[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: De novo donor-specific antibody (DSA) after organ transplantation promotes antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and causes late graft loss. Previously, we demonstrated that depletion using anti-CD3 immunotoxin combined with tacrolimus and alefacept (AMR regimen) reliably induced early DSA production with AMR in a nonhuman primate kidney transplant model. Five animals were assigned as positive AMR controls, four received additional belatacept and four received additional anti-CD40 mAb (2C10R4). Notably, production of early de novo DSA was completely attenuated with additional belatacept or 2C10R4 treatment. In accordance with this, while positive controls experienced a decrease in peripheral IgM(+) B cells, bela- and 2C10R4-added groups maintained a predominant population of IgM(+) B cells, potentially indicating decreased isotype switching. Central memory T cells (CD4(+) CD28(+) CD95(+) ) as well as PD-1(hi) CD4(+) T cells were decreased in both bela-added and 2C10R4-added groups. In analyzing germinal center (GC) reactions in situ, lymph nodes further revealed a reduction of B cell clonal expansion, GC-follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, and IL-21 production inside GCs with additional belatacept or 2C10R4 treatment. Here we provide evidence that belatacept and 2C10R4 selectively suppresses the humoral response via regulating Tfh cells and prevents AMR in this nonhuman primate model.
American Journal of Transplantation 01/2014; 14(1):59-69. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While there have been significant advances in our understanding of the autoimmune responses and the molecular nature of the target auto-antigens in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), unfortunately, these data have yet to be translated into new therapeutic agents. We have taken advantage of a unique murine model of autoimmune cholangitis in which mice expressing a dominant negative form of transforming growth factor β receptor II (dnTGFβRII), under the control of the CD4 promoter, develop an intense autoimmune cholangitis associated with serologic features similar to human PBC. CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a major receptor-ligand pair that provides key signals between cells of the adaptive immune system, prompting us to determine the therapeutic potential of treating autoimmune cholangitis with anti-CD40L antibody (anti-CD40L; MR-1). Four week old dnTGFβRII mice were injected intra-peritoneally with either anti-CD40L or control IgG at days 0, 2, 4, 7 and then weekly until 12 or 24 weeks of age and monitored for the progress of serologic and histologic features of PBC, including rigorous definition of liver cellular infiltrates and cytokine production. Administration of anti-CD40L significantly reduced liver inflammation through 12 weeks of age. In addition, anti-CD40L initially lowered the levels of anti-mitochondrial auto-antibodies (AMA), but these reductions were not sustained. These data indicate that anti-CD40L delays autoimmune cholangitis, but the effect wanes over time. Further dissection of the mechanisms involved, and defining the events that lead to the reduction in therapeutic effectiveness, will be critical to determining whether such efforts can be applied to PBC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of CD40/CD154 costimulatory pathway blockade in immunosuppression strategies is well-documented. Efforts are currently focused on monoclonal antibodies specific for CD40 because of thromboembolic complications associated with monoclonal antibodies directed towards CD154. Here we present the rational development and characterization of a novel antagonistic monoclonal antibody to CD40. Rhesus macaques were treated with the recombinant anti-CD40 mAb, 2C10, or vehicle before immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Treatment with 2C10 successfully inhibited T cell-dependent antibody responses to KLH without significant peripheral B cell depletion. Subsequently, MHC-mismatched macaques underwent intraportal allogeneic islet transplantation and received basiliximab and sirolimus with or without 2C10. Islet graft survival was significantly prolonged in recipients receiving 2C10 (graft survival time 304, 296, 265, 163 days) compared to recipients receiving basiliximab and sirolimus alone (graft survival time 8, 8, 10 days). The survival advantage conferred by treatment with 2C10 provides further evidence for the importance of blockade of the CD40/CD154 pathway in preventing alloimmune responses. 2C10 is a particularly attractive candidate for translation given its favorable clinical profile.
American Journal of Transplantation 08/2012; 12(8):2079-87. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic allograft rejection is a major impediment to long-term transplant success. Humoral immune responses to alloantigens are a growing clinical problem in transplantation, with mounting evidence associating alloantibodies with the development of chronic rejection. Nearly a third of transplant recipients develop de novo antibodies, for which no established therapies are effective at preventing or eliminating, highlighting the need for a nonhuman primate model of antibody-mediated rejection. In this report, we demonstrate that depletion using anti-CD3 immunotoxin (IT) combined with maintenance immunosuppression that included tacrolimus with or without alefacept reliably prolonged renal allograft survival in rhesus monkeys. In these animals, a preferential skewing toward CD4 repopulation and proliferation was observed, particularly with the addition of alefacept. Furthermore, alefacept-treated animals demonstrated increased alloantibody production (100%) and morphologic features of antibody-mediated injury. In vitro, alefacept was found to enhance CD4 effector memory T cell proliferation. In conclusion, alefacept administration after depletion and with tacrolimus promotes a CD4+memory T cell and alloantibody response, with morphologic changes reflecting antibody-mediated allograft injury. Early and consistent de novo alloantibody production with associated histological changes makes this nonhuman primate model an attractive candidate for evaluating targeted therapeutics.
American Journal of Transplantation 07/2012; 12(9):2395-405. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Even though the etiology of chronic rejection (CR) is multifactorial, donor specific antibody (DSA) is considered to have a causal effect on CR development. Currently the antibody-mediated mechanisms during CR are poorly understood due to lack of proper animal models and tools. In a clinical setting, we previously demonstrated that induction therapy by lymphocyte depletion, using alemtuzumab (anti-human CD52), is associated with an increased incidence of serum alloantibody, C4d deposition and antibody-mediated rejection in human patients. In this study, the effects of T cell depletion in the development of antibody-mediated rejection were examined using human CD52 transgenic (CD52Tg) mice treated with alemtuzumab. Fully mismatched cardiac allografts were transplanted into alemtuzumab treated CD52Tg mice and showed no acute rejection while untreated recipients acutely rejected their grafts. However, approximately half of long-term recipients showed increased degree of vasculopathy, fibrosis and perivascular C3d depositions at posttransplant day 100. The development of CR correlated with DSA and C3d deposition in the graft. Using novel tracking tools to monitor donor-specific B cells, alloreactive B cells were shown to increase in accordance with DSA detection. The current animal model could provide a means of testing strategies to understand mechanisms and developing therapeutic approaches to prevent chronic rejection.
American Journal of Transplantation 07/2012; 12(10):2641-51. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Breakdown of humoral tolerance to RBC antigens may lead to autoimmune hemolytic anemia, a severe and sometimes fatal disease. The underlying mechanisms behind the breakdown of humoral tolerance to RBC antigens are poorly understood. Design and Methods: To study the pathogenesis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, we developed a murine model with RBC-specific expression of a model antigen carrying epitopes from hen egg lysozyme and ovalbumin. Results: Humoral tolerance was observed, which was not broken even by strong immunogenic stimulation (lysozyme or ovalbumin with adjuvant). Autoreactive CD4+ T cells were detected by tetramer enrichment assays, but failed to activate or expand despite repeat stimulation, indicating a non-responsive population rather than deletion. Adoptive transfer of autoreactive CD4+ T cells (OT-II mice) led to autoantibody (anti-lysozyme) production by B cells in multiple anatomic compartments, including the bone marrow. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that B cells autoreactive to RBC antigens survive in healthy mice with normal immune systems. Further, autoreactive B cells are not centrally tolerized and are receptive to T cell help. As the autoreactive T cells are present but non-responsive, these data indicate that factors that reverse T cell non-responsiveness may be central to the pathogenesis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of antibodies in chronic injury to organ transplants has been suggested for many years, but recently emphasized by new data. We have observed that when immunosuppressive potency decreases either by intentional weaning of maintenance agents or due to homeostatic repopulation after immune cell depletion, the threshold of B cell activation may be lowered. In human transplant recipients the result may be donor-specific antibody, C4d+ injury, and chronic rejection. This scenario has precise parallels in a rhesus monkey renal allograft model in which T cells are depleted with CD3 immunotoxin, or in a CD52-T cell transgenic mouse model using alemtuzumab to deplete T cells. Such animal models may be useful for the testing of therapeutic strategies to prevent DSA. We agree with others who suggest that weaning of immunosuppression may place transplant recipients at risk of chronic antibody-mediated rejection, and that strategies to prevent this scenario are needed if we are to improve long-term graft and patient outcomes in transplantation. We believe that animal models will play a crucial role in defining the pathophysiology of antibody-mediated rejection and in developing effective therapies to prevent graft injury. Two such animal models are described herein.
Seminars in Immunology 11/2011; 24(2):96-108. · 5.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Costimulation blockade of the CD40/CD154 pathway has been effective at preventing allograft rejection in numerous transplantation models. This strategy has largely depended on mAbs directed against CD154, limiting the potential for translation due to its association with thromboembolic events. Though targeting CD40 as an alternative to CD154 has been successful at preventing allograft rejection in preclinical models, there have been no reports on the effects of CD40-specific agents in human transplant recipients. This delay in clinical translation may in part be explained by the presence of cellular depletion with many CD40-specific mAbs. As such, the optimal biologic properties of CD40-directed immunotherapy remain to be determined. In this report, we have characterized 3A8, a human CD40-specific mAb and evaluated its efficacy in a rhesus macaque model of islet cell transplantation. Despite partially agonistic properties and the inability to block CD40 binding of soluble CD154 (sCD154) in vitro, 3A8-based therapy markedly prolonged islet allograft survival without depleting B cells. Our results indicate that the allograft-protective effects of CD40-directed costimulation blockade do not require sCD154 blockade, complete antagonism or cellular depletion, and serve to support and guide the continued development of CD40-specific agents for clinical translation.
American Journal of Transplantation 09/2011; 12(1):126-35. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significant deficiencies in understanding of xenospecific immunity have impeded the success of preclinical trials in xenoislet transplantation. Although galactose-α1,3-galactose, the gal epitope, has emerged as the principal target of rejection in pig-to-primate models of solid organ transplant, the importance of gal-specific immunity in islet xenotransplant models has yet to be clearly demonstrated. Here, we directly compare the immunogenicity, survival and function of neonatal porcine islets (NPIs) from gal-expressing wild-type (WT) or gal-deficient galactosyl transferase knockout (GTKO) donors. Paired diabetic rhesus macaques were transplanted with either WT (n = 5) or GTKO (n = 5) NPIs. Recipient blood glucose, transaminase and serum xenoantibody levels were used to monitor response to transplant. Four of five GTKO versus one of five WT recipients achieved insulin-independent normoglycemia; transplantation of WT islets resulted in significantly greater transaminitis. The WT NPIs were more susceptible to antibody and complement binding and destruction in vitro. Our results confirm that gal is an important variable in xenoislet transplantation. The GTKO NPI recipients have improved rates of normoglycemia, likely due to decreased susceptibility of xenografts to innate immunity mediated by complement and preformed xenoantibody. Therefore, the use of GTKO donors is an important step toward improved consistency and interpretability of results in future xenoislet studies.
American Journal of Transplantation 08/2011; 11(12):2593-602. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transplantation tolerance is a state of immune unresponsiveness (or benign responsiveness) to the presence of specific, nonself antigens in the absence of chronic immunosuppressive therapy. Renal transplant tolerance remains a desired yet generally unattained goal that would enable transplantation to be performed without the risk of graft rejection or the need for broadly immunosuppressive drugs, which can have toxic effects. Studies published in the past few years have provided evidence that B cells have an important role in both graft rejection and transplantation tolerance. Indeed, antibody-dependent and antibody-independent functions of B cells account for both tolerogenic and rejection-promoting immune responses in transplant recipients. This Review comprises a discussion of the mechanisms involved in the induction of B-cell tolerance and a survey of current and emerging therapies that target the effects of B cells in transplant recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Belying the spectacular success of solid organ transplantation and improvements in immunosuppressive therapy is the reality that long-term graft survival rates remain relatively unchanged, in large part due to chronic and insidious alloantibody-mediated graft injury. Half of heart transplant recipients develop chronic rejection within 10 years - a daunting statistic, particularly for young patients expecting to achieve longevity by enduring the rigors of a transplant. The current immunosuppressive pharmacopeia is relatively ineffective in preventing late alloantibody-associated chronic rejection. In this issue of the JCI, Kelishadi et al. report that preemptive deletion of B cells prior to heart transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys, in addition to conventional posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, markedly attenuated not only acute graft rejection but also alloantibody elaboration and chronic graft rejection. The success of this preemptive strike implies a central role for B cells in graft rejection, and this approach may help to delay or prevent chronic rejection after solid organ transplantation.
The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2010; 120(4):1036-9. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major complications with respect to the development of gene therapy treatments for hemophilia A include low factor VIII (fVIII) expression and humoral immune responses resulting in inhibitory anti-fVIII antibodies. We previously achieved sustained curative fVIII activity levels in hemophilia A mice after nonmyeloablative transplantation of genetically-modified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) encoding a B-domain deleted porcine fVIII (BDDpfVIII) transgene with no evidence of an immune response.
Mouse HSCs were transduced using MSCV-based recombinant virus encoding BDDpfVIII and transplanted into hemophilia A mice. Transplanted mice were followed for donor cell engraftment, fVIII expression and activity, and generation of anti-fVIII immune response.
We now show that: (i) the protein expressed by hematopoietic cells has a specific activity similar to that of purified protein; (ii) BDDpfVIII expressed from hematopoietic cells effectively induces thrombus formation, which is shown using a new method of in vivo analysis of fVIII function; (iii) naïve and pre-immunized mice receiving HSC gene therapy are nonresponsive to challenges with recombinant human fVIII; (iv) nonresponsiveness is not broken after stringent challenges with BDDpfVIII; and (v) T cells from these mice are unresponsive to BDDpfVIII presentation. Furthermore, stem cells isolated from donors with high titer anti-human fVIII antibodies show no defects in donor cell engraftment or the ability to express BDDpfVIII.
These results demonstrate that HSC gene therapy can be an effective alternative treatment for individuals with hemophilia A and may benefit patients by inducing immunological nonresponsiveness to fVIII replacement products.
The Journal of Gene Medicine 03/2010; 12(4):333-44. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gammaherpesviruses chronically infect their host and are tightly associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases and lymphomas, as well as several other types of cancer. Mechanisms involved in maintaining chronic gammaherpesvirus infections are poorly understood and, in particular, little is known about the mechanisms involved in controlling gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latently infected B cells in vivo. Recent evidence has linked plasma cell differentiation with reactivation of the human gammaherpesviruses EBV and KSHV through induction of the immediate-early viral transcriptional activators by the plasma cell-specific transcription factor XBP-1s. We now extend those findings to document a role for a gammaherpesvirus gene product in regulating plasma cell differentiation and thus virus reactivation. We have previously shown that the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) gene product M2 is dispensable for virus replication in permissive cells, but plays a critical role in virus reactivation from latently infected B cells. Here we show that in mice infected with wild type MHV68, virus infected plasma cells (ca. 8% of virus infected splenocytes at the peak of viral latency) account for the majority of reactivation observed upon explant of splenocytes. In contrast, there is an absence of virus infected plasma cells at the peak of latency in mice infected with a M2 null MHV68. Furthermore, we show that the M2 protein can drive plasma cell differentiation in a B lymphoma cell line in the absence of any other MHV68 gene products. Thus, the role of M2 in MHV68 reactivation can be attributed to its ability to manipulate plasma cell differentiation, providing a novel viral strategy to regulate gammaherpesvirus reactivation from latently infected B cells. We postulate that M2 represents a new class of herpesvirus gene products (reactivation conditioners) that do not directly participate in virus replication, but rather facilitate virus reactivation by manipulating the cellular milieu to provide a reactivation competent environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term metabolic function of microencapsulated xenogeneic adult porcine islets (API) was assessed in a murine model of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
API were encapsulated in barium-gelled alginate and transplanted intraperitoneally in diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice given no immunosuppression or given costimulatory blockade (CoB; CTLA4-Ig+anti-CD154 mAb). Control mice received nonencapsulated API under the kidney capsule. Graft function was monitored by measurement of random blood glucose levels, serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum porcine C peptide, in vivo glucose tolerance tests, and histologic analyses of host pancreas and graft biopsies. Host immune responses to the islet xenografts were characterized by phenotyping peritoneal cellular infiltrates and by measuring serum antiporcine antibody levels.
Without immunosuppression, nonencapsulated API functioned for less than 1 week, and microencapsulated API functioned for 35+/-14 days before rejection, associated with both a cellular and a humoral immune response. With continuous CoB, nonencapsulated API functioned for 27+/-4 days, whereas microencapsulated API functioned for >450 days with measurable levels of serum porcine C peptide, near normal in vivo glucose tolerance tests and HbA1c levels, and intact microcapsules containing viable, insulin-positive porcine islets.
Microencapsulated API restored normoglycemia for more than 1 year in spontaneously diabetic NODs given dual CoB. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document long-term normalized HbA1c, porcine C peptide, and near normal glucose tolerance in immunosuppressed diabetic NOD mice transplanted intraperitoneally with microencapsulated API. Our study suggests that transplantation of microencapsulated porcine islet xenografts may be a future treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alloantigen exposure typically provokes an adaptive immune response that can foster rejection of transplanted organs, and these responses present the most formidable biological barrier to kidney transplantation. Although most cellular alloimmune responses can be therapeutically controlled with T-cell-specific immunosuppressants, humoral alloimmune responses remain relatively untamed. Importantly, humoral immunity, typically manifesting as allospecific antibody production, is increasingly recognized for its variable appearance after kidney transplantation. Indeed, the appearance of alloantibody can herald the onset of rapid and destructive antibody-mediated rejection or have no demonstrable acute effects. The factors determining the end result of alloantibody formation remain poorly understood. This review will discuss the breadth of alloantibody responses seen in clinical kidney transplantation and provide an overview of potential factors explaining the phenotypic variability associated with humoral alloimmunity. We propose several avenues ripe for future investigation including the influence of innate immune components and the potential influence of heterologous immune responses in determining the ultimate clinical import of an alloantibody response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of an immune response. DC survival is tightly controlled by extracellular stimuli such as cytokines and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, but the intracellular events that translate such extracellular stimuli into life or death for the DC remain poorly understood. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, or unfolded protein response (UPR), is a signaling pathway that is activated when unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER. The most conserved arm of the UPR involves IRE1alpha, an ER transmembrane kinase and endoribonuclease that activates the transcription factor XBP-1 to maintain ER homeostasis and prevent activation of cell death pathways caused by sustained ER stress. We report that XBP-1 is essential for DC development and survival. Lymphoid chimeras lacking XBP-1 possessed decreased numbers of both conventional and plasmacytoid DCs with reduced survival both at baseline and in response to TLR signaling. Overexpression of XBP-1 in hematopoietic progenitors rescued and enhanced DC development. Remarkably, in contrast to other cell types we have examined, the XBP-1 pathway was constitutively activated in immature DCs.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/2007; 204(10):2267-75. · 13.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulation of misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers an adaptive stress response-termed the unfolded protein response (UPR)-mediated by the ER transmembrane protein kinase and endoribonuclease inositol-requiring enzyme-1alpha (IRE1alpha). We investigated UPR signaling events in mice in the absence of the proapoptotic BCL-2 family members BAX and BAK [double knockout (DKO)]. DKO mice responded abnormally to tunicamycin-induced ER stress in the liver, with extensive tissue damage and decreased expression of the IRE1 substrate X-box-binding protein 1 and its target genes. ER-stressed DKO cells showed deficient IRE1alpha signaling. BAX and BAK formed a protein complex with the cytosolic domain of IRE1alpha that was essential for IRE1alpha activation. Thus, BAX and BAK function at the ER membrane to activate IRE1alpha signaling and to provide a physical link between members of the core apoptotic pathway and the UPR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian and yeast unfolded protein responses (UPR) share the characteristic of rapid elimination of unspliced Xbp-1 (Xbp-1u) and unspliced Hac1p, respectively. These polypeptides derive from mRNAs, whose splicing is induced upon onset of the UPR, so as to allow synthesis of transcription factors essential for execution of the UPR itself. Whereas in yeast translation of unspliced Hac1p is blocked, mammalian Xbp-1u is synthesized constitutively and eliminated by rapid proteasomal degradation. Here we show that the rate of Xbp-1u degradation approaches its rate of synthesis. The C terminus of XBP-1u ensures its trafficking to the cytoplasm, and is sufficient to impose rapid degradation. Degradation of XBP-1u involves both ubiquitin-dependent and ubiquitin-independent mechanisms, which might explain its unusually rapid turnover. Xbp-1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts reconstituted with mutants of XBP-1u that show improved stability differentially activate UPR target genes. Unexpectedly, we found that one of the mutants activates transcription of both Xbp-1-specific and non-Xbp-1-dependent UPR targets in response to tunicamycin treatment, even more potently than does wild type Xbp-1. We suggest that the degradation of Xbp-1u is required to prevent uncontrolled activation of the UPR while allowing short dwell times for initiation of this response.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2006; 281(9):5852-60. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The secretory function of cells relies on the capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to fold and modify nascent polypeptides and to synthesize phospholipids for the subsequent trafficking of secretory proteins through the ER-Golgi network. We have previously demonstrated that the transcription factor XBP-1 activates the expression of certain ER chaperone genes and initiates ER biogenesis. Here, we have rescued the embryonic lethality of XBP-1 deficient fetuses by targeting an XBP-1 transgene selectively to hepatocytes (XBP-1-/-;LivXBP1). XBP-1-/-;LivXBP1 mice displayed abnormalities exclusively in secretory organs such as exocrine pancreas and salivary gland that led to early postnatal lethality from impaired production of pancreatic digestive enzymes. The ER was poorly developed in pancreatic and salivary gland acinar cells, accompanied by decreased expression of ER chaperone genes. Marked apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells was observed during embryogenesis. Thus, the absence of XBP-1 results in an imbalance between the cargo load on the ER and its capacity to handle it, leading to the activation of ER stress-mediated proapoptotic pathways. These data lead us to propose that XBP-1 is both necessary and sufficient for the full biogenesis of the secretory machinery in exocrine cells.
The EMBO Journal 01/2006; 24(24):4368-80. · 10.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differentiation of B cells into plasma cells requires X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1). In the absence of XBP-1, B cells develop normally, but very little immunoglobulin is secreted. XBP-1 controls the expression of a large set of genes whose products participate in expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in protein trafficking. We define a new role for XBP-1 in exerting selective translational control over high and sustained levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM) synthesis. XBP-1(-/-) and XBP-1(+/+) primary B cells synthesize IgM at comparable levels at the onset of stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or CpG. However, later there is a profound depression in synthesis of IgM in XBP-1(-/-) B cells, notwithstanding similar levels of micromRNA. In marked contrast, lack of XBP-1 does not affect synthesis and trafficking of other glycoproteins, or of immunoglobulin light chains. Contrary to expectation, degradation of proteins from the ER, using TCRalpha or US11-mediated degradation of class I major histocompatibility complex molecules as substrates, is normal in XBP-1(-/-) B cells. Furthermore, degradation of membrane mu was unaffected by enforced expression of XBP-1. We conclude that in primary B cells, the XBP-1 pathway promotes synthesis and secretion of IgM, but does not seem to be involved in the degradation of ER proteins, including that of mu chains themselves.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2005; 202(4):505-16. · 13.91 Impact Factor