[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously we demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) treatment polarizes monocytes into M2 macrophages and increases the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Despite these findings, the mechanisms for the observed BMP-7 induced monocyte polarization into M2 macrophages are completely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the mechanisms involved in the polarization of monocytes into M2 macrophages. Apoptotic conditioned media (ACM) was generated to mimic the stressed conditions, inducing monocyte polarization. Monocytes were treated with ACM along with BMP-7 and/or its inhibitor, follistatin, for 48 hours. Furthermore, an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway, LY-294002, was also studied. Our data show that BMP-7 induces polarization of monocytes into M2 macrophages while significantly increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory markers, arginase-1 and IL-10, and significantly (p<0.05) decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory markers iNOS, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1; (p<0.05). Moreover, addition of the PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002, significantly (p<0.05) decreases upregulation of IL-10 and arginase-1, suggesting involvement of the PI3K pathway in M2 macrophage polarization. Next, following BMP-7 treatment, a significant (p<0.05) increase in p-SMAD1/5/8 and p-PI3K expression resulting in downstream activation of p-Akt and p-mTOR was observed. Furthermore, expression of p-PTEN, an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway, was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the ACM group. However, BMP-7 treatment inhibited its expression, suggesting involvement of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrate that BMP-7 polarizes monocytes into M2 macrophages and enhances anti-inflammatory cytokine expression which is mediated by the activated SMAD-PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e84009. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was hypothesized that monocyte treatment with bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) would significantly enhance monocyte polarization into M2 macrophages as well as increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In a cell culture system using monocytes (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1), we studied the effects of BMP7 on monocytes polarizing into M2 macrophages. The data demonstrate that THP-1 cells contain a BMP type II receptor (BMPR2), and that its activation is significantly (p < 0.05) increased following treatment with BMP7. Furthermore, there was an increase of M2 macrophages, BMPR2, and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1ra compared with the respective controls. Moreover, treatment with BMP7 caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), compared with the controls. In conclusion, we suggest for the first time that BMP7 has a unique potential to polarize monocytes into M2 macrophages, required for tissue repair, which will have significant applications for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 06/2012; 90(7):947-51. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell therapy is emerging as a new strategy to circumvent the adverse effects of heart disease. Many experimental and clinical studies investigating the transplantation of cells into the injured myocardium have yielded promising results. Moreover, data from these reports show that transplanted stem cells can engraft within the myocardium, differentiate into major cardiac cell types, and improve cardiac function. However, results from clinical trials show conflicting results. These trials demonstrate significant improvements in cardiac function for up to 6 months. However, these improved functions were diminished when examined at 18 months. In this review, we will discuss the current literature available on cell transplantation, covering studies ranging from animal models to clinical trials.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2012; 90(3):307-15. · 1.56 Impact Factor