D E Godt

University of Wuerzburg, Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (8)48.11 Total impact

  • D Godt, T Roitsch
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    ABSTRACT: Sucrose utilisation in sink tissues depend on its cleavage and is mediated by two different classes of enzymes, invertase and sucrose synthase, which determine the mechanism of phloem unloading. Cloning of two extracellular (BIN35 and BIN46) and one vacuolar invertase (BIN44) provided the basis for a detailed molecular analysis of the relative contribution of the sucrose cleaving enzymes to the sink metabolism of sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) during development. The determination of the steady state levels of mRNAs has been complemented by the analysis of the corresponding enzyme activities. The present study demonstrates an inverse regulation of extracellular invertase and sucrose synthase during tap root development indicating a transition between functional unloading pathways. Extracellular cleavage by invertase is the dominating mechanism to supply hexoses via an apoplasmic pathway at early stages of storage root development. Only at later stages sucrose synthase takes over the function of the key sink enzyme to contribute to the sink strength of the tap root via symplasmic phloem unloading. Whereas mRNAs for both extracellular invertase BIN35 and sucrose synthase were shown to be induced by mechanical wounding of mature leaves of adult plants, only sucrose synthase mRNA was metabolically induced by glucose in this source organ supporting the metabolic flexibility of this species.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2006; 44(11-12):656-65. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular invertase mediates phloem unloading via an apoplastic pathway. The gene encoding isoenzyme Nin88 from tobacco was cloned and shown to be characterized by a specific spatial and temporal expression pattern. Tissue-specific antisense repression of Nin88 under control of the corresponding promoter in tobacco results in a block during early stages of pollen development, thus, causing male sterility. This result demonstrates a critical role of extracellular invertase in pollen development and strongly supports the essential function of extracellular sucrose cleavage for supplying carbohydrates to sink tissues via the apoplast. The specific interference with phloem unloading, the sugar status, and metabolic signaling during pollen formation will be a potentially valuable approach to induce male sterility in various crop species for hybrid seed production.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2001; 98(11):6522-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • M Goetz, D E Godt, T Roitsch
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    ABSTRACT: Brassinosteroids (BRs) induce various growth responses when applied exogenously to plant tissues, and the analysis of biosynthetic mutants reveals an essential role for plant growth and development. Only a few BR-regulated genes have been identified so far, and the corresponding gene products are assumed to be involved in cell elongation. The present study shows that BR growth responses are linked to the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by induction of the mRNA for the key enzyme of an apoplastic phloem-unloading pathway. Addition of BRs to autotrophic tomato suspension culture cells specifically elevates the activity of cell-wall-bound invertase, whereas the intracellular invertase activities were not affected. This enhanced enzyme activity was shown to correlate with the induction of the mRNA of extracellular invertase Lin6, whereas the mRNA levels of the other three extracellular invertase isoenzymes were not affected. The induction level induced by different BRs correlates with their growth-promoting activity. The physiological significance of this regulation is further supported by the low concentrations and short incubation times required to induce Lin6 mRNA. This regulatory mechanism results in an elevated uptake of sucrose via the hexose monomers, and thus an increased supply of carbohydrates to the BR-treated cells. Experiments with tomato seedlings showed that the localized BR-dependent growth response of the hypocotyl elongation zone was accompanied by a specific induction of Lin6 mRNA that is restricted to the corresponding tissues. This study demonstrates a role of BRs in tissue-specific source/sink regulation.
    The Plant Journal 07/2000; 22(6):515-22. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    Marc Goetz, Dietmute E. Godt, Thomas Roitsch
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    ABSTRACT: Brassinosteroids (BRs) induce various growth responses when applied exogenously to plant tissues, and the analysis of biosynthetic mutants reveals an essential role for plant growth and development. Only a few BR-regulated genes have been identified so far, and the corresponding gene products are assumed to be involved in cell elongation. The present study shows that BR growth responses are linked to the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by induction of the mRNA for the key enzyme of an apoplastic phloem-unloading pathway. Addition of BRs to autotrophic tomato suspension culture cells specifically elevates the activity of cell-wall-bound invertase, whereas the intracellular invertase activities were not affected. This enhanced enzyme activity was shown to correlate with the induction of the mRNA of extracellular invertase Lin6, whereas the mRNA levels of the other three extracellular invertase isoenzymes were not affected. The induction level induced by different BRs correlates with their growth-promoting activity. The physiological significance of this regulation is further supported by the low concentrations and short incubation times required to induce Lin6 mRNA. This regulatory mechanism results in an elevated uptake of sucrose via the hexose monomers, and thus an increased supply of carbohydrates to the BR-treated cells. Experiments with tomato seedlings showed that the localized BR-dependent growth response of the hypocotyl elongation zone was accompanied by a specific induction of Lin6 mRNA that is restricted to the corresponding tissues. This study demonstrates a role of BRs in tissue-specific source/sink regulation.
    The Plant Journal 05/2000; 22(6):515 - 522. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    R. Ehness, M. Ecker, D. E. Godt, T. Roitsch
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    ABSTRACT: In higher plants, sugars are required not only to sustain heterotrophic growth but also to regulate the expression of a variety of genes. Environmental stresses, such as pathogen infection and wounding, activate a cascade of defense responses and may also affect carbohydrate metabolism. In this study, the relationship between sugar- and stress-activated signal transduction pathways and the underlying regulatory mechanism was analyzed. Photoautotrophically growing suspension culture cells of Chenopodium rubrum were used as a model system to study the effects of the metabolic regulator D-glucose and of different stress-related stimuli on photosynthesis, sink metabolism, and defense response by analyzing the regulation of mRNAs for representative enzymes of these pathways. Glucose as well as the fungal elicitor chitosan, the phosphatase inhibitor endothall, and benzoic acid were shown to result in a coordinated regulatory mechanism. The mRNAs for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, a key enzyme of defense response, and for the sink-specific extracellular invertase were induced. In contrast, the mRNA for the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was repressed. This inverse regulatory pattern was also observed in experiments with wounded leaves of C. rubrum plants. The differential effect of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine on mRNA regulation demonstrates that the carbohydrate signal and the stress-related stimuli independently activate different intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately are integrated to coordinately regulate source and sink metabolism and activate defense responses. The various stimuli triggered the transient and rapid activation of protein kinases that phosphorylate the myelin basic protein. The involvement of phosphorylation in signal transduction is further supported by the effect of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine on mRNA levels.
    The Plant Cell 11/1997; 9(10):1825-1841. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    D E Godt, T Roitsch
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the contribution of extracellular invertases for sink metabolism in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The present study shows that extracellular invertase isoenzymes are encoded by a gene family comprising four members: Lin5, Lin6, Lin7, and Lin8. The regulation of mRNA levels by internal and external signals and the distribution in sink and source tissues has been determined and compared with mRNA levels of the intracellular sucrose (Suc)-cleaving enzymes Suc synthase and vacuolar invertase. The specific regulation of Lin5, Lin6, and Lin7 suggests an important function of apoplastic cleavage of Suc by cell wall-bound invertase in establishing and maintaining sink metabolism. Lin6 is expressed under conditions that require a high carbohydrate supply. The corresponding mRNA shows a sink tissue-specific distribution and the concentration is elevated by stress-related stimuli, by the growth-promoting phytohormone zeatin, and in response to the induction of heterotrophic metabolism. The expression of Lin5 and Lin7 in gynoecia and stamens, respectively, suggests an important function in supplying carbohydrates to these flower organs, whereas the Lin7 mRNA was found to be present exclusively in this specific sink organ.
    Plant physiology 10/1997; 115(1):273-82. · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • Dietmute E. Godt, Angelika Riegel, Thomas Roitsch
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of source/sink modifications on the enzyme activity and on the steady state level of mRNA of sucrose synthase has been analyzed in Chenopodium rubrum. A sucrose synthase cDNA with high homology to sucrose synthases from both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants has been cloned and used as a homologous probe for Northern blot analyses. Photoautotrophic suspension culture cells, which may be shifted to mixotrophic growth by adding sugars, have been used as a model system to investigate the transition between autotrophic and heterotrophic growth. The higher activity of sucrose synthase after preincubation in the presence of D-glucose, D-fructose or sucrose correlates with an elevated level of mRNA. The sucrose synthase gene was fully induced above a concentration of 20 mM glucose and the steady state level of mRNA was already elevated 1 h after the addition of glucose. Induction of sucrose synthase by 6-desoxyglucose suggests that the non-phosphorylated glucose is the signal for the sugar induced gene expression. Both the enzyme activity and the mRNA level showed a sink tissue specific distribution in plants. The data suggest that sucrose synthase is important both for sink metabolism and the source sink transition.
    Journal of Plant Physiology. 06/1995; 146(3):231–238.
  • Source
    T Roitsch, M Bittner, D E Godt
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    ABSTRACT: Photoautotrophic suspension-culture cells of Chenopodium rubrum that were shifted to mixotrophic growth by adding glucose were used as model system to investigate the influence of the source-sink transition in higher plants on the expression and enzyme activities of intracellular and extracellular invertases. The complete cDNA coding for an extracellular invertase was cloned and sequenced from C. rubrum, and its identity has been proven by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The higher activity of extracellular invertase after preincubation in the presence of glucose was paralleled by an increased expression of the corresponding gene. The induction by glucose could be mimicked by the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 6-deoxyglucose. Both enzyme activity and mRNA level of extracellular invertase showed a sink-tissue-specific distribution in plants. The activity of neutral and acidic intracellular invertases were not affected by preincubation of autotrophic tissue cultures with sugars, nor did they show a tissue-specific distribution in plants. The data suggest that apoplastic invertase not only has an important function in phloem unloading and carbohydrate partitioning between source and sink tissues but may also have a role in establishing metabolic sinks.
    Plant physiology 06/1995; 108(1):285-94. · 6.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

640 Citations
48.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Biology
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1995–2001
    • Universität Regensburg
      • Lehrstuhl für Zellbiologie & Pflanzenbiochemie
      Ratisbon, Bavaria, Germany