[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Tamoxifen Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ITPC) was established to address the controversy over CYP2D6 status and clinical outcomes in tamoxifen therapy. We performed a meta-analysis on data from 4,973 tamoxifen treated patients (twelve globally-distributed sites). Using strict eligibility requirements (postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer receiving 20 mg/day tamoxifen for 5 years, Criterion 1), CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status was associated with poorer Invasive Disease-Free Survival (IDFS: HR=1.25; 95% CI 1.06, 1.47; P=0.009). However, CYP2D6 was not statistically significant when tamoxifen duration, menopausal status, and annual follow-up were not specified (Criterion 2, n=2443; 49%; P=0.25) nor when no exclusions were applied (Criterion 3, n=4935; 99%; P=0.38). Although CYP2D6 is a strong predictor of IDFS using strict inclusion criteria, because the results are not robust to inclusion criteria (these were not defined a priori), prospective studies are necessary to fully establish the value of CYP2D6 genotyping in tamoxifen therapy.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2013); accepted article preview online 23 September 2013 doi:10.1038/clpt.2013.186.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The urofacial, or Ochoa, syndrome is characterised by congenital urinary bladder dysfunction together with an abnormal grimace upon smiling, laughing and crying. It can present as fetal megacystis. Postnatal features include urinary incontinence and incomplete bladder emptying due to simultaneous detrusor muscle and bladder outlet contractions. Vesicoureteric reflux is often present, and the condition can be complicated by urosepsis and end-stage renal disease. The syndrome has long been postulated to have neural basis, and it can be familial when it is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Most individuals with urofacial syndrome genetically studied to date carry biallelic, postulated functionally null mutations of HPSE2 or, less commonly, of LRIG2. Little is known about the biology of the respective encoded proteins, heparanase 2 and leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 2. Nevertheless, the observations that heparanase 2 can bind heparan sulphate proteolgycans and inhibit heparanase 1 enzymatic activity and that LRIG2 can modulate receptor tyrosine kinase growth factor signalling each point to biological roles relevant to tissue differentiation. Moreover, both heparanase 2 and LRIG2 proteins are detected in autonomic nerves growing into fetal bladders. The collective evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that urofacial syndrome genes code for proteins which work in a common pathway to facilitate neural growth into, and/or function within, the bladder. This molecular pathway may also have relevance to our understanding of the pathogenesis of other lower tract diseases, including Hinman-Allen syndrome, or non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder, and of the subset of individuals who have primary vesicoureteric reflux accompanied by bladder dysfunction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the role of the variant p.Asn680Ser in the FSH receptor gene (FSHR) in determining oocyte maturity. It also assessed the relationship between this FSHR variant with metaphase-II oocyte output rate (MOR) and the fertilization rate. This was a prospective observational study based at a tertiary referral centre for reproductive medicine. Women (n=212) undergoing their first cycle of ovarian stimulation for IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were included in the study. Baseline pelvic ultrasound and blood tests were taken on day 2 or 3 of the cycle for assessment of baseline hormones and for DNA extraction. Genotypes for FSHR p.Asn680Ser was determined using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. The outcome measures were the total dose of exogenous gonadotrophins used, antral follicle count (AFC), number of mature (metaphase-II) oocytes retrieved, MOR and fertilization rate. No statistically significant differences were found between the number of mature oocytes retrieved, MOR or fertilization rates among the patients with different p.Asn680Ser FSHR genotypes. No significant difference was noted in the clinical pregnancy rates per transfer. There is no evidence that the p.Asn680Ser FSHR genotype predicts oocyte maturity. IVF is a complex treatment for infertility requiring costly drugs and carrying significant risk of complications. The procedure aims to stimulate the ovaries to produce more eggs, and conventional methods include a combination of hormones to induce follicle growth, from which eggs are collected. Before beginning the first IVF cycle, knowledge of individual ovarian activity may help predict the response to stimulation and allow clinicians to tailor treatments. Over the last 50years, it has become evident that studying the genetic mechanisms behind variations in drug response in can help control and minimise adverse effects of drugs and their related actions. Hypothetically, a genetic test looking at the variations in the FSH receptor gene may help identify the dosage required and can predict the quality of egg and embryo. One of these variants (at position 680 of exon 10) has been linked to differences in FSH action during ovarian stimulation. None of the studies to date have looked at the role of these genetic markers in the prediction of the quality of eggs and fertilization. We undertook a large prospective study and did not see a relationship between a FSH receptor gene variation and the dosage of gonadotrophins used, quality of eggs or fertilization rates. We surmise that the outcome of ovarian stimulation could be dependent on several factors - both genetic and non-genetic - in a complex multi-factorial model. In the future, genome-wide screening strategies may allow the discovery of further genetic variants associated with ovarian response to stimulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The G6PC3 gene encodes the ubiquitously expressed glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme (G-6-Pase beta or G-6-Pase 3 or G6PC3). Bi-allelic G6PC3 mutations cause a multi-system autosomal recessive disorder of G6PC3 deficiency (also called severe congenital neutropenia type 4, MIM 612541). To date, at least 57 patients with G6PC3 deficiency have been described in the literature.G6PC3 deficiency is characterized by severe congenital neutropenia, recurrent bacterial infections, intermittent thrombocytopenia in many patients, a prominent superficial venous pattern and a high incidence of congenital cardiac defects and uro-genital anomalies. The phenotypic spectrum of the condition is wide and includes rare manifestations such as maturation arrest of the myeloid lineage, a normocellular bone marrow, myelokathexis, lymphopaenia, thymic hypoplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, primary pulmonary hypertension, endocrine abnormalities, growth retardation, minor facial dysmorphism, skeletal and integument anomalies amongst others. Dursun syndrome is part of this extended spectrum. G6PC3 deficiency can also result in isolated non-syndromic severe neutropenia. G6PC3 mutations in result in reduced enzyme activity, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, increased rates of apoptosis of affected cells and dysfunction of neutrophil activity.In this review we demonstrate that loss of function in missense G6PC3 mutations likely results from decreased enzyme stability. The condition can be diagnosed by sequencing the G6PC3 gene. A number of G6PC3 founder mutations are known in various populations and a possible genotype-phenotype relationship also exists. G6PC3 deficiency should be considered as part of the differential diagnoses in any patient with unexplained congenital neutropenia.Treatment with G-CSF leads to improvement in neutrophil numbers, prevents infections and improves quality of life. Mildly affected patients can be managed with prophylactic antibiotics. Untreated G6PC3 deficiency can be fatal. Echocardiogram, renal and pelvic ultrasound scans should be performed in all cases of suspected or confirmed G6PC3 deficiency. Routine assessment should include biochemical profile, growth profile and monitoring for development of varicose veins or venous ulcers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lower urinary tract and/or kidney malformations are collectively the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in children, and they are also likely to account for a major subset of young adults requiring renal replacement therapy. Advances have been made regarding the discovery of the genetic causes of human kidney malformations. Indeed, testing for mutations of key nephrogenesis genes is now feasible for patients seen in nephrology clinics. Unfortunately, less is known about defined genetic bases of human lower urinary tract anomalies. The focus of this review is the genetic bases of congenital structural and functional disorders of the urinary bladder. Three are highlighted. First, prune belly syndrome, where mutations of CHRM3, encoding an acetylcholine receptor, HNF1B, encoding a transcription factor, and ACTA2, encoding a cytoskeletal protein, have been reported. Second, the urofacial syndrome, where mutations of LRIG2 and HPSE2, encoding proteins localised in nerves invading the fetal bladder, have been defined. Finally, we review emerging evidence that bladder exstrophy may have genetic bases, including variants in the TP63 promoter. These genetic discoveries provide a new perspective on a group of otherwise poorly understood diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is an extremely rare condition that occurs in the absence of ovarian hyperstimulation treatment. It can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, and therefore early diagnosis and supportive treatment are essential. We report an affected mother and her daughter with a previously reported heterozygous activating mutation in the FSHR gene. We performed a literature review with particular regard to pathogenesis, with a view to suggesting a pathophysiological classification system and a diagnostic algorithm to assist in the management of this rare condition.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 04/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perrault syndrome is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and ovarian failure. By a combination of linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping, and exome sequencing in three families, we identified mutations in CLPP as the likely cause of this phenotype. In each family, affected individuals were homozygous for a different pathogenic CLPP allele: c.433A>C (p.Thr145Pro), c.440G>C (p.Cys147Ser), or an experimentally demonstrated splice-donor-site mutation, c.270+4A>G. CLPP, a component of a mitochondrial ATP-dependent proteolytic complex, is a highly conserved endopeptidase encoded by CLPP and forms an element of the evolutionarily ancient mitochondrial unfolded-protein response (UPR(mt)) stress signaling pathway. Crystal-structure modeling suggests that both substitutions would alter the structure of the CLPP barrel chamber that captures unfolded proteins and exposes them to proteolysis. Together with the previous identification of mutations in HARS2, encoding mitochondrial histidyl-tRNA synthetase, mutations in CLPP expose dysfunction of mitochondrial protein homeostasis as a cause of Perrault syndrome.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Danon disease is a rare X-linked lysosomal disease causing severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (LAMP2 cardiomyopathy) and an extremely poor prognosis in males, with several reported cases of sudden cardiac death despite the use of transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (TV-ICD). We describe a case in which a TV-ICD was unable to defibrillate induced ventricular fibrillation (VF), but a wholly subcutaneous system (S-ICD) was successful in terminating induced VF and spontaneous ventricular tachycardia. These findings have relevance to the selection of device therapy in the management of these individuals and a wider group of young patients with severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 03/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One-third of all primary central nervous system tumors in adults are meningiomas. Rarely, meningiomas occur at multiple sites, usually occurring in individuals with type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2). We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals with familial multiple spinal meningiomas without NF2 mutations. We identified two individuals with heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex subunit gene SMARCE1. Sequencing of SMARCE1 in six further individuals with spinal meningiomas identified two additional heterozygous loss-of-function mutations. Tumors from individuals with SMARCE1 mutations were of clear-cell histological subtype, and all had loss of SMARCE1 protein, consistent with a tumor suppressor mechanism. Our findings identify multiple-spinal-meningioma disease as a new discrete entity and establish a key role for the SWI/SNF complex in the pathogenesis of both meningiomas and tumors with clear-cell histology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urofacial syndrome (UFS) (or Ochoa syndrome) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by congenital urinary bladder dysfunction, associated with a significant risk of kidney failure, and an abnormal facial expression upon smiling, laughing, and crying. We report that a subset of UFS-affected individuals have biallelic mutations in LRIG2, encoding leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 2, a protein implicated in neural cell signaling and tumorigenesis. Importantly, we have demonstrated that rare variants in LRIG2 might be relevant to nonsyndromic bladder disease. We have previously shown that UFS is also caused by mutations in HPSE2, encoding heparanase-2. LRIG2 and heparanase-2 were immunodetected in nerve fascicles growing between muscle bundles within the human fetal bladder, directly implicating both molecules in neural development in the lower urinary tract.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deficiency of ubiquitously expressed glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC3) enzyme is known to result in a syndrome characterized by severe congenital neutropenia, prominent superficial venous pattern, congenital heart defects and genito-urinary malformations. Here, we describe four patients from three families with non-syndromic severe congenital neutropenia and identify four G6PC3 mutations as causative in these cases. Thus we demonstrate that G6PC3 mutations also result in a non-syndromic form of severe congenital neutropenia. We propose that G6PC3 deficiency should be considered as part of the differential diagnoses in any patient with unexplained congenital neutropenia. Additionally, we show a relationship between the genotype and non-hematological phenotype of G6PC3 deficiency. These findings may provide an insight into the role of the G6PC3 enzyme and glucose metabolism in developmental pathways.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 12/2012; · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCA1 and BRCA2 are major breast cancer susceptibility genes. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 18 loci have been associated with breast cancer. We aimed to determine whether these predict breast cancer incidence in women with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers identified through the Manchester genetics centre between 1996-2011 were included. Using published odds ratios (OR) and risk allele frequencies, we calculated an overall breast cancer risk SNP score (OBRS) for each woman. The relationship between OBRS and age at breast cancer onset was investigated using the Cox proportional hazards model, and predictive ability assessed using Harrell's C concordance statistic. In BRCA1 mutation carriers we found no association between OBRS and age at breast cancer onset (OR for the lowest risk quintile compared to the highest was 1.20 (95% CI 0.82-1.75, Harrell's C=0.54), but in BRCA2 mutation carriers the association was significant (OR for the lowest risk quintile relative to the highest was 0.47 (95% CI 0.33-0.69, Harrell's C =0.59). The 18 validated breast cancer SNPs differentiate breast cancer risks between women with BRCA2 mutations, but not BRCA1. It may now be appropriate to use these SNPs to help women with BRCA2 mutations make maximally informed decisions about management options.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of the variant p.Asn680Ser in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene in determining ovarian response in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center for reproductive medicine. PATIENT(S): Women (n = 421) undergoing their first cycle of controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF and 83 healthy, ethnically matched controls. INTERVENTION(S): Baseline pelvic ultrasound and blood tests taken on days 2 to 3 of the cycle for assessment of baseline hormones and for DNA extraction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Genotypes for FSHR p.Asn680Ser determined using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay, and ovarian response to gonadotropin treatment classified as normal, poor, or overresponse based on the number of oocytes retrieved. RESULT(S): The FSHR p.Asn680Ser genotype frequencies were similar in IVF patients and controls. The number of oocytes retrieved was comparable between patients with different FSHR receptor genotypes. The total amount of gonadotropin used was also similar in all the genotype groups. A logistic regression analysis showed nonstatistically significant twofold difference in the distribution of genotypes between the groups with poor and normal ovarian response. CONCLUSION(S): The variant FSHR p.Asn680Ser was not shown to be predictive of ovarian response, but clinically relevant differences cannot be ruled out.
Fertility and sterility 09/2012; · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ∼2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ∼5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750-1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ∼650 years ago, and into the Iraqi-Jewish community ∼450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 4 July 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.124.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 07/2012; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug metabolizing enzymes participate in the neutralizing of xenobiotics and biotransformation of drugs. Human cytochrome P450, particularly CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, play an important role in drug metabolism. The genes encoding the CYP enzymes are polymorphic, and extensive data have shown that certain alleles confer reduced enzymatic function. The goal of this study was to determine the frequencies of important allelic variants of CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Jordanian population and compare them with the frequency in other ethnic groups. Genotyping of CYP1A1(m1 and m2), CYP2C9 (2 and 3), CYP2C19 (2 and 3), CYP3A4 5, CYP3A5 (3 and 6), was carried out on Jordanian subjects. Different variants allele were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). CYP1A1 allele frequencies in 290 subjects were 0.764 for CYP1A1 1, 0.165 for CYP1A1 2A and 0.071 for CYP1A1 2C. CYP2C9 allele frequencies in 263 subjects were 0.797 for CYP2C9 1, 0.135 for CYP2C9 2 and 0.068 for CYP2C9 3. For CYP2C19, the frequencies of the wild type (CYP2C19 1) and the nonfunctional (2 and 3) alleles were 0.877, 0.123 and 0, respectively. Five subjects (3.16 %) were homozygous for 2/2. Regarding CYP3A4 1B, only 12 subjects out of 173 subjects (6.9 %) were heterozygote with none were mutant for this polymorphism. With respect to CYP3A5, 229 were analyzed, frequencies of CYP3A5 1, 3 and 6 were 0.071, 0.925 and 0.0022, respectively. Comparing our data with that obtained in several Caucasian, African-American and Asian populations, Jordanians are most similar to Caucasians with regard to allelic frequencies of the tested variants of CYP1A1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine breast cancer risk at mammographic screening episodes and integrate standard risk factors with mammographic density and genetic data to assess changing the screening interval based on risk and offer women at high risk preventive strategies. We report our experience of assessing breast cancer risk within the U.K. National Health Service Breast Screening Program using results from the first 10,000 women entered into the "Predicting Risk Of breast Cancer At Screening" study. Of the first 28,849 women attending for screening at fifteen sites in Manchester 10,000 (35%) consented to study entry and completed the questionnaire. The median 10-year Tyrer-Cuzick breast cancer risk was 2.65% (interquartile range, 2.10-3.45). A total of 107 women (1.07%) had 10-year risks 8% or higher (high breast cancer risk), with a further 8.20% having moderately increased risk (5%-8%). Mammographic density (percent dense area) was 60% or more in 8.3% of women. We collected saliva samples from 478 women for genetic analysis and will extend this to 18% of participants. At time of consent to the study, 95.0% of women indicated they wished to know their risk. Women with a 10-year risk of 8% or more or 5% to 8% and mammographic density of 60% or higher were invited to attend or be telephoned to receive risk counseling; 81.9% of those wishing to know their risk have received risk counseling and 85.7% of these were found to be eligible for a risk-reducing intervention. These results confirm the feasibility of determining breast cancer risk and acting on the information in the context of population-based mammographic screening.
Cancer Prevention Research 05/2012; 5(7):943-51. · 4.89 Impact Factor