Colum Dunne

University of Limerick, Luimneach, Munster, Ireland

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Publications (55)68.63 Total impact

  • Journal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP 11/2014; 20(11):1138-46. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: elastic compression stockings (ECS) can be used as a non-pharmacological therapeutic option for older patients with orthostatic hypotension (OH). We aimed to investigate the practices and views of patients and physicians regarding the use of ECS for OH.
    Age and Ageing 10/2014; · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5) provides new criteria for delirium diagnosis. We examined delirium diagnosis using these new criteria compared with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fourth edition (DSM-IV) in a large dataset of patients assessed for delirium and related presentations.Methods Patient data (n¿=¿768) from six prospectively collected cohorts, clinically assessed using DSM-IV and the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98), were pooled. Post hoc application of DRS-R98 item scores were used to rate DSM-5 criteria. `Strict¿ and `relaxed¿ DSM-5 criteria to ascertain delirium were compared to rates determined by DSM-IV.ResultsUsing DSM-IV by clinical assessment, delirium was found in 510/768 patients (66%). Strict DSM-5 criteria categorized 158 as delirious including 155 (30%) with DSM-IV delirium, whereas relaxed DSM-5 criteria identified 466 as delirious, including 455 (89%) diagnosed by DSM-IV (P <0.001). The concordance between the different diagnostic methods was: 53% (¿¿=¿0.22) between DSM-IV and the strict DSM-5, 91% (¿¿=¿0.82) between the DSM-IV and relaxed DSM-5 criteria and 60% (¿¿=¿0.29) between the strict versus relaxed DSM-5 criteria. Only 155 cases were identified as delirium by all three approaches. The 55 (11%) patients with DSM-IV delirium who were not rated as delirious by relaxed criteria had lower mean DRS-R98 total scores than those rated as delirious (13.7¿±¿3.9 versus 23.7¿±¿6.0; P <0.001). Conversely, mean DRS-R98 score (21.1¿±¿6.4) for the 70% not rated as delirious by strict DSM-5 criteria was consistent with suggested cutoff scores for full syndromal delirium. Only 11 cases met DSM-5 criteria that were not deemed to have DSM-IV delirium.Conclusions The concordance between DSM-IV and the new DSM-5 delirium criteria varies considerably depending on the interpretation of criteria. Overly-strict adherence for some new text details in DSM-5 criteria would reduce the number of delirium cases diagnosed; however, a more `relaxed¿ approach renders DSM-5 criteria comparable to DSM-IV with minimal impact on their actual application and is thus recommended.
    BMC medicine. 09/2014; 12(1):164.
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    ABSTRACT: Inadequate resection of the adjoining mesentery is associated with adverse outcome for colon cancer. Disruption of the integrity of the mesenteric lymphatic package has been implicated in this, though not proven. Recent studies have determined mesenteric anatomy and histology and now provide an opportunity to determine accurately the distribution of lymphatic vessels. The aim of this study was to characterise the distribution of the lymphatic vessels (LV) within the small intestinal and colonic mesentery, and in Toldt's fascia, which lies between the mesocolon and underlying retroperitoneum. Mesenteric samples were harvested from 12 human cadavers. Samples were taken from the small bowel mesentery, ascending, transverse, descending mesocolon and from both apposed and non-apposed portions of the mesosigmoid. Serial sections were stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibody D2-40 (podoplanin), and Masson's Trichrome. Lymphatic vessel (LV) density and radius of diffusion were determined using a stereological approach. A lymphatic network was embedded within the mesenteric connective tissue lattice throughout each mesenteric region. LV were identifiable within the submesothelial connective tissue where they measured 10.2 ± 4.1 μm in diameter and had an average radius of diffusion of 174.72 ± 97.68 μm. Unexpectedly, LV were identified in Toldt's fascia, where they measured 4.3 ± 3.1 μm in diameter and had a radius of diffusion of 165.12 ± 66.26 μm. This is the first study systematically to determine and quantify the distribution of lymphatic vessels within the mesenteric organ and to demonstrate the presence of such vessels within Toldt's fascia. A rich lymphatic network occupies all levels of the mesenteric connective tissue lattice. Within the latter, they are found within 0.1 mm of peritonealised mesenteric surfaces and are separated by an average distance of 0.17 mm and may be particularly vulnerable during surgery.
    Journal of Anatomy 07/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased time in which children spend watching television is a well-described contributor to paediatric obesity. This study investigated the frequency and type of food and beverage placement in children-specific television broadcasts and compared data from UK (UK) and Irish television stations.
    Archives of disease in childhood. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent developments in colonic surgery generate exciting opportunities for surgeons and trainees. In the first instance, the anatomy of the entire mesenteric organ has been clarified and greatly simplified. No longer is it regarded as fragmented and complex. Rather it is continuous from duodenojejunal flexure to mesorectum, spanning the gastrointestinal tract between. Recent histologic findings have demonstrated that although apposed to the retroperitoneum, the mesenteric organ is separated from this via Toldt's fascia. These fundamentally important observations underpin the principles of complete mesocolic excision, where the mesocolic package is maintained intact, following extensive mesenterectomy. More importantly, they provide the first opportunity to apply a canonical approach to the development of nomenclature in resectional colonic surgery. In this review, we demonstrate how the resultant nomenclature is entirely anatomic based, and for illustrative purposes, we apply it to the procedure conventionally referred to as right hemicolectomy, or ileocolic resection.
    Techniques in Coloproctology 06/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent developments in colonic surgery generate exciting opportunities for surgeons and trainees. In the first instance, the anatomy of the entire mesenteric organ has been clarified and greatly simplified. No longer is it regarded as fragmented and complex. Rather it is continuous from duodenojejunal flexure to mesorectum, spanning the gastrointestinal tract between. Recent histologic findings have demonstrated that although apposed to the retroperitoneum, the mesenteric organ is separated from this via Toldt’s fascia. These fundamentally important observations underpin the principles of complete mesocolic excision, where the mesocolic package is maintained intact, following extensive mesenterectomy. More importantly, they provide the first opportunity to apply a canonical approach to the development of nomenclature in resectional colonic surgery. In this review, we demonstrate how the resultant nomenclature is entirely anatomic based, and for illustrative purposes, we apply it to the procedure conventionally referred to as right hemicolectomy, or ileocolic resection.
    Techniques in Coloproctology 06/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of 'proof-of-concept' trials suggest that remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) reduces surrogate markers of end-organ injury in patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgery. To date, few studies have involved hard clinical outcomes as primary end-points.
    International journal of cardiology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To benefit from cost-savings associated with generic medicine use; in June 2013, Ireland introduced generic substitution and reference pricing. The attitudes and behaviours of health care professionals may influence successful implementation of such changes.
    Family Practice 06/2014; · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prosthetic joints and other orthopedic implants have improved quality of life for patients world-wide and the use of such devices is increasing. However, while infection rates subsequent to associated surgery are relatively low (<3%), the consequences of incidence are considerable, encompassing morbidity (including amputation) and mortality in addition to significant social and economic costs. Emphasis, therefore, has been placed on mitigating microbial risk, with clinical microbiologists and surgeons utilizing rapidly evolving molecular laboratory techniques in detection and diagnosis of infection, which still occurs despite sophisticated patient management. Multidisciplinary approaches are regularly adopted to achieve this. In this commentary, we describe an unusual case of Actinomyces infection in total hip arthroplasty and, in that context, describe the perspectives of the clinical microbiology and surgical teams and how they contrasted. More specifically, this case demonstrates an ad hoc approach to structured eradication of biofilms and intracellular bacteria related to biomaterials, as reflected in early usage of linezolid. This is a complex topic and, as described in this case, such accelerated treatment can be effective. This commentary focuses on the merits of such inadvisable use of potent antimicrobials amid the risk of diminishing valuable antimicrobial efficacy, albeit resulting in desirable patient outcomes.
    Bioengineered. 04/2014; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: This study is the first comparative assessment, internationally, of perceptions of generic medicines between general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists in at least the last decade. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were performed with 34 GPs and 44 community pharmacists in Ireland. Interviews were transcribed and qualitative analyses were performed using NVivo (version 9). GPs expressed more negative opinions than pharmacists. 94.1% of GPs and 88.6% of pharmacists reported receiving complaints from patients related to generics. 11.8% of GPs versus 2.3% of pharmacists believed generics do not work as well as originators. More than twice as many GPs (14.7%) as pharmacists (6.8%) expressed a preference for the originator medication. Participants believed that most negative experiences reported by patients (with generic medicines) were not actual but imagined/nocebo. Education of stakeholders is a requirement for increased usage of generics. Resources to facilitate healthcare professionals in educating patients are needed. GPs' opinions could negatively influence patient opinions; countering these opinions may prove important for successful influencing of patient perceptions.
    Health Policy 03/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, the identification of bacterial or yeast isolates has been based on phenotypic characteristics such as growth on defined media, colony morphology, Gram stain, and various biochemical reactions, with significant delay in diagnosis. Clinical microbiology as a medical specialty has embraced advances in molecular technology for rapid species identification with broad-range 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption and/or ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry demonstrated as accurate, rapid and cost-effective methods for the identification of most, but not all, bacteria and yeasts. Protracted conventional incubation times previously necessary to identify certain species has been mitigated, affording patients quicker diagnosis with associated reduction in exposure to empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and shortened hospital stay. This short commentary details such molecular advances and their implications in the clinical microbiology setting.
    Bioengineered. 03/2014; 5(3).
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    Shane Knox, Walter Cullen, Colum Dunne
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    ABSTRACT: Internationally, continuing professional competence (CPC) is an increasingly important issue for all health professionals. With the imminent introduction of a CPC framework for paramedics and advanced paramedics (APs) in Ireland, this paper aims to identify factors that will inform the implementation of this CPC framework by seeking stakeholder input into the development of a CPC model for use by the regulatory body. Our secondary objective is to determine the attitudes of registrants towards CPC and what they consider as optimal educational outcomes and activities, for the purposes of CPC. All paramedics and APs registered in Ireland (n = 1816) were invited by email to complete an anonymous on-line survey. The study instrument was designed based on CPD questionnaires used by other healthcare professions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. The overall response rate was 43% (n = 789), with 82% of APs and 38% of paramedics participating. Eighty-nine per cent agreed that registration was of personal importance; 74% agreed that evidence of CPC should be maintained and 39% believed that persistent failure to meet CPC requirements should mandate denial of registration. From a pre-determined list of activities, respondents indicated practical training scenarios (94%), cardiac re-certification (92%), e-learning supplemented by related practice (92%) and training with simulation manikins (88%) were most relevant, while e-learning alone (36%), project work (27%) and reading journal articles (24%) were least relevant. Irish Paramedics and APs are supportive of CPC linked with their professional development and registration. Blended learning, involving evidence of patient contact, team-based learning and practical skills are preferred CPC activities.
    BMC Medical Education 03/2014; 14(1):41. · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • AUDGPI Conference 2014, UCC, Cork, Ireland.; 03/2014
  • AUDGPI Conference 2014, UCC, Cork, Ireland; 03/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The Internet provides patients and their families with ready access to on-line health related information. However, this information is not always accurate, understandable or provided by health professionals or advocacy groups. One hundred children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, or their parents, attending a paediatric diabetes clinic during September to November 2011 were invited sequentially to participate in this questionnaire-based survey of Internet use in searching for diabetes-related information. Sixty-seven (67%) returned completed anonymised questionnaires: 36/67 (53%) were categorised as socio-economic groups C1/C2. Of the 67 families who returned completed questionnaires, 64 (96%) had a home computer and 62 (93%) had home Internet access; 27 (40%) rarely, and 40 (60%) frequently, searched on-line for diabetes-related information. Key search terms were not provided by respondents. There appears to be considerable internet use in seeking health related information for children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Clinicians should make efforts to direct patients and their families to websites that present accurate and current information.
    Irish medical journal 03/2014; 107(3):87-8. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns. Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising of food during children's programming, we sought to examine the advertising content in children-specific television broadcasts on Irish television. Advertisement content analysis for 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting from 0700 to 1700 hours on Irish television was performed. Data were coded and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage advertisements were coded based on type of product, nutritional content, intended age group and outcome. 322 advertisements were broadcast during the recording period. 31 % (n = 101) of advertisements related to food or beverage products with 66.3 % (n = 68) of food advertisements being for foods that should be eaten in moderation. The most frequently recorded food advertisement was for fast food products (27.3 %, n = 24), followed by sweets/candy (21.6 %, n = 19) and dairy products (17.0 %, n = 15). The most frequently recorded beverage advertisement was for natural orange juices (46.2 %, n = 6). 54.7 % (n = 176) of advertisements were adult specific with 27.3 % (n = 88) being children specific. All food and beverage advertisements were associated with a positive outcome (n = 322). These results demonstrate that food and beverages depicted in advertisements during children's programming are predominantly unhealthy foods with high salt and sugar contents. The findings from this study again highlight the ongoing need for new rules regarding food advertising in children's programming.
    Irish Journal of Medical Science 02/2014; · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health challenge. In 2012, young people (20-29 years) represented 59.1 % of STI notifications in Ireland. In studying awareness and knowledge of STIs, methods of protection, and sexual practices of young people, many researchers have accessed university students. Survey of 419 university students, investigating awareness and knowledge of sexual health and STIs, and risky sexual behaviour as a surrogate indicator of sexual activity in that age group. Self-administered questionnaire on students' demographics, sexual activity, knowledge, attitude and awareness of sexual health and STIs. 419 students responded: 56.1 % female and 78.1 % undergraduate students. 74.2 % remembered receiving sexual education in secondary school and 84 % of those found it useful, but only 51.8 % remembered education regarding STIs. 44.4 % believed that STIs do not pose a long-term health risk. 90.7 % of respondents were sexually active, and 10.3 % had contracted STIs. 94.7 % of sexually active students used contraception, with condoms most frequently used. 69.1 % of those active had experienced penetrative vaginal sex, 86.4 % oral sex and 19.2 % anal sex without a condom in the prior 2 years. Condom usage initiated by women was primarily for STI prevention. Young people do not always have the information needed for them to take responsibility for their sexual health. In this study, university-provided medical and information resources were available, but large numbers of students were unaware or uncomfortable accessing them. Future work is needed to determine factors contributing to effective communication of sexual health information to young people.
    Irish Journal of Medical Science 02/2014; · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased care provision and clinical activity in General Practice in Ireland will have important manpower implications. Recent developments in medical education policy including the introduction of graduate-entry medical degree programmes may help address this issue. The aim of this study was to determine GP career intentions among students on an Irish graduate-entry medical degree programme and to identify factors that influence these. An electronic cross-sectional study of students at University of Limerick Graduate-Entry Medical School (UL-GEMS) was undertaken. We received 139 replies (78% response rate). 41 (29%) reported GP was their current preferred career choice, while 29 (19%) reported it was their preferred career choice on entry to medical school. This first study to present data on GP career intentions among graduate-entry students in Ireland highlights the specialty as a popular preferred career choice among students, both on entry to, and during medical school. The study also identifies factors which are likely to be important in determining career intentions. Further research to examine this issue at other graduate-entry medical schools in Ireland and to determine whether our findings are pursued over time amongst graduates is a priority.
    Irish medical journal 02/2014; 107(2):55-7. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colonic mobilization requires separation of mesocolon from underlying fascia. Despite the surgical importance of planes formed by these structures, no study has formally characterized their microscopic features. The aim of this study was to determine the histological and electron microscopic appearance of mesocolon, fascia, and retroperitoneum, prior to and after colonic mobilization. In 24 cadavers, samples were taken from right, transverse, descending, and sigmoid mesocolon. In 12 cadavers, specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (3 sections) or Masson trichrome (3 sections). In the second 12 cadavers, lymphatic channels were identified by staining immunohistochemically for podoplanin. The ascending mesocolon was assessed with scanning electron microscopy. The above process was first conducted with the mesocolon in situ. The mesocolon was then surgically mobilized, and the process was repeated on remaining structures. The microscopic structure of mesocolon and associated fascia was consistent from ileocecal to mesorectal level. A surface mesothelium and underlying connective tissue were evident throughout. Fibrous septae separated adipocyte lobules. Where apposed to retroperitoneum, 2 mesothelial layers separated mesocolon and underlying retroperitoneum. A connective tissue layer occurred between these (ie, Toldt's fascia). Lymphatic channels were evident both in mesocolic connective tissue and Toldt's fascia. After surgical separation of mesocolon and fascia both remained contiguous, the fascia remained in situ and the retroperitoneum undisturbed. The findings demonstrate that the contiguous mesocolon and retroperitoneum are separated by mesothelial and connective tissue layers. These properties generate the surgical planes (ie, meso- and retrofascial planes) exploited in colonic and mesocolic mobilization.
    Annals of surgery 01/2014; · 7.90 Impact Factor