Richard R Barakat

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (369)1826.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Advanced endometrial cancer patients comprise a heterogeneous group. This study assessed the association of clinicopathological factors with relapse and death from endometrial cancer.
    Gynecologic oncology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Minimally invasive surgery for recurrent ovarian cancer is generally not performed. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and surgical outcomes of robotic-assisted surgery in the management of recurrent ovarian cancer.
    Gynecologic oncology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the direct costs of three surgical approaches in uterine cancer and the cost-effectiveness of incorporating robot-assisted surgery. A cost system that allocates the actual cost of resources used to treat each patient, as opposed to borrowing cost data from a billing system, was used to determine direct costs for patients who underwent surgery for uterine cancer from 2009 to 2010. These costs included all aspects of surgical care up to 6 months after discharge. Total amortized direct costs included the capital cost of three dual-console robotic platforms with 5 years of service contracts. Nonamortized costs were also calculated (excluded capital costs). Modeling was performed to estimate the mean cost of surgical care for patients presenting with endometrial cancer from 2007 to 2010. Of 436 cases (132 laparoscopic, 262 robotic, 42 laparotomy), total mean amortized direct costs per case were $20,489 (laparoscopy), $23,646 (robot), and $24,642 (laparotomy) (P<.05 [robot compared with laparoscopy]; P=.6 [robot compared with laparotomy]). Total nonamortized costs per case were $20,289, $20,467, and $24,433, respectively (P=.9 [robot compared with laparoscopy]; P=.03 [robot compared with laparotomy]). The planned surgical approach in 2007 was laparoscopy, 68%; robot, 8%; and laparotomy, 24% compared with 26%, 64%, and 9%, respectively, in 2010 (P<.001). The modeled mean amortized direct costs per case were $21,738 in 2007 and $22,678 in 2010 (+$940). Nonamortized costs were $21,298 in 2007 and $20,573 in 2010 (-$725). Laparoscopy is least expensive when including capital acquisition costs. Laparoscopy and robotic surgery are comparable if upfront costs are excluded. There is cost neutralization with the robot when it helps decrease laparotomy rates.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 05/2014; 123(5):1031-1037. · 4.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the feasibility and safety of same-day discharge after robotic-assisted hysterectomy. Same-day discharge after robotic-assisted hysterectomy was initiated 07/2010. All cases from then through 12/2012 were captured for quality assessment monitoring. The distance from the hospital to patients' homes was determined using http://maps.google.com. Procedures were categorized as simple (TLH +/-BSO) or complex (TLH +/-BSO with sentinel node mapping, pelvic and/or aortic nodal dissection, appendectomy, or omentectomy). Urgent care center (UCC) visits and readmissions within 30days of surgery were captured, and time to the visit was determined from the initial surgical date. Same-day discharge was planned in 200 cases. Median age was 52years (range, 30-78), BMI was 26.8kg/m(2) (range, 17.4-56.8), and ASA was class 2 (range, 1-3). Median distance traveled was 31.5 miles (range, 0.2-149). Procedures were simple in 109 (55%) and complex in 91 (45%) cases. The indication for surgery was: endometrial cancer (n=82; 41%), ovarian cancer (n=5; 2.5%), cervical cancer (n=8; 4%), and non-gynecologic cancer/benign (n=105; 53%). One hundred fifty-seven (78%) had successful same-day discharge. Median time for discharge for these cases was 4.8hours (range, 2.4-10.3). Operative time, case ending before 6pm, and use of intraoperative ketorolac were associated with successful same-day discharge. UCC visits occurred in 8/157 (5.1%) same-day discharge cases compared to 5/43 (11.6%) requiring admission (P=.08). Readmission was necessary in 4/157 (2.5%) same-day discharge cases compared to 3/43 (7.0%) requiring admission (P=.02). Same-day discharge after robotic-assisted hysterectomy for benign and malignant conditions is feasible and safe.
    Gynecologic Oncology 04/2014; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Our primary objective was to assess the detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) using indocyanine green (ICG) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies. Methods NIR fluorescence imaging for the robotic platform was obtained at our institution in 12/2011. We identified all cases planned for SLN mapping using fluorescence imaging from 12/2011-4/2013. Intracervical ICG was the fluorophobe in all cases. Four cc (1.25 mg/mL) of ICG was injected into the cervix alone divided into the 3- and 9-o’clock positions, with 1 cc deep into the stroma and 1 cc submucosally before initiating laparoscopic entry. Blue dye was concurrently injected in some cases. Results Two hundred twenty-seven cases were performed. Median age was 60 years (range, 28–90). Median BMI was 30.2 kg/m2 (range, 18–60). The median SLN count was 3 (range, 1–23). An SLN was identified in 216 cases (95%), with bilateral pelvic mapping in 179 (79%). An aortic SLN was identified in 21 (10%) of the 216 mapped cases. When ICG alone was used to map cases, 188/197 patients mapped, for a 95% detection rate compared to 93% (28/30) in cases in which both dyes were used (P = NS). Bilateral mapping was seen in 156/197 (79%) ICG-only cases and 23/30 (77%) ICG and blue dye cases (P = NS). Conclusions NIR fluorescence imaging with intracervical ICG injection using the robotic platform has a high bilateral SLN detection rate and appears favorable to using blue dye alone and/or other modalities. Combined use of ICG and blue dye appears unnecessary.
    Gynecologic Oncology 01/2014; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To compare survival outcomes for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who received primary intravenous/intraperitoneal (IV/IP) chemotherapy to those who received IV followed by consolidation (treatment given to patients in remission) IP chemotherapy. Methods Data were analyzed and compared for all patients with stage III–IV EOC who underwent optimal primary cytoreduction (residual disease ≤ 1 cm) followed by cisplatin-based consolidation IP chemotherapy (1/2001–12/2005) or primary IV/IP chemotherapy (1/2005–7/2011). Results We identified 224 patients; 62 (28%) received IV followed by consolidation IP chemotherapy and 162 (72%) received primary IV/IP chemotherapy. The primary IP group had significantly more patients with serous tumors. The consolidation IP group had a significantly greater median preoperative platelet count, CA-125, and amount of ascites. There were no differences in residual disease at the end of cytoreduction between both groups. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was greater for the primary IP group; however, this did not reach statistical significance (23.7 months vs 19.7 months; HR 0.78; 95% CI, 0.57–1.06; p = 0.11). The median overall survival (OS) was significantly greater for the primary IP group (78.8 months vs 57.5 months; HR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38–0.83; p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for confounders, the difference in PFS was not significant (HR 0.78; 95% CI, 0.56–1.11; p = 0.17), while the difference in OS remained significant (HR 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39–0.89; p = 0.01). Conclusions In our study, primary IV/IP chemotherapy was associated with improved OS compared to IV followed by consolidation IP chemotherapy in patients with optimally cytoreduced advanced EOC.
    Gynecologic Oncology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the feasibility of cervical conization and sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping as a fertility-sparing strategy to treat stage I cervical cancer and to estimate the tumor margin status needed to achieve no residual carcinoma in the cervix. We identified all patients who desired fertility preservation and underwent SLN mapping with cervical conization for stage I cervical cancer from September 2005 to August 2012. Relevant demographic, clinical, and pathologic information was collected. Ten patients were identified. Median age was 28 years (range, 18-36 years). None of the patients had a grossly visible tumor. The initial diagnosis of invasive carcinoma was made either on a loop electrosurgical excision procedure or cone biopsy. All patients underwent preoperative radiologic evaluation (magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography). None of the patients had evidence of gross tumor or suspicion of lymph node metastasis on imaging. Stage distribution included 7 (70%) patients with stage IA1 cervical cancer with lymphovascular invasion and 3 (30%) patients with microscopic IB1. Histologic diagnosis included 8 (80%) patients with squamous cell carcinoma, 1 (10%) patient with adenocarcinoma, and 1 (10%) patient with clear cell carcinoma. Nine patients underwent repeat cervical conization with SLN mapping, and 1 patient underwent postconization cervical biopsies and SLN mapping. None of the patients had residual tumor identified on the final specimen. The median distance from the invasive carcinoma to the endocervical margin was 2.25 mm, and the distance from the invasive carcinoma to the ectocervical margin was 1.9 mm. All collected lymph nodes were negative for metastasis. After a median follow-up of 17 months (range, 1-83 months), none of the patients' conditions were diagnosed with recurrent disease and 3 (30%) patients achieved pregnancy. Cervical conization and SLN mapping seems to be an acceptable treatment strategy for selected patients with small-volume stage I cervical cancer. Tumor clearance of 2 mm and above seems to correlate well with no residual on repeat conization. A larger sample size and longer follow-up is needed to establish the long-term outcomes of this procedure.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 12/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary cytoreductive surgery in patients with stage IIIC-IV epithelial ovarian cancer frequently includes diaphragm peritonectomy or resection, which can lead to symptomatic pleural effusions when the resection specimen is ≥10cm. Our objective was to evaluate whether the placement of an intraoperative thoracostomy tube decreased the incidence of symptomatic pleural effusions in these cases. We identified 156 patients who underwent primary debulking surgery involving diaphragm peritonectomy or resection for stage III-IV ovarian cancer from 1/01-12/09. Using standard statistical tests, the incidence of symptomatic pleural effusions and other variables were compared between patients who did and did not have intraoperative chest tubes placed. Forty-nine patients had a resected diaphragm specimen ≥10cm in largest dimension; 28 (57%) did not undergo chest tube placement (NCT group) while 21 (43%) did (CT group). Mediastinal lymph node dissection (0% vs 19%, P=0.028) and liver resections (11% vs 38%, P=0.037) were higher in the CT group. Postoperatively, 57% of the NCT group developed a moderate or large pleural effusion compared to 19% of the CT group (P=0.007). Thirteen patients (46%) in the NCT group developed respiratory symptoms requiring either placement of a postoperative chest tube or thoracentesis compared to 3 patients (14%) in the CT group (P=0.018). Diaphragm peritonectomy or resection can often lead to moderate or large pleural effusions that may become symptomatic. In these patients, intraoperative chest tube placement may be considered to decrease the incidence of symptomatic effusions and the need for postoperative chest tube placement or thoracentesis.
    Gynecologic Oncology 11/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the learning curve associated with training fellows in completing robotic assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomies. All patients scheduled to undergo a robotic procedure at our institution from 5/15/07-5/22/12 were identified. Fellow participation per procedure was documented. The learning curve of fellows for the time to complete a hysterectomy (from initiation of developing the retroperitoneal space to the completion of the colpotomy) was analyzed. Of the 1754 planned robotic cases, 1626 were completed robotically and 128 were converted to laparotomy. Fifty-seven fellows participated in 99.7% of the cases. Eleven gynecologic oncology fellows completed at least 1 robotic assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. From 7/7/08-5/21/12, 981 hysterectomies were completed robotically, 254 of these (25.9%) by the 11 fellows. Prior to completing a hysterectomy, the median number of hysterectomies in which a fellow participated was 16 (range, 11-40). Median amount of time for a fellow to complete a hysterectomy decreased from 60minutes in 2009 (N=27 cases) to 31minutes in 2011 (N=148 cases). Based on the recorded completion times in which the 11 fellows completed a hysterectomy, it required ~33 cases per fellow to be able to perform the hysterectomy and overcome the learning curve. The learning curve associated with hysterectomy requires completion of ~33 cases by the fellow after an initial median experience of 16 cases. Our data suggest that a minimum of 50 total cases is required during fellowship to complete a robotic hysterectomy.
    Gynecologic Oncology 11/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is recommended for women with BRCA mutation due to increased risk of pelvic serous carcinoma. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) is a pathologic finding of unknown clinical significance. This study evaluates the clinical outcome of patients with isolated STIC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients with a germline BRCA1/2 mutation or a high-risk personal or family history of ovarian cancer who underwent RRSO between January 2006 and June 2011. All patients had peritoneal washings collected. All surgical specimens were assessed using the sectioning and extensively examining the fimbria protocol, with immunohistochemistry when indicated. p53 signature lesions and secretory cell outgrowths were excluded. Of 593 patients who underwent RRSO, isolated STIC was diagnosed in 12 patients (2%). Five patients (42%) were BRCA1 positive, 5 patients (42%) were BRCA2 positive, and 2 patients (17%) had high-risk family history. Preoperatively, all patients with STIC had normal CA-125 levels and/or pelvic imaging results. Seven patients underwent hysterectomy and omentectomy, 6 patients (46%) had pelvic node dissections, and 5 patients (39%) had para-aortic node dissections. With the exception of positive peritoneal washings in 1 patient, no invasive or metastatic disease was identified. No patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. At median follow-up of 28 months (range, 16-44 months), no recurrences have been identified. Among the cases of isolated STIC after RRSO reported in the literature, the yield of surgical staging is low, and short-term clinical outcomes are favorable. Peritoneal washings are the most common site of disease spread. Individualized management is warranted until additional data become available.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 11/2013; 23(9):1603-11. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a new staging system for stage I endometrial cancer and compare its performance to the 1988 and 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) systems. We analyzed patients with 1988 FIGO stage I endometrial cancer from January 1993 to August 2011. Low-grade carcinoma consisted of endometrioid grade 1 to grade 2 lesions. High-grade carcinoma consisted of endometrioid grade 3 or nonendometrioid carcinomas (serous, clear cell, and carcinosarcoma). The proposed system is as follows:IA. Low-grade carcinoma with less than half myometrial invasionIA1: Negative nodesIA2: No nodes removedIB. High-grade carcinoma with no myometrial invasionIB1: Negative nodesIB2: No nodes removedIC. Low-grade carcinoma with half or greater myometrial invasionIC1: Negative nodesIC2: No nodes removedID. High-grade carcinoma with any myometrial invasionID1: Negative nodesID2: No nodes removed RESULTS: Data from 1843 patients were analyzed. When patients were restaged with our proposed system, the 5-year overall survival significantly differed (P < 0.001): IA1, 96.7%; IA2, 92.2%; IB1, 92.2%; IB2, 76.4%; IC1, 83.9%; IC2, 78.6%; ID1, 81.1%; and ID2, 68.8%. The bootstrap-corrected concordance probability estimate for the proposed system was 0.627 (95% confidence interval, 0.590-0.664) and was superior to the concordance probability estimate of 0.530 (95% confidence interval, 0.516-0.544) for the 2009 FIGO system. By incorporating histological subtype, grade, myometrial invasion, and whether lymph nodes were removed, our proposed system for stage I endometrial cancer has a superior predictive ability over the 2009 FIGO staging system and provides a novel binary grading system (low-grade including endometrioid grade 1-2 lesions; high-grade carcinoma consisting of endometrioid grade 3 carcinomas and nonendometrioid carcinomas).
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 10/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the incidence of nodal metastases in patients presenting with presumed low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas using a sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping protocol including pathologic ultrastaging. All patients from 9/2005-12/2011 who underwent endometrial cancer staging surgery with attempted SLN mapping for preoperative grade 1 (G1) or grade 2 (G2) tumors with <50% invasion on final pathology, were included. All lymph nodes were examined with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Negative SLNs were further examined using an ultrastaging protocol to detect micrometastases and isolated tumor cells. Of 425 patients, lymph node metastasis was found in 25 patients (5.9%) on final pathology-13 cases on routine H&E, 12 cases after ultrastaging. Patients whose tumors had a DMI <50% were more likely to have positive SLNs on routine H&E (p<0.005) or after ultrastaging (p=0.01) compared to those without myoinvasion. Applying a standardized SLN mapping algorithm with ultrastaging allows for the detection of nodal disease in a presumably low-risk group of patients who in some practices may not undergo any nodal evaluation. Ultrastaging of SLNs can likely be eliminated in endometrioid adenocarcinoma with no myoinvasion. The long-term clinical significance of ultrastage-detected nodal disease requires further investigation as recurrences were noted in some of these cases.
    Gynecologic Oncology 10/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate patterns of relapse in early stage uterine papillary carcinoma (UPSC) patients receiving adjuvant intravaginal radiotherapy (IVRT) with or without chemotherapy. From 1/1996 to 12/2010, 77 women with stage I-II UPSC underwent surgery followed by IVRT (median 21Gy). Stage IA patients without residual disease at surgery were excluded. IVRT and chemotherapy (carboplatin/taxane) was given to 61 (79%) patients and IVRT alone to 16 (21%). The median follow-up was 62months for surviving patients. Of the 77 patients, 11 (14%) relapsed as follows: vaginal 2 (3%), pelvic 5 (6%), para-aortic 5 (6%), peritoneal 6 (8%), and other distant sites 8 (10%). Of the 5 pelvic relapses, 2 were isolated and were salvaged. In those treated without chemotherapy, only 1/16 developed recurrence (mediastinal). The 5-year vaginal, pelvic, para-aortic, peritoneal, and distant recurrence rates were 2.7% (C.I. 0-6.2%), 5.8% (C.I. 0.6-11.0%), 5.4% (C.I. 0.6-10.1%), 5.3% (C.I. 0.5-10.1%) and 6.6% (C.I. 1.4-11.8%), respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 88% (C.I. 81-95%), and 91% (C.I. 84-97%), respectively. The only predictor of worse 5-year pelvic control was stage (96.2% stage IA vs 87.7% for stage IB-II, p=0.043). In stage I-II UPSC patients who predominantly receive adjuvant chemotherapy, IVRT as the sole form of adjuvant RT provides excellent locoregional control. The risk of isolated pelvic recurrence is too low to warrant routine use of external pelvic RT.
    Gynecologic Oncology 09/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors and potential morbidity associated with intraoperative hypothermia (IH) during cytoreductive surgery (CRS) for advanced ovarian cancer. Demographic and perioperative data were collected for all patients with stage IIIC-IV ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma who underwent primary CRS at our institution from 2001-2010. Only patients with carcinomatosis and/or bulky upper abdominal disease and residual disease of <1cm were included. Intraoperative hypothermia was defined as temperature of <36.0(o) Celsius (C). Associations with 21 perioperative factors, 12 systems-based complications, and specific complications including but not limited to venous thromboembolism and surgical site infection were evaluated. Two hundred ninety-seven patients met the inclusion criteria. An intraoperative T <36(o) C was noted in 72.1% of patients, and a temperature <36(o) C at the time of abdominal closure was noted in 45.5%. Intraoperative vasopressors (P=0.02), epidural anesthesia (P=0.01), transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (P<0.05), and blood loss (P=0.01) were associated with IH. There was no association between IH and postoperative complications in general (P=0.48) or specifically grade 3-5 complications (P=0.34). Univariate analysis did show an association between hematologic complications and IH; however, this did not persist on multivariate analysis (P=0.14). In patients who underwent optimal primary CRS for advanced ovarian cancer, IH alone was not associated with the development of postoperative complications. Postoperative morbidity in these patients is multifactorial and further investigation into modifiable risk factors is warranted.
    Gynecologic Oncology 09/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • Gynecologic Oncology. 07/2013; 130(1):e11.
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopy (LSC) offers superior patient outcomes compared to laparotomy. Small retrospective/prospective series have suggested robotics offers further reduction in postoperative pain and pain medication use compared to standard LSC. Our objective was to compare postoperative pain in patients undergoing robotically assisted (RBT) versus standard LSC for newly diagnosed endometrial cancer. All preoperative endometrial cancer cases scheduled for RBT and LSC from May 1, 2007 to June 9, 2010 were identified. For this analysis, we only included cases not requiring conversion to laparotomy. All patients were offered intravenous (IV) patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) postoperatively. Intraoperative equivalent fentanyl doses (IEFDs) and pain scores in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) were assessed. IV PCA was used in 206 RBTs (86 %) and 208 LSCs (88 %). Median IEFD was 425 μg for LSCs and 500 μg for RBTs (P = 0.03). Median pain scores on PACU arrival were similar in both groups. Median highest pain score was 5 for LSCs and 4 for RBTs (P = 0.007). Linear regression demonstrated that the IEFD was not correlated with the highest pain score (R = 0.09; P = 0.07). Fentanyl was used postoperatively in 196 of 206 RBTs (95 %) and 187 of 208 LSCs (90 %). The total fentanyl doses were 242.5 (range 0-2705) μg and 380 (range 0-2625) μg, respectively (P < 0.001). The median hourly fentanyl doses were 16.7 (range 0-122.5) μg and 23.5 (range 0-132.4) μg, respectively (P = 0.005). Simultaneous multiple regression analysis further demonstrated RBT was independently associated with a lower total fentanyl dose compared to LSC (P = 0.02). RBT is independently associated with significantly lower postoperative pain and pain medication requirements compared to LSC. The amount of intraoperative fentanyl analgesia does not appear to correlate with postoperative pain.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 06/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal adjuvant therapy in advanced endometrial cancer is controversial. One regimen is concurrent external beam pelvic irradiation (RT) and cisplatin, then carboplatin/paclitaxel. This study reports an institutional experience using this approach in stage III (FIGO 2009) endometrial cancer. Patients with stage III (FIGO 2009) endometrial cancer who underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at a single institution from 01/2004 to 12/2009 were identified retrospectively. Those treated with adjuvant RT/cisplatin, followed by carboplatin/paclitaxel comprised the study population. Of the 40 eligible patients, 7 (18%) were stage IIIA and 33 (82%) IIIC. Nineteen patients (48%) were ≥60 years of age. Twenty-three (58%) had ≥50% myometrial invasion, 30 (75%) lymphovascular invasion, 11 (28%) cervical stromal invasion, and 5 (12%) positive peritoneal cytology. Histology was endometrioid in 32 (80%), serous in 6 (15%), and clear cell in 2 (5%). At a median follow-up of 49 months, the 5-year freedom from relapse was 79% and overall survival 85%. The 5-year rate of vaginal recurrence was 3%, non-vaginal pelvic recurrence 3%, para-aortic recurrence 11%, peritoneal recurrence 5%, and other distant recurrence 11%. Thirty-one patients (78%) were able to complete the planned RT/cisplatin and 4 cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel. Acute grade 3 toxicity occurred in 10 patients (4 neutropenia, 2 anemia, 1 fatigue, 2 diarrhea). No late toxicity was grade ≥3. These favorable outcomes corroborate those of RTOG 9708. Until prospective data mature that compare adjuvant therapy regimens, concurrent chemoradiation should be strongly considered in stage III endometrial cancer.
    Gynecologic Oncology 06/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate which clinicopathologic factors influenced overall survival (OS) in endometrial carcinoma and to determine if the surgical effort to assess para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LNs) at initial staging surgery impacts OS. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer from 1/1993-12/2011 who had LNs excised were included. PALN assessment was defined by the identification of one or more PALNs on final pathology. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess the effect of PALNs on OS. A form of recursive partitioning called classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was implemented. Variables included: age, stage, tumor subtype, grade, myometrial invasion, total LNs removed, evaluation of PALNs, and adjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: The cohort included 1920 patients, with a median age of 62 years. The median number of LNs removed was 16 (range, 1-99). The removal of PALNs was not associated with OS (P=0.450). Using the CART hierarchically, stage I vs. stages II-IV and grade 1-2 vs. grade 3 emerged as predictors of OS. If the tree was allowed to grow, further branching was based on age and myometrial invasion. Total number of LNs removed and assessment of PALNs as defined in this study were not predictive of OS. CONCLUSION: This innovative CART analysis emphasized the importance of proper stage assignment and a binary grading system in impacting OS. Notably, the total number of LNs removed and specific evaluation of PALNs as defined in this study were not important predictors of OS.
    Gynecologic Oncology 06/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the incidence of low-volume ultrastage-detected metastases in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) identified at surgical staging for endometrial carcinoma and to correlate it with depth of myoinvasion and tumor grade. We reviewed all patients who underwent primary surgery for endometrial carcinoma with successful mapping of at least one SLN at our institution from September 2005 to December 2011. All patients underwent a cervical injection for mapping. The SLN ultrastaging protocol involved cutting an additional 2 adjacent 5-μm sections at each of 2 levels, 50-μm apart, from each paraffin block lacking metastatic carcinoma on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. At each level, one slide was stained with H&E and with immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anticytokeratin AE1:AE3.Micrometastases (tumor deposits >0.2 mm and ≤2 mm) and isolated tumor cells (≤0.2 mm) were classified as low-volume ultrastage-detected metastases if pathologic ultrastaging was the only method allowing detection of such nodal disease. Of 508 patients with successful mapping, 413 patients (81.3%) had endometrioid carcinoma. Sixty-four (12.6%) of the 508 patients had positive nodes: routine H&E detected 35 patients (6.9%), ultrastaging detected an additional 23 patients (4.5%) who would have otherwise been missed (4 micrometastases and 19 isolated tumor cells), and 6 patients (1.2%) had metastatic disease in their non-SLNs. The incidence rates of low-volume ultrastage-detected nodal metastases in patients with grades 1, 2, and 3 tumors were 3.8%, 3.4%, and 6.9%, respectively. The frequency rates of low-volume ultrastage-detected metastases in patients with a depth of myoinvasion of 0, less than 50%, and 50% or more were 0.8%, 8.0%, and 7.4%, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was present in 20 (87%) of the cases containing low-volume ultrastage-detected metastases in the lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node mapping with pathologic ultrastaging in endometrial carcinoma detects additional low-volume metastases (4.5%) that would otherwise go undetected with routine evaluations. Our data support the incorporation of pathologic ultrastaging of SLNs in endometrial carcinoma with any degree of myoinvasion. The oncologic significance of low-volume nodal metastases requires long-term follow-up.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 06/2013; 23(5):964-70. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: It is well documented that recurrence after pelvic exenteration remains high (up to 50%), and patients may require a prolonged period of recuperation following this aggressive surgery. We conducted a retrospective review to evaluate the feasibility of administering adjuvant chemotherapy after pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients with any gynecologic cancer who underwent exenterative surgery between January 2005 and February 2011 at our institution. Patients were referred for postexenteration adjuvant chemotherapy based on surgeon's discretion and/or presence of high-risk features: positive margins, positive lymph nodes, and/or lymphovascular space invasion. Suitability for chemotherapy was assessed by a gynecologic medical oncologist. Regimens consisted of 4 to 6 cycles of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-related toxicities were assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. RESULTS: We identified 42 patients who underwent pelvic exenteration during the study period. Eleven (26%) were referred for adjuvant chemotherapy. Three (27%) of the 11 patients did not receive chemotherapy because of delayed postoperative recovery or physician choice. Seven (88%) of the remaining 8 patients completed all scheduled chemotherapy. Grade 2 toxicities or greater were documented in 6 patients (75%), the most common being neutropenia, neuropathy, and fatigue. Median follow-up time was 25 months (range, 6-56 months). The 3-year progression-free and overall survival rates of the 8 patients who received chemotherapy were 58% (95% confidence interval, 18%-84%) and 54% (95% confidence interval, 13%- 83%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of adjuvant chemotherapy is feasible for a select group of patients after pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies. Our results need to be interpreted with caution because of the small and heterogeneous cohort of patients included.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 06/2013; 23(5):923-928. · 1.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,826.62 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2014
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • • Gynecology Service
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Radiology
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Gynecologic Oncology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Oklahoma
      Norman, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2008
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • Cleveland State University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2006
    • Shaare Zedek Medical Center
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Jerusalem, Jerusalem District, Israel
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2001
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Division of Gynecologic Oncology
      Stanford, California, United States
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2000
    • North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1994
    • Cleveland Clinic
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States