti-p53 Abs and p53 protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A monoclonal antibody DO7 was used for immunohistochemical staining of tumor p53 protein.
Prevalences of serum anti-p53 Abs, serum p53 protein and tumor p53 protein were 12, 1 and 63%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between serum anti-p53 Abs status and factors including tumor stage, tumor grade, and tumor p53 protein status. In the univariate analysis, tumor stage, tumor grade, serum anti-p53 Abs status, and tumor p53 protein status were significantly associated with an increased risk of death. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor stage was the only independent prognostic factor among the factors examined.
The present study suggests that serum anti-p53 Abs had a limited value as a tumor marker in bladder cancer patients. Further studies to elucidate the mechanism of anti-p53 Abs production will be necessary for a better understanding of the immune status in bladder cancer patients.
European Urology 02/2000; 37(1):79-84. DOI:10.1159/000020104 · 12.48 Impact Factor