[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Production of tannase and microbial biomass by Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 was studied in submerged batch fermentation. The tannase production was performed in different media compositions maintaining the fermentation conditions constant at 30°C, initial pH 5.5 and agitation speed at 120 rpm. Maximum tannase activity of 5.22 U mL -l was obtained at 24 h in M3 medium containing the following composition (g L -l): tannic acid, 10; glucose, 1; NH 4 Cl, 3; MgSO 4 .7H 2 O, 2; KH 2 PO 4 , 0.5; K 2 HPO 4 , 0.5; and CaCl 2 , l. The medium optimization studies show that the tannic acid (1% w/v) as inducer along with glucose (0.1% w/v) as carbon source gave maximum tannase activity. Unstructured kinetic models, namely, logistic model for cell growth and Luedeking-Piret model for tannase production, were used to predict the fermentation kinetics. The estimated values of the kinetic model parameters, α and β for tannase production indicated that the tannase production by L. plantarum was growth associated. Introduction Tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase, E.C.126.96.36.199) is an extracellular hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester and depside bonds in hydrolysable tannins or gallic acid esters, liberating glucose and gallic acid (GA) as a final product 1 . Tannase cleaves the ester linkages between galloyl groups present in various compounds, such as, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate that are present in green tea leaves 1,2 . Tannase finds wide application in food, beverage, brewing, cosmetic and chemical industries 1 , and is mainly used in the production of gallic acid, instant tea, acron wine, coffee flavoured soft drinks and high grade leather tannin. Tannase is also used as a clarifying agent in clarification of beer, fruit juice and various food stuffs and as a hydrolyzing agent in cleaning up the highly polluting tannin (polyphenols) from the effluent of leather industry 1,3 . The produced gallic acid (3,4,5 trihydroxy benzoic acid) has several applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industries as a precursor in the production of propyl gallate (antioxidant), pyrogallol, trimethoprim (antibacterial drug) and semiconductor resin 4 . Tannase production was studied in numerous organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes like fungus, higher plants and animals (ruminants, insects). Tannin rich parts of the plants, such as, fruits, leaves, branches and barks, possess considerable amount of tannase. Plants like penduculate oak (Quercus rubra), myrobolano (Terminalia chebula) and babul (Acacia arabica) are rich in tannase 5,6 . Tannase can be extracted from bovine intestine and ruminal mucous 1 . The enzyme produced from microbial sources find immense application in various industries due to its higher stability and availability 1 . Among the various microbial sources for tannase production, filamentous fungi like Ascochyta, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Mucor, Myrothecium, Neurospora, Rhizopus, Trichothecium, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Penicillium strains were studied extensively 1,7 . Tannase producing yeasts have also been isolated but they were not extensively studied 8 . Bacterial sources, such as, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Klebsiella 9 , Streptococcus bovis 10 and Selenomonas ruminantium 11 , have been studied for tannase production. Lactic acid bacteria play a vital role in hydrolyzing tannins present in food and intestines. High tannase activity was reported in lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 12-15 .
Indian Journal of Biotechnology 08/2011; 10:321-328. · 0.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbial L-asparaginase occupies a prominent place among biocatalysts owing to their ability to catalyze the reaction that hydrolyze the asparagine molecule. Effect of various medium components on the production of L-asparaginase in submerged fermentation by Pectobacterium carotovorum was studied for optimal nutrient requirements. Six different media compositions were tested for the L-asparaginase production keeping fermentation conditions constant at temperature 30 °C, initial pH 7.0 and agitation speed of 120 rpm. Maximum intracellular and extracellular L-asparaginase activity was obtained in the medium containing tryptone, yeast extract, monosodium glutamate, K₂HPO₄ and L-asparagine. These medium components were further optimized by central composite experimental design using response surface methodology. Maximum intracellular and extracellular L-asparaginase activity of 2.282 U/mL and 0.587 U/mL were obtained respectively at the late logarithmic phase in optimized media. Unstructured kinetic models were used to describe the cell growth and product formation kinetics. The unstructured models predicted the cell growth and product formation profile accurately with high coefficient of determination.
Food Science and Technology International 04/2010; 16(2):115-25. · 0.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this work is to enhance the production of lovastatin using Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 in mixed substrate solid state fermentation using various solid substrates and to optimize the combination of the solid substrates by response surface methodology. Solid state fermentation was conducted in a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask at 30°C for 14 days with initial moisture content of 40% and inoculum size of 10% active culture. Barley, long grain rice and sago starch were found to be the suitable substrates producing maximum lovastatin of 193.7 mg, 190.2 mg and 180.9 mg/g of dry solids. These substrates were further used in various combinations as designed by the central composite design for enhancing the lovastatin production using Monascus purpureus. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the production of lovastatin using a mixed substrate solid state fermentation using Monascus purpureus.
Engineering in Life Sciences 07/2009; 9(4):303 - 310. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lovastatin is a potent hypercholesterolemic drug used for lowering blood cholesterol. Lovastatin acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Commercially lovastatin is produced by a variety of filamentous fungi including Penicillium species, Monascus ruber and Aspergillus terreus as a secondary metabolite. Production of lovastatin by fermentation decreases the production cost compared to costs of chemical synthesis. In recent years, lovastatin has also been reported as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various types of tumors and also play a tremendous role in the regulation of the inflammatory and immune response, coagulation process, bone turnover, neovascularization, vascular tone, and arterial pressure. This review deals with the structure, biosynthesis, various modes of fermentation and applications of lovastatin.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 11/2008; 70(6):701-9. · 0.34 Impact Factor