P Andrew Chong

SickKids, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (9)38.91 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chloride channel gating and trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are regulated by phosphorylation. Intrinsically disordered segments of the protein are responsible for phospho-regulation, particularly the regulatory (R) region that is a target for several kinases and phosphatases. The R region remains disordered following phosphorylation, with different phosphorylation states sampling various conformations. Recent studies have demonstrated the crucial role that intra- and inter-molecular interactions of the R region play in CFTR regulation. Different partners compete for the same binding segment, with R region containing multiple, overlapping binding elements. Non-phosphorylated R region interacts with the nucleotide binding domains and inhibits channel activity by blocking heterodimerization. Phosphorylation shifts the equilibrium such that R region is excluded from the dimer interface, facilitating gating and processing by stimulating R region interactions with other domains and proteins. The dynamic conformational sampling and transient binding of R region to multiple partners enables complex control of CFTR channel activity and trafficking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEBS Journal 07/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) requires dynamic fluctuations between states in its gating cycle for proper channel function, including changes in the interactions between the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) and between the intracellular domain (ICD) coupling helices and NBDs. Such motions are also linked with fluctuating phosphorylation-dependent binding of CFTR's disordered regulatory (R) region to the NBDs and partners. Folding of CFTR is highly inefficient, with the marginally stable NBD1 sampling excited states or folding intermediates that are aggregation-prone. The severe CF-causing F508del mutation exacerbates the folding inefficiency of CFTR and leads to impaired channel regulation and function, partly as a result of perturbed NBD1-ICD interactions and enhanced sampling of these NBD1 excited states. Increased knowledge of the dynamics within CFTR will expand our understanding of the regulated channel gating of the protein as well as of the F508del defects in folding and function.
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 01/2013; 3(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Deletion of Phe-508 (F508del) in the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to defects in folding and channel gating. NMR data on human F508del NBD1 indicate that an H620Q mutant, shown to increase channel open probability, and the dual corrector/potentiator CFFT-001 similarly disrupt interactions between β-strands S3, S9, and S10 and the C-terminal helices H8 and H9, shifting a preexisting conformational equilibrium from helix to coil. CFFT-001 appears to interact with β-strands S3/S9/S10, consistent with docking simulations. Decreases in T(m) from differential scanning calorimetry with H620Q or CFFT-001 suggest direct compound binding to a less thermostable state of NBD1. We hypothesize that, in full-length CFTR, shifting the conformational equilibrium to reduce H8/H9 interactions with the uniquely conserved strands S9/S10 facilitates release of the regulatory region from the NBD dimerization interface to promote dimerization and thereby increase channel open probability. These studies enabled by our NMR assignments for F508del NBD1 provide a window into the conformational fluctuations within CFTR that may regulate function and contribute to folding energetics.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2012; 287(34):28480-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type IVa pili are bacterial nanomachines required for colonization of surfaces, but little is known about the organization of proteins in this system. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilMNOPQ operon encodes five key members of the transenvelope complex facilitating pilus function. While PilQ forms the outer membrane secretin pore, the functions of the inner membrane-associated proteins PilM/N/O/P are less well defined. Structural characterization of a stable C-terminal fragment of PilP (PilP(Δ71)) by NMR revealed a modified β-sandwich fold, similar to that of Neisseria meningitidis PilP, although complementation experiments showed that the two proteins are not interchangeable likely due to divergent surface properties. PilP is an inner membrane putative lipoprotein, but mutagenesis of the putative lipobox had no effect on the localization and function of PilP. A larger fragment, PilP(Δ18-6His), co-purified with a PilN(Δ44)/PilO(Δ51) heterodimer as a stable complex that eluted from a size exclusion chromatography column as a single peak with a molecular weight equivalent to two heterotrimers with 1:1:1 stoichiometry. Although PilO forms both homodimers and PilN-PilO heterodimers, PilP(Δ18-6His) did not interact stably with PilO(Δ51) alone. Together these data demonstrate that PilN/PilO/PilP interact directly to form a stable heterotrimeric complex, explaining the dispensability of PilP's lipid anchor for localization and function.
    Molecular Microbiology 11/2011; 82(6):1496-514. · 4.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a multi-domain membrane chloride channel whose activity is regulated by ATP at two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2) and by phosphorylation of the regulatory (R) region. The NBDs and the R region have functionally relevant motions that are critical for channel gating. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a highly useful technique for obtaining information on the structure and interactions of CFTR and is extremely powerful for probing dynamics. NMR approaches for studying CFTR are reviewed, using our previous NBD1 and the R region results to provide examples. These NMR data are yielding insights into the dynamic properties and interactions that facilitate normal CFTR regulation as well as pathological effects of mutations, including the most common disease mutant, deletion of F508 in NBD1.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2011; 741:377-403. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that participates in degradation of TGF-β receptors and other targets. Smurf2 WW domains recognize PPXY (PY) motifs on ubiquitin ligase target proteins or on adapters, such as Smad7, that bind to E3 target proteins. We previously demonstrated that the isolated WW3 domain of Smurf2, but not the WW2 domain, can directly bind to a Smad7 PY motif. We show here that the WW2 augments this interaction by binding to the WW3 and making auxiliary contacts with the PY motif and a novel E/D-S/T-P motif, which is N-terminal to all Smad PY motifs. The WW2 likely enhances the selectivity of Smurf2 for the Smad proteins. NMR titrations confirm that Smad1 and Smad2 are bound by Smurf2 with the same coupled WW domain arrangement used to bind Smad7. The analogous WW domains in the short isoform of Smurf1 recognize the Smad7 PY peptide using the same coupled mechanism. However, a longer Smurf1 isoform, which has an additional 26 residues in the inter-WW domain linker, is only partially able to use the coupled WW domain binding mechanism. The longer linker results in a decrease in affinity for the Smad7 peptide. Interdomain coupling of WW domains enhances selectivity and enables the tuning of interactions by isoform switching.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2010; 107(43):18404-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SH3 domains, which are among the most frequently occurring protein interaction modules in nature, bind to peptide targets ranging in length from 7 to more than 25 residues. Although the bulk of studies on the peptide binding properties of SH3 domains have focused on interactions with relatively short peptides (less than 10 residues), a number of domains have been recently shown to require much longer sequences for optimal binding affinity. To gain greater insight into the binding mechanism and biological importance of interactions between an SH3 domain and extended peptide sequences, we have investigated interactions of the yeast Abp1p SH3 domain (AbpSH3) with several physiologically relevant 17-residue target peptide sequences. To obtain a molecular model for AbpSH3 interactions, we solved the structure of the AbpSH3 bound to a target peptide from the yeast actin patch kinase, Ark1p. Peptide target complexes from binding partners Scp1p and Sjl2p were also characterized, revealing that the AbpSH3 uses a common extended interface for interaction with these peptides, despite K(d) values for these peptides ranging from 0.3 to 6 mum. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that residues across the whole 17-residue binding site are important both for maximal in vitro binding affinity and for in vivo function. Sequence conservation analysis revealed that both the AbpSH3 and its extended target sequences are highly conserved across diverse fungal species as well as higher eukaryotes. Our data imply that the AbpSH3 must bind extended target sites to function efficiently inside the cell.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2009; 284(39):26918-27. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smurf2 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that drives degradation of the transforming growth factor-beta receptors and other targets. Recognition of the receptors by Smurf2 is accomplished through an intermediary protein, Smad7. Here we have demonstrated that the WW3 domain of Smurf2 can directly bind to the Smad7 polyproline-tyrosine (PY) motif. Of particular interest, the highly conserved WW domain binding site Trp, which interacts with target PY motifs, is a Phe in the Smurf2 WW3 domain. To examine this interaction, the solution structure of the complex between the Smad7 PY motif region (ELESPPPPYSRYPMD) and the Smurf2 WW3 domain was determined. The structure reveals that, in addition to binding the PY motif, the WW3 domain binds six residues C-terminal to the PY motif (PY-tail). Although the Phe in the WW3 domain binding site decreases affinity relative to the canonical Trp, this is balanced by additional interactions between the PY-tail and the beta1-strand and beta1-beta2 loop of the WW3 domain. The interaction between the Smurf2 WW3 domain and the Smad7 PY motif is the first example of PY motif recognition by a WW domain with a Phe substituted for the binding site Trp. This unusual interaction allows the Smurf2 WW3 domain to recognize a subset of PY motif-containing proteins utilizing an expanded surface to provide specificity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2006; 281(25):17069-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Smad2 Mad homology 2 (MH2) domain binds to a diverse group of proteins which do not share a common sequence motif. We have used NMR to investigate the structure of one of these interacting proteins, the Smad binding domain (SBD) of Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA). Our results indicate that the unbound SBD is highly disordered and forms no stable secondary or tertiary structures. Additionally we have used fluorescence binding studies to study the interaction between the MH2 domain and SBD and find that no region of the SBD dominates the interaction between the MH2 and the SBD. Our results are consistent with a series of hydrophobic patches on the MH2 that are able to recognize disordered regions of proteins. These findings elucidate a mechanism by which a single domain (MH2) can specifically recognize a diverse set of proteins which are unrelated by sequence, lead to a clearer picture of how MH2 domains function in the transforming growth factor-beta-signaling pathway and suggest possible mechanisms for controlling interactions with MH2 domains.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2004; 279(39):40707-14. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

87 Citations
38.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2013
    • SickKids
      • Program in Molecular Structure and Function
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2011–2012
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences at Mississauga
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada