[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 09/2013; 20(2). DOI:10.1037/a0034390 · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and their own Chinese and American orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social relationships. Parents and teachers rated children's externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence. Using structural equation modeling, we found evidence for both the effects of children's and parents' cultural orientations and the effects of parent-child gaps. Specifically, children's American orientations across domains were associated with their better adjustment (especially social competence). These associations were partly mediated by authoritative parenting. Parents' English and Chinese media use were both associated with higher authoritative parenting, which in turn was associated with children's better adjustment. Furthermore, greater gaps in parent-child Chinese proficiency were associated with children's poorer adjustment, and these relations were partly mediated by authoritative parenting. Together, the findings underscore the complex relations between immigrant families' dual orientations to the host and heritage cultures and children's psychological adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asian Americans (AAs) are the second largest foreign-born population in the United States. Contrary to the “model minority” stereotype that this group is unitarily well adjusted and high achieving, recent research has revealed substantial differences in mental health adjustment among AA children. Although research to identify the risk processes for mental health problems among AA children is underway, it has paid little attention to related asset and protective processes. This article selectively reviews the theory and empirical evidence on a set of child-, family-, and neighborhood-level characteristics for their potential asset or protective roles in AA children's mental health adjustment. These characteristics include (a) child factors (maintenance of heritage culture, bilingualism, coping, and emotion regulation), (b) family factors (authoritative parenting and parental support), and (c) a neighborhood factor (ethnic community). Overall, systematic efforts to identify asset and protective factors for AA children's mental health and understand the underlying developmental mechanisms are nascent. Directions for future research in this area are also discussed.
Child Development Perspectives 09/2012; 6(3):312-319. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00251.x · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the cross-sectional relations between teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) and math and reading achievement in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N=207). Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions including closeness, conflict, and intimacy, and children completed a questionnaire measuring overall TCRQ. Standardized tests were used to assess children's math and reading skills. Analyses were conducted to (a) test the factor structure of measures assessing TCRQ among Chinese American children, (b) examine the associations between teacher- and child-rated TCRQ and children's academic achievement, controlling for demographic characteristics, and (c) examine the potential role of child gender as a moderator in the relations between TCRQ and achievement. Results indicated that teacher-rated TCRQ Warmth was positively associated with Chinese American children's reading achievement. Two child gender-by-TCRQ interactions were found: (a) teacher-rated TCRQ Conflict was negatively associated with girls' (but not boys') math achievement, and (b) child-rated Overall TCRQ was positively associated with boys' (but not girls') reading achievement. These findings highlight the valuable role of TCRQ in the academic success of school-aged children in immigrant families.
Journal of school psychology 08/2012; 50(4):535-53. DOI:10.1016/j.jsp.2012.03.003 · 2.31 Impact Factor