ABSTRACT: AIMS: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are effective in the short term against anxiety and insomnia. However, some BZD users develop BZD dependence after a relatively short period of time. Therefore, we aimed to identify the risk factors of BZD dependence. DESIGN: An observational cohort study. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred and one BZD users of the 2981 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were included. MEASUREMENTS: Socio-demographic, physical, psychological, addiction-related and BZD use-related characteristics were investigated as possible correlates of BZD dependence severity. Dependence severity was measured by the three subscales of the Benzodiazepine Self-Report Questionnaire, comprising problematic use, preoccupation and lack of compliance. FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, problematic use was associated with more GP contacts in the past 6 months (β = 0.170, P = 0.001) and severity of insomnia (β = 0.145, P = 0.004). Preoccupation was related to anxiety severity (β = 0.194, P = 0.001), antidepressant use (β = 0.197, P < 0.001), alcohol dependence (β = 0.185, P < 0.001) and a higher daily dosage of BZD (β = 0.160, P = 0.001). Lack of compliance was associated with higher age (β = 0.122, P = 0.03), unemployment (β = 0.105, P = 0.04), insomnia (β = 0.129, P = 0.01), antidepressant use (β = 0.148, P = 0.002) and alcohol dependence (β = 0.108, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia, antidepressant use and alcohol dependence may increase the risk of benzodiazepine dependence among individuals who use benzodiazepines.
Addiction 06/2012; · 4.31 Impact Factor