[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metformin activates both PRKA and SIRT1. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by either the PRKA-MTOR-ULK1 or SIRT1-FOXO signaling pathways. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which metformin alleviates hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1, PRKA, and autophagy. ob/ob mice were divided into 3 groups: one with ad libitum feeding of a standard chow diet, one with 300 mg/kg intraperitoneal metformin injections, and one with 3 g/d caloric restriction (CR) for a period of 4 wk. Primary hepatocytes or HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA) plus high glucose in the absence or presence of metformin. Both CR and metformin significantly improved body weight and glucose homeostasis, along with hepatic steatosis, in ob/ob mice. Furthermore, CR and metformin both upregulated SIRT1 expression and also stimulated autophagy induction and flux in vivo. Metformin also prevented OA with high glucose-induced suppression of both SIRT1 expression and SIRT1-dependent activation of autophagy machinery, thereby alleviating intracellular lipid accumulation in vitro. Interestingly, metformin treatment upregulated SIRT1 expression and activated PRKA even after siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRKAA1/2 and SIRT1, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that metformin alleviates hepatic steatosis through PRKA-independent, SIRT1-mediated effects on the autophagy machinery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence suggests that advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are cytotoxic to pancreatic β-cells. The aims of this study were to investigate whether glycated albumin (GA), an early precursor of AGEs, would induce dysfunction in pancreatic β-cells and to determine which kinds of cellular mechanisms are activated in GA-induced β-cell apoptosis. Decreased viability and increased apoptosis were induced in INS-1 cells treated with 2.5 mg/mL GA under 16.7mM high-glucose conditions. Insulin content and glucose-stimulated secretion from isolated rat islets were reduced in 2.5 mg/mL GA-treated cells. In response to 2.5 mg/mL GA in INS-1 cells, autophagy induction and flux decreased as assessed by green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 dots, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II conversion, and SQSTM1/p62 in the presence and absence of bafilomycin A1. Accumulated SQSTM1/p62 through deficient autophagy activated the nuclear factor-κB (p65)-iNOS-caspase-3 cascade, which was restored by treatment with small interfering RNA against p62. Small interfering RNA treatment against ATG5 significantly inhibited the autophagy machinery resulting in a significant increase in iNOS-cleaved caspase-3 expression. Treatment with 500μ M 4-phenyl butyric acid significantly alleviated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and iNOS in parallel with upregulated autophagy induction. However, in the presence of bafilomycin A1, the decreased viability of INS-1 cells was not recovered. Glycated albumin, an early precursor of AGE, caused pancreatic β-cell death by inhibiting autophagy induction and flux, resulting in nuclear factor-κB (p65)-iNOS-caspase-3 cascade activation as well as by increasing susceptibility to endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of autophagy is known not only to regulate cellular homeostasis but also to decrease triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) has a beneficial role in free fatty acid-induced hepatic fat accumulation. In HepG2 cells, treatment with 0.5 mM palmitate for six hours significantly increased lipid and triglyceride (TG) accumulation, assessed by Oil-red O staining and TG quantification assay. Treatment with 0.01% DMSO for 16 h statistically reduced palmitate-induced TG contents. Pretreatment of 10 mM 3-methyladenine (3MA) for 2 h restored hepatocellular lipid contents, which were attenuated by treatment with DMSO. DMSO increased LC3-II conversion and decreased SQSTM1/p62 expression in a time and dose-dependent manner. In addition, the number of autophagosomes and autolysosomes, as seen under an electron microscopy, as well as the percentage of RFP-LAMP1 colocalized with GFP-LC3 dots in cells transfected with both GFP-LC3 and RFP-LAMP1, as seen under a fluorescent microscopy, also increased in DMSO-treated HepG2 cells. DMSO also suppressed p-eIF2α/p-EIF2S1, ATF4, p-AKT1, p-MTOR and p-p70s6k/p-RPS6KB2 expression as assessed by western blotting. Knockdown of ATF4 expression using siRNA suppressed ATF4 expression and phosphorylation of AKT1, MTOR and RPS6KB2, but increased LC3-II conversion. DMSO reduced not only soluble but also insoluble mtHTT (mutant huntingtin aggregates) expressions, which were masked in the presence of autophagy inhibitor. DMSO, a kind of chemical chaperone, activated autophagy by suppressing ATF4 expression and might play a protective role in the development of fatty acid-induced hepatosteatosis.